FDM-Based 3D Printing of Polymer and Associated Composite: A Review on Mechanical Properties, Defects and Treatments.
ABSTRACT: Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the fastest-growing additive manufacturing methods used in printing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC). The performances of the resulting printed parts are limited compared to those by other manufacturing methods due to their inherent defects. Hence, the effort to develop treatment methods to overcome these drawbacks has accelerated during the past few years. The main focus of this study is to review the impact of those defects on the mechanical performance of FRC and therefore to discuss the available treatment methods to eliminate or minimize them in order to enhance the functional properties of the printed parts. As FRC is a combination of polymer matrix material and continuous or short reinforcing fibres, this review will thoroughly discuss both thermoplastic polymers and FRCs printed via FDM technology, including the effect of printing parameters such as layer thickness, infill pattern, raster angle and fibre orientation. The most common defects on printed parts, in particular, the void formation, surface roughness and poor bonding between fibre and matrix, are explored. An inclusive discussion on the effectiveness of chemical, laser, heat and ultrasound treatments to minimize these drawbacks is provided by this review.
Project description:Fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printing is being increasingly explored as a direct manufacturing method to product pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Despite its many advantages as a pharmaceutical formulation tool, it remains restricted to proof-of-concept formulations. The optimization of the printing process in order to achieve adequate precision and printing quality remains to be investigated. Demonstrating a thorough understanding of the process parameters of FDM and their impact on the quality of printed dosage forms is undoubtedly necessary should FDM advance from a proof-of-concept stage to an adapted pharmaceutical manufacturing tool. This article describes the findings of an investigation into a number of critical process parameters of FDM and their impact on quantifiable, pharmaceutically-relevant measures of quality. Polycaprolactone, one of the few polymers which is both suitable for FDM and is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) material, was used to print internally-exposed grids, allowing examination of both their macroscopic and microstructural reproducibility of FDM. Of the measured quality parameters, dimensional authenticity of the grids was found to poorly match the target dimensions. Weights of the grids were found to significantly vary upon altering printing speed. Printing temperature showed little effect on weight. Weight uniformity per batch was found to lie within acceptable pharmaceutical quality limits. Furthermore, we report observing a microstructural distortion relating to printing temperature which we dub The First Layer Effect (FLE). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study factor interactions and revealed, among others, the existence of an interaction between weight/dosing accuracy and dimensional authenticity dictating a compromise between the two quality parameters. The Summed Standard Deviation (SSD) is proposed as a method to extract the optimum printing parameters given all the perceived quality parameters and the necessary compromises among them.
Project description:Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a rapidly growing 3D printing technology. However, printing materials are restricted to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or poly (lactic acid) (PLA) in most Fused deposition modeling (FDM) equipment. Here, we report on a new high-performance printing material, polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), which could surmount these shortcomings. This paper is devoted to studying the influence of layer thickness and raster angle on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PEEK. Samples with three different layer thicknesses (200, 300 and 400 μm) and raster angles (0°, 30° and 45°) were built using a polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) 3D printing system and their tensile, compressive and bending strengths were tested. The optimal mechanical properties of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) samples were found at a layer thickness of 300 μm and a raster angle of 0°. To evaluate the printing performance of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) samples, a comparison was made between the mechanical properties of 3D-printed polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts. The results suggest that the average tensile strengths of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) parts were 108% higher than those for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and compressive strengths were 114% and bending strengths were 115%. However, the modulus of elasticity for both materials was similar. These results indicate that the mechanical properties of 3D-printed polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) are superior to 3D-printed ABS.
Project description:The following data describe the dielectric performance of additively manufactured polymer materials printed in various orientations for four common additive manufacturing techniques. Data are presented for selected commercial 3D printing materials fabricated using four common 3D printing techniques: Stereolithography (SLA), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Polymer Jetting (PolyJet). Dielectric strengths are compiled for the listed materials, based on the ASTM D139 standard. This article provides data related to "Dielectric Strength Heterogeneity Associated with Printing Orientation in Additively Manufactured Polymer Materials" .
Project description:The clinical application of 3D-printed provisional restorations is increasing due to expansion of intraoral scanners, easy dental computer-aided design (CAD) software, and improved 3D printing speed. This study compared flexural strength of 3D-printed three-unit fixed dental prostheses with that of conventionally fabricated and milled restorations. A metal jig of two abutments and pontic space and an indenter for flexural strength measurement were fabricated. A three-unit fixed dental prosthesis was designed and manufactured using three additive manufacturing technologies, with subtractive manufacturing and a conventional method as controls. Digital light processing (DLP) group specimens were prepared from a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based resin and printed with a DLP printer. Stereolithography (SLA) group specimens were prepared from PMMA-based resin and printed with an SLA printer, and fused deposition modeling (FDM) group specimens were from a polylactic acid-based resin and printed with an FDM printer. Flexural strength was investigated using a universal testing machine, and the results were statistically analyzed. DLP and SLA groups had significantly higher flexural strength than the conventional group (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in flexural strength between DLP and SLA groups. The FDM group showed only dents but no fracture. The results of this study suggest that provisional restorations fabricated by DLP and SLA technologies provide adequate flexural strength for dental use.
Project description:3D printed surgical guides are used for prosthetically-driven oral implant placement. When manufacturing these guides, information regarding suitable printing techniques and materials as well as the necessity for additional, non-printed stock parts such as metal sleeves is scarce. The aim of the investigation was to determine the accuracy of a surgical workflow for oral implant placement using guides manufactured by means of fused deposition modeling (FDM) from a biodegradable and sterilizable biopolymer filament. Furthermore, the potential benefit of metal sleeve inserts should be assessed. A surgical guide was designed for the installation of two implants in the region of the second premolar (SP) and second molar (SM) in a mandibular typodont model. For two additive manufacturing techniques (stereolithography [SLA]: reference group, FDM: observational group) n = 10 surgical guides, with (S) and without (NS) metal sleeves, were used. This resulted in 4 groups of 10 samples each (SLA-S/NS, FDM-S/NS). Target and real implant positions were superimposed and compared using a dedicated software. Sagittal, transversal, and vertical discrepancies at the level of the implant shoulder, apex and regarding the main axis were determined. MANOVA with posthoc Tukey tests were performed for statistical analyses. Placed implants showed sagittal and transversal discrepancies of <1 mm, vertical discrepancies of <0.6 mm, and axial deviations of ?3°. In the vertical dimension, no differences between the four groups were measured (p ? 0.054). In the sagittal dimension, SLA groups showed decreased deviations in the implant shoulder region compared to FDM (p ? 0.033), whereas no differences in the transversal dimension between the groups were measured (p ? 0.054). The use of metal sleeves did not affect axial, vertical, and sagittal accuracy, but resulted in increased transversal deviations (p = 0.001). Regarding accuracy, biopolymer-based surgical guides manufactured by means of FDM present similar accuracy than SLA. Cytotoxicity tests are necessary to confirm their biocompatibility in the oral environment.
Project description:A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication. These 3D printed glass bottom casting molds would result in PDMS replicas with a flat smooth bottom surface for better bonding and adhesion.
Project description:Additive manufacturing with fused deposition modeling (FDM) is currently optimized for a wide range of research and commercial applications. The major disadvantage of FDM-created products is their low quality and structural defects (porosity), which impose an obstacle to utilizing them in functional prototyping and direct digital manufacturing of objects intended to contact with gases and liquids. This article describes a simple and efficient approach for assessing the quality of 3D printed objects. Using this approach it was shown that the wall permeability of a printed object depends on its geometric shape and is gradually reduced in a following series: cylinder > cube > pyramid > sphere > cone. Filament feed rate, wall geometry and G-code-defined wall structure were found as primary parameters that influence the quality of 3D-printed products. Optimization of these parameters led to an overall increase in quality and improvement of sealing properties. It was demonstrated that high quality of 3D printed objects can be achieved using routinely available printers and standard filaments.
Project description:In this paper, the post-processing of 3D-printed poly lactic acid (PLA) parts is investigated. Workpieces are manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing, while they may have defects in some areas such as edges. A post-processing is introduced here for 3D-printed samples by low power CO2 laser. The thickness of the FDM samples are 3.2 mm and printed by optimum conditions. Effects of process parameters such as focal plane position (-3.2-3.2 mm), laser power (20-40 W), and laser cutting speed (1-13 mm/s) are examined based on the design of experiments (DOE). Geometrical features of the kerf; top and bottom kerf; taper; ratio of top to the bottom kerf are considered as output responses. An analysis of the experimental results by statistical software is conducted to survey the effects of process parameters and to obtain regression equations. By optimizing of the laser cutting process; an appropriate kerf quality is obtained and also optimum input parameters are suggested. Experimental verification tests show a good agreement between empirical results and statistical predictions. The best optimum sample with 1.19 mm/s cutting speed, 36.49 W power and 0.53 mm focal plane position shows excellent physical features after the laser cutting process when 276.9 ?m top and 261.5 ?m bottom kerf width is cut by laser.
Project description:Here, we report on the inexpensive fabrication of an electrospray/electrospinning setup by fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing and provide the files and parameters needed to print this versatile device. Both electrospray and electrospinning technologies are widely used for pharmaceutical, healthcare and bioengineering applications. The setup was designed to be modular, thus its parts can be exchanged easily. The design provides a safe setup, ensuring that the users are not exposed to the high voltage parts of the setup. PLA, PVA, and a thermoplastic elastomer filament were used for the 3D printing. The filament cost was $100 USD and the rig was printed in 6?days. An Ultimaker 3 FDM 3D printer was used with dual print heads, and the PVA was used as a water-soluble support structure. The end part of the setup had several gas channels, allowing a uniform gas flowing against the direction of the nanoparticles/nanofibers, enhancing the drying process by enhancing the evaporation rate. The setup was tested in both electrospray and electrospinning modes successfully. Both the .sldprt and .stl files are provided for free download.
Project description:Additive manufacturing, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), has been increasingly employed to produce microfluidic platforms due to ease of use, wide distribution of affordable 3D printers and relatively inexpensive materials for printing. In this work, we discuss fabrication and testing of an FDM-printed fully automated colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect malaria. The detection platform consists of a disposable 3D-printed fluidic cartridge (with elastomeric silicone domes on top of reagent-storage reservoirs) and a nondisposable frame with servomotors and electronic controls such as an Arduino board and a rechargeable battery. The system is controlled by a novel interface where a music file (so-called "song") is sent to the Arduino board, where the onboard program converts the set of frequencies into action of individual servomotors to rotate their arms a certain amount, thus depressing specific elastomeric domes atop reagent reservoirs and displacing the specific reagents into the detection wells, where bioassay steps are executed. Another of the distinguished characteristics of the demonstrated system is its ability to aspirate the fluid from the detection wells into the waste reservoir. Therefore, the demonstrated automated platform has the ability to execute even the most complex multi-step assays where dilution and multiple washes are required. Optimization of 3D-printer settings and ways to control leakages typical of FDM-printed fluidic systems are also discussed.