Impaired Hypothalamic Microglial Activation in Offspring of Antibiotic-Treated Pregnant/Lactating Rats Is Attenuated by Prebiotic Oligofructose Co-Administration.
ABSTRACT: Microbial colonization of the gut early in life is crucial for the development of the immune and nervous systems, as well as influencing metabolism and weight gain. While early life exposure to antibiotics can cause microbial dysbiosis, prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that selectively promote the growth of beneficial gut microbiota. Our objective was to examine the effects of dietary prebiotic administration on the consequences of maternal antibiotic intake on offspring body weight, behavior, and neuroimmune responses later in life. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were given low-dose penicillin (LDP), prebiotic fiber (10% oligofructose), or both, during the third week of pregnancy and throughout lactation. Anxiety-like behavior, weight gain, body composition, cecal microbiota composition, and microglial responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were assessed in offspring. Male and female prebiotic offspring had lower body weight compared to antibiotic offspring. Maternal antibiotic exposure resulted in lasting effects on select offspring microbiota including a lower relative abundance of Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Eubacterium at 10 weeks of age. Maternal antibiotic use impaired microglial response to LPS in the hypothalamus compared to control, and this phenotype was reversed with prebiotic. Prebiotic fiber warrants further investigation as an adjunct to antibiotic use during pregnancy.
Project description:Maternal obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation can program an increased risk of obesity in offspring. In this context, improving maternal metabolism may help reduce the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Here we show that, in Sprague-Dawley rats, selectively altering obese maternal gut microbial composition with prebiotic treatment reduces maternal energy intake, decreases gestational weight gain, and prevents increased adiposity in dams and their offspring. Maternal serum metabolomics analysis, along with satiety hormone and gut microbiota analysis, identified maternal metabolic signatures that could be implicated in programming offspring obesity risk and highlighted the potential influence of maternal gut microbiota on maternal and offspring metabolism. In particular, the metabolomic signature of insulin resistance in obese rats normalized when dams consumed the prebiotic. In summary, prebiotic intake during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal metabolism in diet-induced obese rats in a manner that attenuates the detrimental nutritional programming of offspring associated with maternal obesity. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of the maternal mechanisms influencing the developmental programming of offspring obesity and provide compelling pre-clinical evidence for a potential strategy to improve maternal and offspring metabolic outcomes in human pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A growing body of evidence indicates that gut microbiota characteristics may be closely related to mental dysfunctions. However, no studies have investigated fetal brain development in relation to the maternal gut microbiota, despite the extensive use of antibiotics in obstetric practice. OBJECTIVE:To determine how periconceptional exposure to SuccinylSulfaThiazole (SST), a non-absorbable antibiotic, can affect behavior in rat offspring. This antibiotic drug has previously been shown to substantially perturb the gut microbiota in rats following a 28-day exposure. METHODS:Female Wistar rats were divided in two groups: control, or exposed during one month before breeding until gestational day 15 to a diet containing 1% SST. We administered behavioral tests to offspring, i.e., open field (post-natal day 20), social interactions (P25), marble burying (P30), elevated plus maze (P35), and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (sensory gating) (P45). RESULTS:Both male and female offspring exposed peri-conceptionally to SST showed reduced social interactions, with a decrease of about half in time spent in social interactions compared to controls, reduced exploration of the open arm by 20% in the elevated plus maze test indicating increased anxiety and altered sensorimotor gating, with a 1.5-2-fold decrease in startle inhibition. CONCLUSION:Maternal periconceptional exposure to SST provokes alterations in offspring behavior in the absence of maternal infection. Because we administered SST, a non-absorbable antibiotic, only to the dam, we conclude that these neurobehavioral alterations in the offspring are related to maternal gut microbiota alterations.
Project description:The intestinal microbiome is a unique ecosystem that influences metabolism in humans. Experimental evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota can transfer an obese phenotype from humans to mice. Since mothers transmit intestinal microbiota to their offspring during labor, we hypothesized that among vaginal deliveries, maternal body mass index is associated with neonatal gut microbiota composition. We report the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index on stool microbiota from 74 neonates, 18 born vaginally (5 to overweight or obese mothers) and 56 by elective C-section (26 to overweight or obese mothers). Compared to neonates delivered vaginally to normal weight mothers, neonates born to overweight or obese mothers had a distinct gut microbiota community structure (weighted UniFrac distance PERMANOVA, p?<?0.001), enriched in Bacteroides and depleted in Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Hydrogenophilus. We show that these microbial signatures are predicted to result in functional differences in metabolic signaling and energy regulation. In contrast, among elective Cesarean deliveries, maternal body mass index was not associated with neonatal gut microbiota community structure (weighted UniFrac distance PERMANOVA, p?=?0.628). Our findings indicate that excess maternal pre-pregnancy weight is associated with differences in neonatal acquisition of microbiota during vaginal delivery, but not Cesarean delivery. These differences may translate to altered maintenance of metabolic health in the offspring.
Project description:Antibiotic exposure in children has been associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Antibiotic use in children or in their pregnant mother can affect how the intestinal microbiome develops, so we asked whether the transfer of an antibiotic-perturbed microbiota from mothers to their children could affect their risk of developing IBD. Here we demonstrate that germ-free adult pregnant mice inoculated with a gut microbial community shaped by antibiotic exposure transmitted their perturbed microbiota to their offspring with high fidelity. Without any direct or continued exposure to antibiotics, this dysbiotic microbiota in the offspring remained distinct from controls for at least 21 weeks. By using both IL-10-deficient and wild-type mothers, we showed that both inoculum and genotype shape microbiota populations in the offspring. Because IL10-/- mice are genetically susceptible to colitis, we could assess the risk due to maternal transmission of an antibiotic-perturbed microbiota. We found that the IL10-/- offspring that had received the perturbed gut microbiota developed markedly increased colitis. Taken together, our findings indicate that antibiotic exposure shaping the maternal gut microbiota has effects that extend to the offspring, with both ecological and long-term disease consequences.
Project description:Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233.56 ± 2.77 kg) were allocated to two dietary treatment groups; a control diet (CON) group and a low-energy diet (LED) group. The nutrient levels of the CON were based on the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), and contained 3.40 MCal digestible energy (DE)/kg diet and 7.3% crude protein; while the LED contained 3.00 MCal DE/kg diet. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. Intestine samples were collected from the pigs' offspring at birth, and at weaning (day 28 post-birth). At weaning, male pigs from control and LED groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 ?g/kg body weight) or saline (n = 6), and sacrificed at 4 h post-injection to collect blood, intestine and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that the maternal LED markedly decreased the BW, small intestinal weight, and the ratio of jejunum and ileum villus height to crypt depth in the offspring. Moreover, the activities of lactase and sucrase in newborn piglets' intestine, and sucrase and maltase in weaning piglet intestine were markedly decreased by the maternal LED. In addition, maternal LED significantly increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal IL-6 and TNF-? in newborn piglets. Plasma IL-1? concentration and colonic Escherichia coli amount were affected by maternal diet (p < 0.05) and LPS challenge (p < 0.001). Maternal LED significant increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal TLR-4, IL-1? and NF-?B as well as decreased ZO-1 in weaning pigs after LPS challenge (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreasing energy intake could suppress the offspring's intestinal digestion and absorption function, and increase the susceptibility of weaning piglets to LPS challenge.
Project description:The preimplantation embryo is sensitive to culture conditions in vitro and poor maternal diet in vivo. Such environmental perturbations can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for offspring health and physiology. However, early embryo susceptibility to other aspects of maternal health and their potential long-term influence into adulthood is relatively unexplored. In this study, we established an in vivo mouse model of maternal periconceptional systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on the day of zygote formation and investigated the consequences into adulthood.In the short term, maternal LPS challenge induced a transient and typical maternal sickness response (elevated serum proinflammatory cytokines and hypoactive behaviour). Maternal LPS challenge altered preimplantation embryo morphogenesis and cell lineage allocation, resulting in reduced blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) cell number and a reduced ICM:trophectoderm cell ratio. In the long term, diverse aspects of offspring physiology were affected by maternal LPS treatment. Whilst birthweight, growth and adult blood pressure were unaltered, reduced activity in an open-field behaviour test, increased fat pad:body weight ratio and increased body mass index were observed in male, but not female, offspring. Most importantly, the maternal LPS challenge caused corticosterone-independent blunting of the serum proinflammatory cytokine response to innate immune challenge in both male and female offspring. The suppressed state of innate immunity in challenged offspring was dose-dependent with respect to the maternal LPS concentration administered.These results demonstrate for the first time that the preimplantation embryo in vivo is sensitive to maternal systemic inflammation, with effects on blastocyst cell lineage allocation and consequences for behaviour, adiposity and innate immune response in adult offspring. Critically, we identify a novel mechanism mediated through maternal-embryonic interactions that confers plasticity in the development of the innate immune system, which is potentially important in setting postnatal tolerance to environmental pathogens. Our study extends the concept of developmental programming of health and disease to include maternal health at the time of conception.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The gut microbiota participates in multiple human biological processes, including metabolism and immune responses. During pregnancy, the dynamics of gut microbiota is involved in physiological adaptation. The disturbed profile of microbiome is associated with maternal complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which further transfers to the offspring and influence their metabolic and immunological functions in the long term. Prebiotics targeting the gut microbiota and modulating metabolic and immune functions have been shown to be effective in non-pregnant populations with metabolic syndrome. Hence, we propose the use of a prebiotic supplement, oligosaccharide-sialic acid (OS) from the first trimester until delivery in pregnant women, can benefit maternal/new-born gut microbiome, glucose metabolism and innate immunity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:In this prospective double-blinded randomised clinical trial, recruited singleton pregnancies will be stratified by body mass index (BMI) and randomly assigned to consume the OS preparation or placebo daily from the first trimester. At seven later time points (before and after recruitment in the first trimester, in the middle and third trimesters, before delivery, at birth and 42 days postpartum), compliance will be evaluated and/or biological samples will be collected. Along with maternal clinical information, questionnaires on lifestyle and infant development will be recorded. The primary outcomes are the effect of OS on the maternal-offspring gut microbiome and GDM incidence. The secondary outcomes are maternal glycolipid biochemical parameters, cytokine profiles, weight gain during pregnancy and infant morbidities, growth and development. The study aims to validate the effects of OS on reducing maternal morbidity within different BMI groups. The multiple dimensional dataset generated from the study includes clinical and lifestyle-related information, various biological markers and associated protective or risk factors for morbidity and prognosis. An extended follow-up through 42 days after birth could further explore the intrauterine influence on the long-term health of offspring. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This protocol has been approved by Peking University First Hospital, National Unit of Clinical Trial Ethics Committee (reference number: 164). The results are expected to be published in scientific manuscripts by 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1800017192.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13-17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX-XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring.
Project description:Regular exercise during pregnancy can prevent offspring from several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and type II diabetes during adulthood. However, little information is available about whether maternal exercises during pregnancy protect the offspring from infectious diseases, such as sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study aimed to investigate whether maternal exercise training protects the offspring from endotoxin-induced septic shock in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice performed voluntary wheel exercises during pregnancy. All dams and offspring were fed normal chow with sedentary activity during lactation and after weaning. At 10-week-old, mice were intraperitoneally injected a lethal (30?mg/kg) or nonlethal (15?mg/kg) dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), following which the survival of mice that were administered a lethal dose was monitored for 60?h. Plasma, lung, and liver samples were collected 18?h after the injection to evaluate the cytokine concentration or mRNA expression from those administered a nonlethal dose. Although maternal exercise training could not prevent lethality during an LPS-induced septic shock, it significantly inhibited the LPS-induced loss of body weight in female offspring. Regular maternal exercise significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interferon-? (IFN-?), in the plasma and liver. Thus, maternal exercise inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory response in female offspring, suggesting that regular exercise during pregnancy could be a potential candidate of the onset of sepsis and MODS in offspring.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate long-term outcomes of the offspring in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maternal immune activation (MIA) model and the effect of maternal molecular hydrogen (H2) administration. We have previously demonstrated in the MIA mouse model that maternal administration of H2 attenuates oxidative damage and neuroinflammation, including induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation, in the fetal brain. Short-term memory, sociability and social novelty, and sensorimotor gating were evaluated using the Y-maze, three-chamber, and prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, respectively, at postnatal 3 or 4 weeks. The number of neurons and oligodendrocytes was also analyzed at postnatal 5 weeks by immunohistochemical analysis. Offspring of the LPS-exposed dams showed deficits in short-term memory and social interaction, following neuronal and oligodendrocytic loss in the amygdala and cortex. Maternal H2 administration markedly attenuated these LPS-induced abnormalities. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of H2 on LPS-induced astrocytic activation, both in vivo and in vitro. The number of activated astrocytes with hypertrophic morphology was increased in LPS-exposed offspring, but decreased in the offspring of H2-administered dams. In primary cultured astrocytes, LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated by H2 administration. Overall, these findings indicate that maternal H2 administration exerts neuroprotective effects and ameliorates MIA-induced neurodevelopmental deficits of offspring later in life.