Vitamin D Analogues and Coronary Calcification in CKD Stages 3 and 4: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Calcitriol Versus Paricalcitol.
ABSTRACT: Rationale & Objective:Mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Mineral and bone disorder often is treated with calcitriol and other vitamin D receptor activators, including paricalcitol, agents that may have differential effects on calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels. Accordingly, we investigated whether these agents have differential effects on CAC progression in patients with CKD. Study Design:Randomized, double-concealed, 48-week clinical trial. Setting & Participants:CKD stage 3 or 4 with secondary hyperparathyroidism with CAC score > 0 and no prior treatment with activated vitamin D. Intervention:Calcitriol versus paricalcitol. Outcomes:The primary outcome was log-transformed CAC change. Secondary outcomes included percent change in CAC volume, valvular calcifications, and bone mineral metabolism markers. Results:Among 44 individuals randomly assigned, mean age was 65 years and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 27 mL/min/1.73 m2. Median CAC score was 140 (IQR, 55-277) Agatston units at baseline. There was no significant difference in CAC progression between treatment arms (P = 0.06). After adjustment for baseline CAC score (log), treatment group remains nonsignificant (P = 0.08). Further adjustment for creatinine level and/or CKD stage did not change the association. In secondary analyses adjusting for dose level of activated vitamin D, treatment group was significant (P = 0.01), and when dose level was also included in the model, the coefficient for individuals in the paricalcitol group was significantly associated with CAC progression (P = 0.02). An interaction term between dosing level and CKD stage was significant at the highest dosing level (P = 0.04). Limitations:Pilot single-center study. Conclusions:In patients with CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism naive to activated vitamin D therapy, there was no difference in CAC or valvular progression in participants receiving calcitriol compared with paricalcitol during a 48-week period. Funding:Abbvie, Inc. Trial Registration:NCT00752102.
Project description:Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 ?g/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes.
Project description:A normal vitamin D status is essential for human health. Vitamin D deficiency is a recognized risk factor for all-cause mortality in normal individuals and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The link between vitamin D deficiency and death is a defective activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol, the vitamin D hormone) to induce/repress genes that maintain mineral homeostasis and skeletal integrity, and prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism, hypertension, immune disorders, and renal and cardiovascular (CV) damage. The kidney is the main site for the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) to circulating calcitriol, and therefore essential for the health benefits of endocrine VDR activation. The kidney is also essential for the uptake of 25D from the glomerular ultrafiltrate for its recycling to the circulation to maintain serum 25D levels, extrarenal calcitriol synthesis, and the prosurvival benefits of autocrine/paracrine VDR activation. Indeed, both calcitriol and vitamin D deficiency increase progressively in the course of CKD, and associate directly with accelerated disease progression and death. Therefore, the safe correction of calcitriol and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a high priority among nephrologists. This review updates the pathophysiology behind 25D and calcitriol deficiency and impaired VDR activation in CKD, the adequacy of current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation, and potential markers of the efficacy of therapy to prevent or slow the development of renal and CV lesions unrelated to parathyroid hormone suppression, a knowledge required for the design of trials to obtain evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D and calcitriol replacement at all stages of CKD.
Project description:Calcitriol is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with CKD. Paricalcitol is less calcemic and phosphatemic in preclinical studies and in some trials in dialysis patients, but head-to-head comparisons in nondialysis patients are lacking. A large meta-analysis of trials concluded that these agents did not consistently reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) and increased the risk of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, the objective of this multicenter trial was to compare the rate of hypercalcemia between calcitriol and paricalcitol, while suppressing PTH 40%-60%.Patients with stages 3-4 CKD (n=110) with a PTH level >120 pg/ml were recruited and randomized to 0.25 μg/d of calcitriol or 1 μg/d of paricalcitol between April 2009 and July 2011. Subsequent dose adjustments were by protocol to achieve 40%-60% PTH suppression below baseline. The primary endpoint was the rate of confirmed hypercalcemia of >10.5 mg/dl between groups.Forty-five patients in each group completed the 24 weeks of treatment. Both agents suppressed PTH effectively (-52% with paricalcitol and -46% with calcitriol; P=0.17), although the paricalcitol group reached a 40% reduction in PTH sooner at a median 8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 4, 12) versus 12 weeks (IQR, 8, 18; P=0.02) and had a lower pill burden of 240 (IQR, 180, 298) versus 292 (IQR, 231, 405; P=0.01). Confirmed hypercalcemia was very low in both groups (three with paricalcitol and one with calcitriol) and was not significantly different (P=0.36). Both groups had small increases in calcium and phosphorus levels (0.3-0.4 mg/dl in each electrolyte) and significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase, a marker of high bone turnover, with no significant differences between groups.These results show that both calcitriol and paricalcitol achieved sustained PTH and alkaline phosphatase suppression in stages 3-4 CKD, with small effects on serum calcium and phosphorus and a low incidence of hypercalcemia.
Project description:Vitamin D seems to protect against cardiovascular disease, but the reported effects of vitamin D on patient outcomes in CKD are controversial. We conducted a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether oral activated vitamin D reduces left ventricular (LV) mass in patients with stages 3-5 CKD with LV hypertrophy. Subjects with echocardiographic criteria of LV hypertrophy were randomly assigned to receive either oral paricalcitol (1 ?g) one time daily (n=30) or matching placebo (n=30) for 52 weeks. The primary end point was change in LV mass index over 52 weeks, which was measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary end points included changes in LV volume, echocardiographic measures of systolic and diastolic function, biochemical parameters of mineral bone disease, and measures of renal function. Change in LV mass index did not differ significantly between groups (median [interquartile range], -2.59 [-6.13 to 0.32] g/m(2) with paricalcitol versus -4.85 [-9.89 to 1.10] g/m(2) with placebo). Changes in LV volume, ejection fraction, tissue Doppler-derived measures of early diastolic and systolic mitral annular velocities, and ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity did not differ between the groups. However, paricalcitol treatment significantly reduced intact parathyroid hormone (P<0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (P=0.001) levels as well as the number of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations compared with placebo. In conclusion, 52 weeks of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1 ?g one time daily) significantly improved secondary hyperparathyroidism but did not alter measures of LV structure and function in patients with severe CKD.
Project description:The management of hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients involves the administration of phosphate binders, vitamin D receptor activators, and calcimimetics. Intravenous paricalcitol has been preferred over oral calcitriol as it may cause less hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. However, there is little data looking at the efficacy and tolerability of oral calcitriol in the calcimimetic era particularly in a real practice-based experience. The University of California, Irvine free-standing dialysis center converted from routine intravenous paricalcitol to oral calcitriol due to pharmacy purchasing preferences. We report the efficacy, safety, and cost of such a change.Ninety-three preconversion intravenous paricalcitol and 91 postconversion oral calcitriol.Conversion to in-center, pulse, oral calcitriol (0.25 mcg = 1 mcg paricalcitol) 3 times a week from intravenous paricalcitol. Additional dose adjustments were made by the nephrologists based on clinical indications.Five-month average serum calcium, phosphorous, and intact parathyroid hormone levels and cardiovascular events pretransition and posttransition.There were 93 patients on intravenous paricalcitol between April 2013 and August 2013, of which 74 converted to oral calcitriol and were included in the postconversion group evaluated between October 2013 and February 2014. An additional 17 new patients had initiated calcitriol such that 91 patients were on oral therapy in the postconversion period. Sevelamer use increased from 41 (44.1%) patients preconversion to 48 (52.7%) postconversion, whereas calcium acetate use significantly dropped from 62 (66.7%) to 46 (50.5%) (P = .026). Cinacalcet use dropped slightly from 37 (39.7%) patients preconversion to 35 (38.4%) postconversion. Average serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone levels remained unchanged after conversion. Percent of values within Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative guidelines were similarly maintained. Estimated vitamin D cost savings were $564 per person/year. No increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events was observed.We conclude that in-center distributed pulse oral calcitriol may be an effective, safe, and economical treatment option for the management of hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>In the United States, intravenous vitamin D analogs are the first-line therapy for management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Outside the United States, oral calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3</sub>) is routinely used. We examined standard laboratory parameters of patients on in-center hemodialysis receiving intravenous vitamin D who switched to oral calcitriol.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients treated within Fresenius Kidney Care clinics. During a 6-month period (December 2013 to May 2014), we identified patients on an intravenous vitamin D analog (doxercalciferol or paricalcitol) who switched to oral calcitriol and matched them to patients receiving an intravenous vitamin D analog. Mean serum calcium, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentrations were examined for up to 12 months of follow-up. We used Poisson and Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine hospitalization and survival rates. The primary analysis was conducted as intention-to-treat; secondary analyses included an as-treated evaluation.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 2280 patients who switched to oral calcitriol were matched to 2280 patients receiving intravenous vitamin D. Compared with patients on intravenous vitamin D, mean calcium and phosphate levels in the oral calcitriol group were lower after the change to oral calcitriol. In contrast, iPTH levels were higher in the oral calcitriol group. At 12 months, the percentage of patients with composite laboratories in target range (calcium <10 mg/dl, phosphate 3.0-5.5 mg/dl, and iPTH 150-600 pg/ml) were comparable between groups (45% versus 45%; <i>P</i>=0.96). Hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, and survival were comparable between groups. An as-treated analysis and excluding those receiving cinacalcet did not reveal significant between-group differences.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among patients receiving in-center hemodialysis who were switched to oral calcitriol versus those on an intravenous vitamin D analog, the aggregate of all mineral and bone laboratory parameters in range was largely similar between groups.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency represents an additional cofactor of renal anemia, with several mechanisms accounting for this relationship. In line with it, the administration of vitamin D or its analogues has been associated with an improvement of anemia. There are no data, however, about a direct effect of paricalcitol on hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine whether paricalcitol, compared to calcitriol, improves anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).In this randomized trial 60 CKD patients stage 3b-5 and anemia (Hb levels: 10-12.5 g/dL) were assigned (1:1) to receive low doses of calcitriol (Group Calcitriol) or paricalcitol (Group Paricalcitol) for 6 months. All the patients had normal values of plasma calcium, phosphorus and PTH, a stable iron balance, and normal values of C-Reactive Protein. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the effects of the two treatments on Hb levels; the modifications in 24hr-proteinuria (UProt) were also evaluated.A significant Group x Time interaction effect was observed in the longitudinal analysis of Hb levels (F(1,172)=31.4, p<0.001). Subjects in Paricalcitol experienced a significant monthly increase of Hb levels equal to +0.16 g/dL [95% C.I. 0.10 to +0.22, p<0.001) while in Group Calcitriol, Hb decrease throughout the follow-up with an average monthly rate of -0.10 g/dL (95% C.I.: -0.17 to -0.04, p<0.001). In Group Paricalcitol, UProt was significantly reduced after 6 months [0.35 (0.1-1.2) vs 0.59 (0.2-1.6), p<0.01], whereas no significant difference emerged in Group Calcitriol. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphate, PTH and of inflammation markers remained in the normal range in both groups throughout the study.Short-term exposure to paricalcitol results in an independent increase in Hb levels, which occurred with no modification of iron balance, inflammatory markers, and PTH plasma concentrations, and was associated with a decrease in UProt.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01768351.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with end-stage renal disease have a higher risk of death from cardiovascular events, which can be mainly attributed to coronary artery calcification (CAC). Wnt signaling is involved in vascular development and may play a role in vascular calcification. This study aimed to evaluate CAC prevalence in patients on dialysis with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and identify CAC risk factors. METHODS:The study is a retrospective analysis of the severe hyperparathyroidism registration study that prospectively recruited patients on dialysis with severe SHPT who were candidates for parathyroidectomy, from October 2013 to May 2015. CAC and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured. Demographic and clinical data including calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin levels were analyzed. CAC scores were reported in Agatston units (AU). RESULTS:A total of 61 patients were included in this study. No CAC, mild CAC (<100 AU), moderate CAC (>100 AU), and severe CAC (>400 AU) were observed in 4.9%, 11.4%, 14.8%, and 68.9% of patients, respectively. DKK1 and sclerostin were not associated with CAC. In univariate analysis, CAC was significantly correlated with age, sex (male), total cholesterol, and intravenous pulse calcitriol (p<0.05). CAC was not inversely correlated with the BMD, T scores, or Z scores of the femoral neck (p>0.05). In multivariate analysis, the stepwise forward multiple linear regression revealed that CAC was associated with age, male sex and intravenous pulse calcitriol (p<0.05). Furthermore, serum sclerostin was positively correlated with the BMD of the femoral neck but negatively associated with intact parathyroid hormone (p<0.05). Serum sclerostin was significantly associated with severely low bone mass with Z-scores<-2.5 of the femoral neck, even when adjusted for serum intact parathyroid hormone, vitamin D status, dialysis pattern, sex, and DKK-1 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The patients on dialysis with severe SHPT have a high prevalence of vascular calcification. Although the Wnt signaling pathway could play a role in hyperparathyroid bone disease, CAC may be mainly due to the treatment modality rather than the Wnt signaling pathway associated bone metabolism in patients on dialysis with severe SHPT.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common feature in patients with chronic kidney disease. Its serious clinical consequences include renal osteodystrophy, calcific uremic arteriolopathy, and vascular calcifications that increase morbidity and mortality.Reduced synthesis of active vitamin D contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, this condition is managed with activated vitamin D. However, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia limit the use of activated vitamin D.In Denmark alfacalcidol is the primary choice of vitamin D analog.A new vitamin D analog, paricalcitol, may be less prone to induce hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.However, a randomised controlled clinical study comparing alfacalcidol and paricalcitol has never been performed.The primary objective of this study is to compare alfacalcidol and paricalcitol. We evaluate the suppression of the secondary hyperparathyroidism and the tendency towards hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia. METHODS/DESIGN: This is an investigator-initiated cross-over study. Nine Danish haemodialysis units will recruit 117 patients with end stage renal failure on maintenance haemodialysis therapy.Patients are randomised into two treatment arms. After a wash out period of 6 weeks they receive increasing doses of alfacalcidol or paricalcitol for a period of 16 weeks and after a further wash out period of 6 weeks they receive the contrary treatment (paricalcitol or alfacalcidol) for 16 weeks. DISCUSSION: Hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.If there is any difference in the ability of these two vitamin D analogs to decrease the secondary hyperparathyroidism without causing hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, there may also be a difference in the risk of cardiovascular mortality depending on which vitamin D analog that are used. This has potential major importance for this group of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00469599.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with elevations in serum phosphate, calcium-phosphorus product and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), with attendant risks of cardiovascular and bone disorders. Active vitamin D can suppress parathyroid hormone (PTH), but may raise serum calcium and phosphate concentrations. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D activator, suppressed PTH in CKD patients (stages 3 and 4) with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) with minimal changes in calcium and phosphate metabolism.The VITAL study enrolled patients with CKD stages 2-4. We examined the effect and relationship of paricalcitol to calcium and phosphate metabolism and bone markers in a post hoc analysis of VITAL. The study comprised patients with diabetic nephropathy enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of paricalcitol (1 or 2 ?g/day). Urinary and serum calcium and phosphate, serum BAP, and intact PTH (iPTH) concentrations were measured throughout the study.Baseline demographics and calcium, phosphate, PTH (49% with iPTH <70 pg/mL), and BAP concentrations were similar between groups. A transient, modest yet significant increase in phosphate was observed for paricalcitol 2 ?g/day (+0.29 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Dose-dependent increases in serum and urinary calcium were observed; however, there were few cases of hypercalcemia: one in the 1-?g/day group (1.1%) and three in the 2-?g/day group (3.2%). Significant reductions in BAP were observed that persisted for 60 days after paricalcitol discontinuation (P < 0.001 for combined paricalcitol groups versus placebo). Paricalcitol dose-dependent reductions in iPTH were observed. Paricalcitol in CKD patients (±SHPT) was associated with modest increases in calcium and phosphate.Paricalcitol reduces BAP levels, which may be beneficial for reducing vascular calcification.Trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00421733.