Effect of cAMP Signaling Regulation in Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: The successful implementation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in bone regeneration depends on efficient osteogenic differentiation. However, a literature survey and our own experience demonstrated that current differentiation methods are not effective enough. Since the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes can be regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we investigated the effects of cAMP activator, forskolin, and inhibitor, SQ 22,536, on the early and late osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs cultured in spheroids or in a monolayer. Intracellular cAMP concentration, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) expression examination confirmed cAMP up- and downregulation. cAMP upregulation inhibited the cell cycle and protected ADSCs from osteogenic medium (OM)-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, the upregulation of cAMP level at the early stages of osteogenic differentiation downregulated the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX2, Osterix, and IBSP, which was more significant in spheroids, and it is used for the more efficient commitment of ADSCs into preosteoblasts, according to the previously reported protocol. However, cAMP upregulation in a culture of ADSCs in spheroids resulted in significantly increased osteocalcin production and mineralization. Thus, undifferentiated and predifferentiated ADSCs respond differently to cAMP pathway stimulation in terms of osteogenesis, which might explain the ambiguous results from the literature.
Project description:Objectives:In some previous studies, the extract of embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to reprogram somatic cells to more dedifferentiated state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mouse ESCs extract on the expression of some pluripotency markers in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Materials and Methods:Human ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and characterized by flow cytometric analysis for the expression of some mesenchymal stem cell markers and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Frequent freeze-thaw technique was used to prepare cytoplasmic extract of ESCs. Plasma membranes of the ADSCs were reversibly permeabilized by streptolysin-O (SLO). Then the permeabilized ADSCs were incubated with the ESC extract and cultured in resealing medium. After reprogramming, the expression of some pluripotency genes was evaluated by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses. Results:Third-passaged ADSCs showed a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers. They also showed adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. QPCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of some pluripotency genes including OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1 and ESG1 in the reprogrammed ADSCs compared to the control group. Conclusion:These findings showed that mouse ESC extract can be used to induce reprogramming of human ADSCs. In fact, this method is applicable for reprogramming of human adult stem cells to a more pluripotent sate and may have a potential in regenerative medicine.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering and have great potential for bone regeneration and defect repair. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been demonstrated to modulate osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, its roles during ADSC differentiation and therapeutic potentials for bone regeneration have as yet not been well established.TAZ expression was measured during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches by TAZ knockdown or enforced overexpression were utilized to determine its functions during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. TM-25659, a chemical activator of TAZ, was used to determine whether pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ in promoting osteogenesis of ADSCs were also explored.Increased TAZ expression was observed during osteogenic differentiation of human ADSCs. TAZ knockdown resulted in compromised osteogenic differentiation and enhanced adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. In contrast, enforced TAZ overexpression yielded increased osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vivo, and impaired adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Pharmacological activation of TAZ by its chemical activator TM-25659 facilitated osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Noticeably, transient treatment of ADSCs with TM-25659 or intraperitoneal injection of TM-25659 significantly enhanced bone regeneration of ADSCs loaded with porous ?-TCP in vivo. Mechanistically, TM-25659 exposure significantly promoted TAZ phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and potentiated the assembly of the TAZ-Runx2 complex. Subsequently, the TAZ-Runx2 complex was further recruited to the promoter of osteocalcin and in turn enhanced its transcription.Our findings indicate that TAZ is a key mediator that promotes ADSC commitment to the osteoblast lineage. Pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs might become a feasible and promising approach to enhance bone regeneration and repair.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as important regulators of stem cell lineage commitment and bone development. MiRNA-26a (miR-26a) is one of the important miRNAs regulating osteogenic differentiation of both bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, miR-26a functions oppositely in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs, suggesting distinct post-transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific MSC differentiation. However, the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here, we report that the function of miR-26a is largely depended on the intrinsic signaling regulation network of MSCs. Using bioinformatics and functional assay, we confirmed that miR-26a potentially targeted on GSK3? and Smad1 to regulate Wnt and BMP signaling pathway. Overall comparative analysis revealed that Wnt signaling was enhanced more potently and played a more important role than BMP signaling in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas BMP pathway was more essential for promoting osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. The distinct activation pattern and role of signaling pathways determined that miR-26a majorly targeted on GSK3? to activate Wnt signaling for promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas it inhibited Smad1 to suppress BMP signaling for interfering with the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Taken together, our study demonstrated that BMSCs and ADSCs applied different signaling pathway to facilitate their osteogenic differentiation, which determined the inverse function of miR-26a. The distinct transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation network suggested the intrinsic molecular differences between tissue-specific MSCs and the complexity in MSC research and MSC-based cell therapy.
Project description:Background:Bone tissue engineering is a widely growing field that requires the combination of cells, scaffolds and signaling molecules. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an accessible and abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells with high plasticity. Polycaprolactone/alginate (PCL/Alg) composite scaffolds have been used in bone regeneration and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is used as a reinforcing, osteoconductive component in scaffold fabrication. This study was conducted to assess the ability of three different PCL/Alg based scaffolds to induce osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs and to compare between them. Methods:The study comprised 5 groups; negative control group with ADSCs cultured in complete culture media, positive control group with ADSCs cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, and 3 experimental groups with ADSCs seeded onto 3 scaffolds: S1 (PCL/Alg), S2 (PCL/Alg/Ca) and S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) respectively and cultured in osteogenic media. Mineralization and gene expression were assessed by Alizarin red S (ARS) staining and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Evaluation was done at 7, 14 and 21 days. Results:ARS staining reflected a time dependent increase through days 7, 14 and 21, with S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) group showing the highest mineralization levels. RT-qPCR detected upregulation of ALP gene expression at day 7 and decline thereafter. S2 (PCL/Alg/Ca) and S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) groups showed significantly higher gene expression levels than S1 (PCL/Alg). Conclusions:ADSCs and PCL/Alg-based scaffolds compose a good tissue engineering complex for bone regeneration. Addition of n-HA to PCL/Alg scaffolds and crosslinking with CaCl2 efficiently improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs.
Project description:Although the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) is well-characterized as a negative regulator of ?-catenin, its effect on osteogenesis of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) is poorly understood. Here, we show that GSK3? positively regulates osteogenic differentiation of murine ADSCs. Gain-of-function studies showed that GSK3? promotes in vitro osteogenesis of ADSCs. Regulation of GSK3? activity in ADSCs, either by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated GSK3? silencing or by pharmacological inhibitors, blunted osteogenesis and the expression of osteogenic markers. Importantly, we demonstrated that transgenic mice, engineered to overexpress the constitutively active GSK3? (GSK3?-S9A) mutant, exhibited a marked increase in osteogenesis, whereas expression of the catalytically inactive GSK3? (GSK3?-K85A) in mice inhibits osteogenic differentiation. Molecular analyses showed that the enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by GSK3? was mediated by downregulation of ?-catenin. Remarkably, ?-catenin silencing enhances osteogenesis and osteoblast marker gene expression such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osterix. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a novel role for GSK3? in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation in ADSCs.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are capable of differentiating into the osteogenic lineage, and for osteogenic differentiation, mechanical loading is a relevant stimulus. Mechanotransduction leads to the formation of second messengers such as cAMP, cGMP, or Ca2+ influx resulting in the activation of transcription factors mediating gene regulation. The second messengers cAMP and cGMP are degraded by phosphodiesterase isoenzymes (PDE), but the role of these enzymes during osteogenic differentiation or mechanotransduction remains unclear. Here, we focused on the isoenzyme phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) and its role during osteogenic commitment and mechanotransduction. We observed a time-dependent decrease of PDE10A expression in hMSC undergoing differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. PDE10A inhibition by papaverine diminished osteogenic differentiation. While applying mechanical strain via cyclic stretching of hMSCs led to an upregulation of PDE10A gene expression, inhibition of PDE10A using the drug papaverine repressed expression of mechanoresponsive genes. We conclude that PDE10A is a modulator of osteogenic differentiation as well as mechanotransduction in hMSCs. Our data further suggests that the relative increase of cAMP, rather than the absolute cAMP level, is a key driver of the observed effects.
Project description:To develop and characterize a novel cell culture method for the generation of undifferentiated and differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell 3D structures, we utilized the RWV system with a gelatin-based scaffold. 3 × 10(6) cells generated homogeneous spheroids and maximum spheroid loading was accomplished after 3?days of culture. Spheroids cultured in undifferentiated spheroids of 3 and 10?days retained expression of CD44, without expression of differentiation markers. Spheroids cultured in adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation media exhibited oil red O staining and von Kossa staining, respectively. Further characterization of osteogenic lineage, showed that 10?day spheroids exhibited stronger calcification than any other experimental group corresponding with significant expression of vitamin D receptor, alkaline phosphatase, and ERp60 . In conclusion this study describes a novel RWV culture method that allowed efficacious engineering of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids and rapid osteogenic differentiation. The use of gelatin scaffolds holds promise to design implantable stem cell tissue of various sizes and shapes for future regenerative treatment.
Project description:Adipose tissue harbours a significant number of multipotent adult stem cells of mesenchymal origin known as adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Broad differentiation potential and convenient accessibility of ADSCs make them an attractive source of adult mesenchymal stem cell for regenerative medicine and cell developmental plasticity research. Genome-wide microarray expression profiling was performed to identify genes deregulated during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs to evaluate developmental plasticity of these cells. Dynamics of epigenetic modifications were analyzed in parallel and associated with the gene expression profile. Gene expression profile was analyzed in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) differentiated into osteogenic lineage from 3 donors and compared to undifferentiated cells from the same donors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the effects of aging in human and mouse mesenchymal stem cells suggest that a decline in the number and differentiation potential of stem cells may contribute to aging and aging-related diseases. In this report, we used stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue (ADSCs) of young (8-10 weeks), adult (5 months), and old (21 months) mice to test the hypothesis that mechanical loading modifies aging-related changes in the self-renewal and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of these cells. RESULTS: We show that aging significantly reduced the proliferation and increased the adipogenesis of ADSCs, while the osteogenic potential is not significantly reduced by aging. Mechanical loading (10% cyclic stretching, 0.5 Hz, 48 h) increased the subsequent proliferation of ADSCs from mice of all ages. Although the number of osteogenic colonies with calcium deposition was increased in ADSCs subjected to pre-strain, it resulted from an increase in colony number rather than from an increase in osteogenic potential after strain. Pre-strain significantly reduced the number of oil droplets and the expression of adipogenic marker genes in adult and old ADSCs. Simultaneously subjecting ADSCs to mechanical loading and adipogenic induction resulted in a stronger inhibition of adipogenesis than that caused by pre-strain. The reduction of adipogenesis by mechanical strain was loading-magnitude dependent: loading with 2% strain only resulted in a partial inhibition, and loading with 0.5% strain could not inhibit adipogenesis in ADSCs. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that mechanical stretching counteracts the loss of self-renewal in aging ADSCs by enhancing their proliferation and, at the same time, reduces the heightened adipogenesis of old cells. These findings are important for the further study of stem cell control and treatment for a variety of aging related diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely related to the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and the prevention of osteoporosis. Current research aimed to investigate the novel lncRNA and explored the function and molecular mechanism of the LINC00314/miR-129-5p/GRM5 axis in regulating osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. METHODS:LncRNA and miRNA sequencing was performed in normal and osteogenic differentiation-induced ADSCs (osteogenic group). Abnormally expressed lncRNAs and miRNAs were obtained by the R software and the relative expression of LINC00314, miR-129-5p, and GRM5 during osteogenic induction was measured by RT-PCR. ADSCs were then transfected with pcDNA3.1-sh-LINC00314 and agomiR-129-5p. Alizarin red staining (ARS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining were performed to identify the mechanism of the LINC00314/miR-129-5p/GRM5 axis in regulating osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. RESULTS:LINC00314 was significantly upregulated in the group of osteogenic-induced ADSCs. LINC00314 and GRM5 mimics increased the early and late markers of osteogenic differentiation, which manifest in not only the markedly increased ALP activity but also higher calcium deposition, while miR-129-5p mimic had the opposite effects. LINC00314 directly targeted miR-129-5p through luciferase reporter assay, and miR-129-5p suppressed GRM5 expression. Moreover, the LINC00314/miR-129-5p/GRM5 regulatory axis activated the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:LINC00314 confers contributory function in the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs and thus the LINC00314/miR-129-5p/GRM5 axis may be a novel mechanism for osteogenic-related disease.