Long-Term Follow-Up of Targeted Biopsy Yield (LOFTY Study) in Ulcerative Colitis Surveillance Colonoscopy.
ABSTRACT: We previously performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing targeted and random biopsy in neoplasia detection in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which showed the short-term effectiveness of targeted biopsy with one-time colonoscopy. In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated the long-term effectiveness of targeted biopsy in tertiary care hospitals, using the follow-up data from patients with UC for ? 8 years who had enrolled in the initial RCT. The primary outcome was death from colorectal cancer (CRC). Secondary outcomes were advanced neoplasia (CRC or high-grade dysplasia) and colectomy due to neoplasia after the RCT. We compared these outcomes between target and random groups. Data on 195 of the 221 patients (88.2%) enrolled in the previous RCT were collected from 28 institutions between 2008 and 2019. No patients died of CRC in either group, with a median 8.8-year follow-up demonstrating a robustness for targeted biopsy in terms of CRC death prevention. Advanced neoplasia was detected in four and three patients in the target and random groups, respectively. Colectomy was required due to neoplasia in three patients in each group. The chance of developing CRC in patients with a negative colonoscopy was low, and the targeted biopsy appeared effective in this population. Conversely, patients found with low-grade dysplasia at initial RCT have 10-fold higher risk of progression to high-grade dysplasia and/or CRC. Ten extracolonic malignancies were observed during the follow-up, resulting in four deaths. Panchromoendoscopy was used only in 4.6% and targeted biopsy was only performed in 59.1% of colonoscopies. We recommend targeted biopsy rather than > 33 random biopsies in real-world settings under adequate observation by specialists.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether intensive surveillance protocols have resulted in a decreased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS:To determine the prevalence and characteristics of IBD associated high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or CRC that was undetected on prior colonoscopy. METHODS:This is a single-center, retrospective study from 1994 to 2013. All participants had a confirmed IBD diagnosis and underwent a colectomy with either HGD or CRC found in the colectomy specimen.The undetected group had no HGD or CRC on prior colonoscopies. The detected group had HGD or CRC identified on previous biopsies. RESULTS:Of 70 participants, with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 47), Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 21), and indeterminate colitis (n = 2), 29% (n = 20) had undetected HGD/CRC at colectomy (15 HGD and 5 CRC). In the undetected group, 75% had prior LGD, 15% had indefinite dysplasia, and 10% had no dysplasia (HGD was found in colonic strictures). Patients in the undetected group were more likely to have pancolitis (55 vs. 20%) and multifocal dysplasia (35 vs. 8%). The undetected group was less likely to have CRC at colectomy (25 vs. 62%). There was a trend toward right-sided HGD/CRC at colectomy (40 vs. 20%; p = 0.08). In addition, 84% of the lesions found in the rectum at colectomy were not seen on prior colonoscopy in the undetected group. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of previously undetected HGD/CRC in IBD found at colectomy was 29%. The high proportion of undetected rectal and right-sided HGD/CRC suggests that these areas may need greater attention during surveillance.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Little is known about outcomes of patients with ulcerative colitis with low-grade dysplasia (UC-LGD). We estimated the incidence of and risk factors for progression to colorectal cancer (CRC) in cohorts of patients with UC-LGD who underwent surveillance (surveillance cohort), and the prevalence of dysplasia-related findings among patients who underwent colectomy for UC-LGD (surgical cohort). METHODS:We performed a systematic literature review through June 1, 2016, to identify cohort studies of adults with UC-LGD. We estimated pooled incidence rates of CRC and risk factors associated with dysplasia progression in surveillance cohorts, and prevalence of synchronous advanced neoplasia (CRC and/or high-grade dysplasia) in surgical cohorts. RESULTS:In 14 surveillance cohort studies of 671 patients with UC-LGD (52 developed CRC), the pooled annual incidence of CRC was 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.3); the pooled annual incidence of advanced neoplasia was 1.8% (95% CI, 0.9-2.7). Risk of CRC was higher when LGD was diagnosed by expert gastrointestinal pathologist (1.5%) than by community pathologists (0.2%). Factors significantly associated with dysplasia progression were concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-7.8), invisible dysplasia (vs visible dysplasia; OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4), distal location (vs proximal location; OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7), and multifocal dysplasia (vs unifocal dysplasia; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-8.5). In 12 surgical cohort studies of 450 patients who underwent colectomy for UC-LGD, 34 patients had synchronous CRC (pooled prevalence, 17%; 95% CI, 8-33). CONCLUSION:In a systematic review of the literature, we found that among patients with UC-LGD under surveillance, the annual incidence of progression to CRC was 0.8%; differences in rates of LGD diagnosis varied with pathologists' level of expertise. Concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis, invisible dysplasia, distal location, and multifocal LGD are high-risk features associated with dysplasia progression.
Project description:The detection of high-grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus (BE) can be challenging. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows in vivo visualization of mucosal histology during endoscopy.To determine whether CLE with optical biopsy and targeted mucosal biopsy improves the diagnostic yield of endoscopically inapparent, BE-associated neoplasia compared to standard endoscopy with a 4-quadrant, random biopsy protocol.Prospective, double-blind, randomized, crossover study.Single, tertiary-care academic center.This study involved patients with BE undergoing routine surveillance or referred for treatment of nonlocalized, endoscopically inapparent, BE-associated neoplasia.All participants underwent both a confocal endomicroscopy with a targeted biopsy procedure and standard endoscopy with a 4-quadrant biopsy procedure in a randomized order.Increase in diagnostic yield for neoplasia, reduction in mucosal biopsy number, final pathologic diagnosis.CLE with targeted biopsy almost doubled the diagnostic yield for neoplasia and was equivalent to the standard protocol for the final diagnosis of neoplasia. Two thirds of patients in the surveillance group did not need any mucosal biopsies at all.Single-center study.CLE with targeted biopsy significantly improves the diagnostic yield for endoscopically inapparent BE neoplasia compared to a standard endoscopy with a random-biopsy protocol. CLE with targeted biopsy also greatly reduces the number of biopsies needed per patient and allows some patients without neoplasia to completely forgo mucosal biopsy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have postinflammatory polyps (PIPs) may have an increased risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Current guidelines recommend an intensified surveillance strategy in these patients, although the evidence for this recommendation is conflicting. The aim of our study was to assess whether IBD patients with PIPs are at increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. METHODS:We established a retrospective cohort in a tertiary IBD center with IBD patients undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance in the current era. We compared cumulative incidences of colorectal neoplasia since IBD diagnosis between patients with and without PIPs and corrected for confounders. Second, we compared the risk of receiving a colectomy. RESULTS:In our cohort with >22 years of median follow-up, 154 of 519 patients had PIPs. PIPs were associated with extensive disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-4.42; P < 0.001) and with more severe inflammation at colonoscopy (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 2.28-5.50; P < 0.001). After correction for confounders, the presence of PIPs was not associated with development of colorectal neoplasia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; 95% CI, 0.85-1.93; P = 0.24) or with development of advanced neoplasia (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.52-3.68; P = 0.52). There was a higher risk of colectomy in patients with PIPs (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.55-7.54; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION:In this cohort, PIPs were associated with disease extent, inflammation, and higher rates of colectomy. However, the presence of PIPs was not associated with the development of neoplasia. These findings suggest that patients with PIPs may not need an intensified surveillance strategy.
Project description:Background/Aims:Statins have been postulated to lower the risk of colorectal neoplasia. No studies have examined any possible chemopreventive effect of statins in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance. This study examined the association of statin exposure with dysplasia and CRC in patients with IBD undergoing dysplasia surveillance colonoscopies. Methods:A cohort of patients with IBD undergoing colonoscopic surveillance for dysplasia and CRC at a single academic medical center were studied. The inclusion criteria were IBD involving the colon for ?8 years (or any colitis duration if associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis [PSC]) and at least two colonoscopic surveillance exams. The exclusion criteria were CRC or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) prior to or at enrollment, prior colectomy, or limited (<30%) colonic disease. The primary outcome was the frequency of dysplasia and/or CRC in statin-exposed versus nonexposed patients. Results:A total of 642 patients met the inclusion criteria (57 statin-exposed and 585 nonexposed). The statin-exposed group had a longer IBD duration, longer follow-up period, and more colonoscopies but lower inflammatory scores, less frequent PSC and less use of thiopurines and biologics. There were no differences in low-grade dysplasia, HGD, or CRC development during the follow-up period between the statin-exposed and nonexposed groups (21.1%, 5.3%, 1.8% vs 19.2%, 2.9%, 2.9%, respectively). Propensity score analysis did not alter the overall findings. Conclusions:In IBD patients undergoing surveillance colonoscopies, statin use was not associated with reduced dysplasia or CRC rates. The role of statins as chemopreventive agents in IBD remains controversial.
Project description:Methods and study aims: The incidence of esophageal cancer is rising despite increased surveillance efforts. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) is a new endoscopic imaging tool that can allow for targeted biopsy of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We report a series of 6 patients with long-segment Barrett's esophagus ( > 3 cm), who underwent a session of endoscopy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy, after a separate prior session of standard high-definition endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) and random biopsies that did not reveal neoplasia. In all six patients, the first endoscopy was the index endoscopy diagnosing the Barrett's esophagus. All VLE exams were performed within 6 months of the previous endoscopy. In five patients, VLE-targeted biopsy resulted in upstaged disease/diagnosed dysplasia that then qualified the patient for endoscopic ablation therapy. In one patient, VLE localized a focus of intramucosal cancer that allowed for curative endoscopic mucosal resection. This case series shows that endoscopy with VLE can target neoplasia that cannot be localized by high-definition endoscopy with NBI and random biopsies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy and/or alkylating chemotherapy have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in HL survivors. METHODS:This multicenter cohort study assessed the diagnostic yield of advanced colorectal neoplasia detected by a first surveillance colonoscopy among HL survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy and/or procarbazine. Advanced colorectal neoplasia included advanced adenomas (high-grade dysplasia, ≥25% villous component, or ≥10-mm diameter), advanced serrated lesions (dysplasia or ≥10-mm diameter), and CRC. The results were compared with those for a Dutch general population cohort that underwent a primary screening colonoscopy (1426 asymptomatic individuals 50-75 years old). This study demonstrated the results of a predefined interim analysis. RESULTS:A colonoscopy was performed in 101 HL survivors, who were significantly younger (median, 51 years; interquartile range [IQR], 45-57 years) than the general population controls (median, 60 years; IQR, 55-65 years; P < .001). The prevalence of advanced neoplasia was higher in HL survivors than controls (25 of 101 [25%] vs 171 of 1426 [12%]; P < .001). Advanced adenomas were detected in 14 of 101 HL survivors (14%) and in 124 of 1426 controls (9%; P = .08). The prevalence of advanced serrated lesions was higher in HL survivors than controls (12 of 101 [12%] vs 55 of 1426 [4%]; P < .001). Serrated polyposis syndrome was present in 6% of HL survivors and absent in controls (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:HL survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy and/or procarbazine have a high prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia. The implementation of a colonoscopy surveillance program should be considered.
Project description:Some individuals are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) despite recent colonoscopy. We examined individuals under colonoscopic surveillance for colonic adenomas to assess possible reasons for diagnosing cancer after a recent colonoscopy with complete removal of any identified polyps.Primary data were pooled from eight large (>800 patients) North American studies in which participants with adenoma(s) had a baseline colonoscopy (with intent to remove all visualised lesions) and were followed with subsequent colonoscopy. We used an algorithm based on the time from previous colonoscopy and the presence, size and histology of adenomas detected at prior exam to assign interval cancers as likely being new, missed, incompletely resected (while previously an adenoma) or due to failed biopsy detection.9167 participants (mean age 62) were included in the analyses, with a median follow-up of 47.2 months. Invasive cancer was diagnosed in 58 patients (0.6%) during follow-up (1.71 per 1000 person-years follow-up). Most cancers (78%) were early stage (I or II); however, 9 (16%) resulted in death from CRC. We classified 30 cancers (52%) as probable missed lesions, 11 (19%) as possibly related to incomplete resection of an earlier, non-invasive lesion and 14 (24%) as probable new lesions. The cancer diagnosis may have been delayed in three cases (5%) because of failed biopsy detection.Despite recent colonoscopy with intent to remove all neoplasia, CRC will occasionally be diagnosed. These cancers primarily seem to represent lesions that were missed or incompletely removed at the prior colonoscopy and might be avoided by increased emphasis on identifying and completely removing all neoplastic lesions at colonoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Quantitative faecal immunochemical tests measure faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb), which increases in the presence of colorectal neoplasia. OBJECTIVE:We examined the diagnostic accuracy of faecal immunochemical test (FIT)in patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) attending for surveillance colonoscopy as per national guidelines. METHODS:A total of 1103 consecutive patients were prospectively invited to complete a FIT before their scheduled colonoscopy in two university hospitals in 2014- 2016. F-Hb was analysed on an OC-Sensor io automated analyser (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) with a limit of detection of 2 µg Hb/g faeces. The diagnostic accuracy of f-Hb for CRC and higher-risk adenoma was examined. RESULTS:A total of 643 patients returned a faecal test. After excluding 4 patients with known inflammatory bowel disease, 639 (57.9%) remained in the study: age range: 25-90 years (median: 64 years, interquartile range (IQR): 55-71): 54.6% male. Of 593 patients who also completed colonoscopy, 41 (6.9%) had advanced neoplasia (4 CRC, 37 higher-risk adenoma). Of the 238 patients (40.1%) who had detectable f-Hb, 31 (13.0%) had advanced neoplasia (2 CRC, 29 higher-risk adenoma) compared with 10 (2.8%) in those with undetectable f-Hb (2 CRC, 8 higher-risk adenoma). Detectable f-Hb gave negative predictive values of 99.4% for CRC and 97.2% for CRC plus higher-risk adenoma. CONCLUSION:In patients at increased risk of CRC under colonoscopy surveillance, a test measuring faecal haemoglobin can provide an objective estimate of the risk of advanced neoplasia, and could enable tailored scheduling of colonoscopy.
Project description:If dysplasia is found on biopsies during surveillance colonoscopy for ulcerative colitis (UC), many experts recommend colectomy given the substantial risk of synchronous colon cancer. The objective was to learn if UC patients' perceptions of their colon cancer risk and if their preferences for elective colectomy match with physicians' recommendations if dysplasia was found.A self-administered written survey included 199 patients with UC for at least 8 years (mean age 49 years, 52% female) who were recruited from Dartmouth-Hitchcock (n = 104) and the University of Chicago (n = 95). The main outcome was the proportion of patients who disagree with physicians' recommendations for colectomy because of dysplasia.Almost all respondents recognized that UC raised their chance of getting colon cancer. In all, 74% thought it was "unlikely" or "very unlikely" to get colon cancer within the next 10 years and they quantified this risk to be 23%; 60% of patients would refuse a physician's recommendation for elective colectomy if dysplasia was detected, despite being told that they had a 20% risk of having cancer now. On average, these patients would only agree to colectomy if their risk of colon cancer "right now" were at least 73%.UC patients recognize their increased risk of colon cancer and undergo frequent surveillance to reduce their risk. Nonetheless, few seem prepared to follow standard recommendations for elective colectomy if dysplasia is found. This may reflect the belief that surveillance alone is sufficient to reduce their colon cancer risk or genuine disagreement about when it is worth undergoing colectomy.