MCR-1 Gene Encoded Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli in Raw Chicken Meat and Bean Sprouts in Malaysia.
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to detect the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in raw chicken meat and bean sprouts collected from local markets and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates. A total of 100 samples, comprised of 50 raw chicken meat and 50 bean sprouts, were collected and processed. Kirby-Bauer method was used to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns, and PCR amplification was used to detect E. coli species-specific and colistin resistance (mcr-1 and mcr-2) genes. The results showed that 52.1% (12/23) of the E. coli isolated from raw chicken meat were positive for the colistin resistance encoding gene, mcr-1, whereas all the E. coli isolates from bean sprouts were negative for colistin resistance encoding genes. The findings show that chicken meat contaminated with colistin-resistant E. coli may pose public health risk to the consumers. Hence, prudent usage of antibiotics and hygienic handling of food items helps to prevent and combat the risks of spreading of colistin-resistant E. coli and the public health risks it may pose. More comprehensive and large-scale studies focusing on all the possible sources of colistin-resistant E. coli are recommended.
Project description:We present the draft genome of Escherichia coli S51, a colistin-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strain isolated in 2015 from raw chicken meat imported from Germany. Assembly and annotation of this draft genome resulted in a 4,994,918-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally encoded mcr-1 gene responsible for the colistin resistance of the strain.
Project description:The detection and rapid spread of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying the mcr-1 gene has created an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. In this study, eight clonally unrelated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates carrying mcr-1 and blaCTX-M or blaCMY-2 genes were isolated from commercial chicken meat in Brazil. Most E. coli strains carried IncX4 plasmids, previously identified in human and animal isolates. These results highlight a new reservoir of mcr-1-harboring E. coli strains in South America.
Project description:The global food chain may significantly promote the dissemination of bacteria resistant to antibiotics around the world. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae with mcr-mediated colistin (CT) resistance in retail meat of different origins. Bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family carrying the mcr-1 gene were detected in 21% (18/86) of the examined samples, especially in turkey meat and liver originating from EU and non-EU countries (19%) and in rabbit meat imported from China (2%). The examined samples of the meat and liver of chicken and other poultry and of pork and beef were negative for the presence of bacteria carrying the mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes. A huge number of isolates belonging to Escherchia coli (n = 54), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 6), and Citrobacter braakii (n = 1) carrying the mcr-1 gene were obtained. Despite the high heterogeneity of the tested isolates, the mcr-1 gene was localized on only three types of plasmids (IncX4, IncHI2, and IncI2). The most frequent type of plasmid was IncX4, which carried the mcr-1 gene in 77% of E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from turkey meat and liver samples from the Czechia, Germany, Poland, and Brazil. Our findings indicate highly probable interspecies transfer of IncX4 and IncI2 plasmids within one meat sample. The co-resistance of plasmid-mediated CT resistance encoded by the mcr-1 and ESBL genes was detected in 18% of the isolates. Another noteworthy finding was the fosA3 gene coding for fosfomycin resistance in a multidrug-resistant isolate of E. coli from rabbit meat imported from China. The observed high level of Enterobacteriaceae with plasmids carrying the mcr-1 gene in retail meat reflects the need for Europe-wide monitoring of mcr-mediated CT resistance throughout the whole food chain.
Project description:Two adjacent colistin resistance gene variants, termed mcr-3.3 and mcr-3-like, were identified in the chromosome of an Aeromonas veronii isolate obtained from retail chicken meat. The variants showed 95.20% and 84.19% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, to mcr-3 from porcine Escherichia coli Functional cloning indicated that only mcr-3.3 conferred polymyxin resistance in both E. coli and Aeromonas salmonicida The mcr-3.3-mcr-3-like segment was also observed in other Aeromonas species, including A. media, A. caviae, and A. hydrophila.
Project description:A number of studies from different countries have characterized mcr-1-harboring plasmids isolated from food; however, nothing has been reported about it in South Korea. In this study, we report the characterization of mcr-1 plasmids from pan drug-resistant (PDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from retail food in the country. Colistin-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from retail raw chicken, and PCR was carried out to detect the mcr-1 gene. Whole genome sequencing of the mcr-1-positive strains was performed for further characterization. The results of whole genome sequencing revealed that all mcr-1 plasmids belonged to the IncI2 type. In addition to the mcr-1 plasmids, all of the isolates also carried additional plasmids possessing multiple antibiotic resistance genes, and the PDR was mediated by resistant plasmids except for fluoroquinolone resistance resulting from mutations in gyrA and parC. Interestingly, the mcr-1 plasmids were transferred by conjugation to other pathogenic strains including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Salmonella, and Klebsiella at the frequencies of 10-3-10-6, 10-2-10-5, 10-4-10-5, 10-4-10-6, and 10-5-10-6, respectively. The results showed that mcr-1 plasmids can be easily transmitted to pathogenic bacteria by conjugation.
Project description:We characterized the genetic environment of mcr-1 in colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated in Switzerland during 2014 to 2016 from humans (n = 3) and chicken meat (n = 6). Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing identified the mcr-1 gene integrated in IncX4 (of which, one strain carried the mcr-1.2 variant), IncI2, IncHI2, and novel IncK2 plasmids (overall, n = 7), as well as in the bacterial chromosome (n = 2) in single or duplicate copies. Our study supports the easy mobilization of mcr-1 across diverse genetic locations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The emerging mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, is an ongoing worldwide concern and an evaluation of clinical isolates harboring this gene is required in Korea. We investigated mcr-1-possessing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in Korea, and compared the genetic details of the plasmids with those in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock. METHODS:Among 9,396 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2015, 1,347 (14.3%) strains were resistant to colistin and those were screened for mcr-1 by PCR. Colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by microdilution, and conjugal transfer of the mcr-1-harboring plasmids was assessed by direct mating. Whole genomes of three mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates and 11 livestock-origin mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates were sequenced. RESULTS:Two E. coli and one Enterobacter aerogenes clinical isolates carried carried IncI2 plasmids harboring mcr-1, which conferred colistin resistance (E. coli MIC, 4 mg/L; E. aerogenes MIC, 32 mg/L). The strains possessed the complete conjugal machinery except for E. aerogenes harboring a truncated prepilin peptidase. The E. coli plasmid transferred more efficiently to E. coli than to Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter cloacae recipients. Among the three bacterial hosts, the colistin MIC was the highest for E. coli owing to the higher mcr-1-plasmid copy number and mcr-1 expression levels. Ten mcr-1-positive chicken-origin E. coli strains also possessed mcr-1-harboring IncI2 plasmids closely related to that in the clinical E. aerogenes isolate, and the remaining one porcine-origin E. coli possessed an mcr-1-harboring IncX4 plasmid. CONCLUSIONS:mcr-1-harboring IncI2 plasmids were identified in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. These plasmids were closely associated with those in chicken-origin E. coli strains in Korea, supporting the concept of mcr-1 dissemination between humans and livestock.
Project description:The recent discovery and rapid spread of mobile colistin-resistant gene, mcr-1, among bacteria isolated from a broad range of sources is undermining our ability to treat bacterial infections and threatening human health and safety. To prevent further transfer of colistin resistance, practical and reliable methods for mcr-1-containing bacteria are need. In this study, standards and novel polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MCR-1 were developed. Among nine mAbs, three were MCR-1 specific and six cross-reacted with both MCR-1 and MCR-2. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established using the polyclonal antibody as a capturer and the mAb MCR-1-7 as a detector. The assay had a limit of detection of 0.01?ng/mL for MCR-1 and 0.1?ng/mL for MCR-2 in buffer with coefficients of variation (CV) less than 15%. When applied to ground beef, chicken and pork, this ELISA identified samples inoculated with less than 0.4 cfu/g of meat, demonstrating its strong tolerance to complex food matrices. To our knowledge, this is the first immunoassay developed for MCR-1 and MCR-2. It should be useful for prompt and reliable screening of meat samples contaminated with plasmid-borne colistin-resistant bacteria, thus reducing human risk of foodborne infections with possibly no antibiotic treatment options.
Project description:Colistin is considered a last-resort reserved drug for the treatment of critical human infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Phenotypic colistin-resistance is strongly associated with plasmid-mediated mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. The mcr-bearing Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in many countries from environments, animals, and humans. This study investigated phenotypic colistin-resistance and the distribution of mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, and mcr-5 genes in chicken-gut bacteria in Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated from poultry- and native-chicken droppings, and their susceptibilities to colistin were determined by agar dilution and E-test minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions detected mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes. Overall, 61.7% (92/149) of the isolates showed colistin resistance by agar dilution assessment (MIC?>?2.0 ?g/mL). The phenotypic resistance was observed considerably higher in poultry-chicken isolates (64.6%, 64/99) than in native-chicken isolates (56%, 28/50; p?=?0.373). All the resistant isolates showed MIC levels between >?2 and >?128 ?g/mL. The mcr-genes (mcr-1and mcr-2 combined) were detected more in poultry gut bacteria (36.4%) than native-chicken isolates (20%, p?=?0.06). Despite bacteria sources, mcr-genes appeared to be significantly associated with phenotypic colistin-resistance phenomena (p?<?0.001). Prior colistin usage led to a substantial increase in the proportion of bacteria with mcr-genes and phenotypic resistance (p?<?0.001).
Project description:We examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of mcr-3 carrying colistin-resistant Escherichia coli among cattle, pig, and chicken isolates in South Korea. Among a total of 185 colistin-resistant E. coli isolates determined in this study (47 from cattle, 90 from pigs, and 48 from chicken), PCR amplification detected mcr-3 genes in 17 isolates predominantly from diseased pigs. The mcr-3 genes were characterized as mcr-3.1 in 15 isolates and mcr-3.5 in 2 isolates. The mcr-3 gene was transferred to the E. coli J53 recipient strain from more than 50% of the mcr-3-carrying isolates. The mcr-3.1 and mcr-3.5 genes were identified predominantly in IncHI2 and IncP plasmids, respectively. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis revealed eight previously reported sequence types (ST), including ST1, ST10, and ST42. We identified isolates with similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from diseased pigs in three farms. Besides, the isolates carried various virulence factors and demonstrated resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ?-lactams and quinolones. Further, the mcr-3.5 encodes three amino acid substitutions compared with mcr-3.1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pathogenic E. coli carrying mcr-3.5 in South Korea, which implies that mcr-3 variants may have already been widely spread in the pig industry.