The Density and Length of Filopodia Associate with the Activity of Hyaluronan Synthesis in Tumor Cells.
ABSTRACT: Filopodia are multifunctional finger-like plasma membrane protrusions with bundles of actin filaments that exist in virtually all cell types. It has been known for some time that hyaluronan synthesis activity induces filopodial growth. However, because of technical challenges in the studies of these slender and fragile structures, no quantitative analyses have been performed so far to indicate their association with hyaluronan synthesis. In this work we comprehensively address the direct quantification of filopodial traits, covering for the first time length and density measurements in a series of human cancer cell lines with variable levels of hyaluronan synthesis. The synthesis and plasma membrane binding of hyaluronan were manipulated with hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and hyaluronan receptor CD44 overexpression, and treatments with mannose, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), and glucosamine. The results of this work show that the growth of filopodia was associated with the levels of hyaluronan synthesis but was not dependent on CD44 expression. The results confirm the hypothesis that abundance and length of filopodia in cancer cells is associated with the activity of hyaluronan synthesis.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide component in the parenchyma and stroma of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinically, esophageal cancer represents a highly aggressive tumor type with poor prognosis resulting in a 5-year survival rate of 5%. The aim of the present study was the detailed analysis of the role of HA synthesis for ESCC phenotype in vitro using the ESCC cell line OSC1. In OSC1 cells, pericellular HA-matrix surrounding extended actin-dependent filopodia was detected. The small molecule inhibitor of HA synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU, 0.3 mm) caused loss of these filopodia and focal adhesions and inhibited proliferation and migration. In search of the underlying mechanism cleavage of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was detected by immunoblotting. In addition, displacing HA by an HA-binding peptide (Pep-1, 500 mug/ml) and digestion of pericellular HA by hyaluronidase resulted in cleavage of focal adhesions. Furthermore, real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that HA synthase 3 (HAS3) > HAS2 are the predominant HA-synthases in OSC1. Lentiviral transduction with shHAS3, and to a lesser extent with shHAS2, reduced intact FAK protein and filopodia as well as proliferation and migration. Furthermore, down-regulation by lentiviral shRNA of RHAMM (receptor of HA-mediated motility) but not CD44 induced loss of filopodia and caused FAK cleavage. In contrast, knockdown of both HA receptors inhibited proliferation and migration of OSC1. In conclusion, HA synthesis and, in turn, RHAMM and CD44 signaling promoted an activated phenotype of OSC1. Because RHAMM appears to support both filopodia, FAK, and the proliferative and migratory phenotype, it may be promising to explore RHAMM as a potential therapeutic target in esophageal cancer.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is a major extracellular matrix component. However, its role and mediation in oral cancer remains elusive. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3), involved in pro-inflammatory short chain HA synthesis, was the predominant synthase in oral cancer cells and tissues. HAS3 overexpression significantly increased oral cancer cell migration, invasion and xenograft tumorigenesis accompanied with the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Conversely, HAS3 depletion abrogated HAS3-mediated stimulation. HAS3 induced oncogenic actions partly through activating EGFR-SRC signaling. HAS3-derived HA release into extracellular milieu enhanced transendothelial monocyte migration and MCP-1 expression, which was attenuated by anti-HAS3 antibodies or a HAS inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The NF-?B-binding site III at -1692 to -1682 bp upstream from the transcript 1 start site in HAS3 proximal promoter was the most responsive to TNF-?-stimulated transcription. ChIP-qPCR analysis confirmed the highest NF-?B-p65 enrichment on site III. Increased HAS3 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival of oral cancer patients. A concomitant increase of TNF-?, a stimulus for HAS3 expression, with HAS3 expression was not only associated with lymph node metastasis but also negated clinical outcome. Together, HAS3 and TNF-? formed an inter-regulation loop to enhance tumorigenesis in oral cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hydrocellular foam dressing, modern wound dressing, induces moist wound environment and promotes wound healing: however, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood. This study was aimed to reveal the effect of hydrocellular foam dressing on hyaluronan, which has been shown to have positive effects on wound healing, and examined its regulatory mechanisms in rat skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created two full-thickness wounds on the dorsolateral skin of rats. Each wound was covered with either a hydrocellular foam dressing or a film dressing and hyaluronan levels in the periwound skin was measured. We also investigated the mechanism by which the hydrocellular foam dressing regulates hyaluronan production by measuring the gene expression of hyaluronan synthase 3 (Has3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), and CD44. Hydrocellular foam dressing promoted wound healing and upregulated hyaluronan synthesis, along with an increase in the mRNA levels of Has3, which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis in epidermis. In addition, hydrocellular foam dressing enhanced the mRNA levels of PPAR?, which upregulates Has3 gene expression, and the major hyaluronan receptor CD44. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggests that hydrocellular foam dressing may be beneficial for wound healing along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 3 and PPAR? gene expression in epidermis. We believe that the present study would contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of hydrocellular foam dressing-induced moist environment on wound healing and practice evidence-based wound care.
Project description:Hyaluronan, a major epidermal extracellular matrix component, responds strongly to different kinds of injuries. This also occurs by UV radiation, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The effects of a single ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure on hyaluronan content and molecular mass, and expression of genes involved in hyaluronan metabolism were defined in monolayer and differentiated, organotypic three-dimensional cultures of rat epidermal keratinocytes. The signals regulating the response were characterized using specific inhibitors and Western blotting. In monolayer cultures, UVB increased hyaluronan synthase Has1 mRNA already 4 h postexposure, with a return to control level by 24 h. In contrast, Has2 and Has3 were persistently elevated from 8 h onward. Silencing of Has2 and especially Has3 decreased the UVB-induced accumulation of hyaluronan. p38 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways were found to be involved in the UVB-induced up-regulation of Has2 and Has3 expression, respectively, and their inhibition reduced hyaluronan deposition. However, the expressions of the hyaluronan-degrading enzymes Hyal1 and Hyal2 and the hyaluronan receptor Cd44 were also up-regulated by UVB. In organotypic cultures, UVB treatment also resulted in increased expression of both Has and Hyal genes and shifted hyaluronan toward a smaller size range. Histochemical stainings indicated localized losses of hyaluronan in the epidermis. The data show that exposure of keratinocytes to acute, low dose UVB increases hyaluronan synthesis via up-regulation of Has2 and Has3. The simultaneously enhanced catabolism of hyaluronan demonstrates the complexity of the UVB-induced changes. Nevertheless, enhanced hyaluronan metabolism is an important part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to radiation injury.
Project description:The contribution of hyaluronan (HA) to the regulatory network of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3). The number of hematopoietic progenitors was decreased in bone marrow and increased in extramedullary sites of Prx1-Cre;Has2(flox/flox);Has1(-/-);Has3(-/-) triple knock-out (tKO) mice as compared with wild type (WT) and Has1(-/-);Has3(-/-) double knock-out (dKO) mice. In line with this observation, decreased hematopoietic activity was observed in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) from tKO mice, whereas the formation of the adherent layer and generation of hematopoietic cells in WT and dKO cultures was not different. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to pharmacologically inhibit the production of HA in LTBMC. Treatment with 4MU inhibited HA synthesis, decreased expression of HAS2 and HAS3, and eliminated hematopoiesis in LTBMC, and this effect was alleviated by the addition of exogenous HA. Exogenous HA also augmented the cell motility in LTBMC, which correlated with the HA-stimulated production of chemokines and growth factors. Conditioned media from HA-induced LTBMC enhanced the chemotaxis of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in response to SDF-1. Exposure of endothelial cells to 4MU decreased their ability to support HSPC rolling and adhesion. In addition, migration of transplanted HSPC into the marrow of 4MU-pretreated mice was lower than in untreated mice. Collectively, the results suggest that HA depletion reduces the ability of the microenvironment to support HSPC, and confirm a role for HA as a necessary regulatory element in the structure of the hematopoietic microenvironment.
Project description:The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is important in many tissuerepair processes. We have investigated the synthesis of hyaluronan in a panel of cell lines of fibroblastic and epithelial origin in response to PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)-BB and other growth factors. Human dermal fibroblasts exhibited the highest hyaluronan-synthesizing activity in response to PDGF-BB. Analysis of HAS (hyaluronan synthase) and HYAL (hyaluronidase) mRNA expression showed that PDGF-BB treatment induced a 3-fold increase in the already high level of HAS2 mRNA, and increases in HAS1 and HYAL1 mRNA, whereas the levels of HAS3 and HYAL2 mRNA were not affected. Furthermore, PDGF-BB also increased the amount and activity of HAS2 protein, but not of HYAL1 and HYAL2 proteins. Using inhibitors for MEK1/2 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase 1/2] (U0126) and for PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) (LY294002), as well as the SN50 inhibitor, which prevents translocation of the active NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) to the nucleus, we observed a complete inhibition of both HAS2 transcriptional activity and hyaluronan synthesis, whereas inhibitors of other signalling pathways were without any significant effect. TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1) did not increase the activity of hyaluronan synthesis in dermal fibroblasts, but increased the activity of HYALs. Importantly, inhibition of hyaluronan binding to its receptor CD44 by the monoclonal antibody Hermes-1, inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation of dermal fibroblasts. We conclude that the ERK MAPK and PI3K signalling pathways are necessary for the regulation of hyaluronan synthesis by PDGF-BB, and that prevention of its binding to CD44 inhibits PDGF-BB-induced cell growth.
Project description:Hyaluronan accumulation in the tumor microenvironment is associated with poor prognosis in several solid human cancers. To understand the role of stromal hyaluronan in tumor progression, we engineered 3T3HAS3, a hyaluronan-producing fibroblast cell line, by lentiviral transduction of Balb/c 3T3 cells with the human hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) gene. 3T3HAS3 cells significantly enhanced tumor growth when co-grafted with MDA-MB-468 cells in nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of the xenograft tumors showed that MDA-MB-468 cells were surrounded by hyaluronan-accumulating stroma, closely resembling the morphology observed in human breast cancer specimens. Tumor growth of MDA-MB-468 + 3T3HAS3 co-grafts was greatly reduced upon hyaluronan degradation by lentiviral transduction of a human hyaluronidase gene in 3T3HAS3 cells, or by systemic administration of pegvorhyaluronidase alfa (PEGPH20). In contrast, the growth of the co-graft tumors was not inhibited when CD44 expression was reduced or ablated by small hairpin RNA-mediated CD44 knockdown in MDA-MB-468 cells, CD44 CRISPR knockout in 3T3HAS3 cells, or by grafting these cells in CD44 knockout nude mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that tumor growth of an engineered xenograft breast cancer model with hyaluronan-accumulating stroma can be dependent on hyaluronan and independent of CD44.
Project description:Hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) are unique in that they are active only when located in the plasma membrane, where they extrude the growing hyaluronan (HA) directly into cell surface and extracellular space. Therefore, traffic of HAS to/from the plasma membrane is crucial for the synthesis of HA. In this study, we have identified Rab10 GTPase as the first protein known to be involved in the control of this traffic. Rab10 colocalized with HAS3 in intracellular vesicular structures and was co-immunoprecipitated with HAS3 from isolated endosomal vesicles. Rab10 silencing increased the plasma membrane residence of HAS3, resulting in a significant increase of HA secretion and an enlarged cell surface HA coat, whereas Rab10 overexpression suppressed HA synthesis. Rab10 silencing blocked the retrograde traffic of HAS3 from the plasma membrane to early endosomes. The cell surface HA coat impaired cell adhesion to type I collagen, as indicated by recovery of adhesion following hyaluronidase treatment. The data indicate a novel function for Rab10 in reducing cell surface HAS3, suppressing HA synthesis, and facilitating cell adhesion to type I collagen. These are processes important in tissue injury, inflammation, and malignant growth.
Project description:Mammals have three homologous genes encoding proteins with hyaluronan synthase activity (Has1-3), all producing an identical polymer from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucuronic acid. To compare the properties of these isoenzymes, COS-1 cells, with minor endogenous hyaluronan synthesis, were transfected with human Has1-3 isoenzymes. HAS1 was almost unable to secrete hyaluronan or form a hyaluronan coat, in contrast to HAS2 and HAS3. This failure of HAS1 to synthesize hyaluronan was compensated by increasing the cellular content of UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine by ?10-fold with 1 mm glucosamine in the growth medium. Hyaluronan synthesis driven by HAS2 was less affected by glucosamine addition, and HAS3 was not affected at all. Glucose-free medium, leading to depletion of the UDP-sugars, markedly reduced hyaluronan synthesis by all HAS isoenzymes while raising its concentration from 5 to 25 mm had a moderate stimulatory effect. The results indicate that HAS1 is almost inactive in cells with low UDP-sugar supply, HAS2 activity increases with UDP-sugars, and HAS3 produces hyaluronan at high speed even with minimum substrate content. Transfected Has2 and particularly Has3 consumed enough UDP-sugars to reduce their content in COS-1 cells. Comparison of different human cell types revealed ?50-fold differences in the content of UDP-N-acetylhexosamines and UDP-glucuronic acid, correlating with the expression level of Has1, suggesting cellular coordination between Has1 expression and the content of UDP-sugars.
Project description:Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a biomarker in breast cancer, and its overexpression is required to initiate therapies using HER2-targeted antibodies. Although trastuzumab is one of the most effective therapeutic antibodies in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, a significant number of patients do not benefit from this therapy due to inherent or acquired resistance mechanisms. One reported mechanism of resistance is the steric hindering effect caused by the polymeric complex formed between hyaluronan and CD44, thus preventing trastuzumab from binding to HER2. Hyaluronan/CD44 contributes as an obstacle for trastuzumab to bind HER2, but it is also involved in HER2 internalization. In this study, we used zirconium-89 (89Zr)-labeled trastuzumab immunoPET to investigate whether degradation of hyaluronan can resensitize HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells to trastuzumab. Targeted degradation of endogenously produced hyaluronan and inhibition of its synthesis were achieved by treating trastuzumab-resistant JIMT1 breast cancer cells with hyaluronidase (HLX) and 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU). The 4MU/HLX treatment reduced HER2 internalization by depleting hyaluronan/CD44 and the caveolin-1 (CAV1) endocytic protein, resulting in enhanced membrane-bound 89Zr-labeled trastuzumab. 4MU/HLX enhanced trastuzumab tumor uptake, as evidenced by increased tumor binding of the 89Zr-labeled trastuzumab in JIMT1 tumor xenografts. In vitro mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in HER2-mediated oncogenic signaling upon cell treatment with 4MU/HLX. Importantly, 4MU/HLX enhanced trastuzumab efficacy in JIMT1 xenografts. These data showed the utility of 89Zr-labeled trastuzumab as a PET imaging agent to monitor the affinity of the antibody to HER2 during CD44/hyaluronan-specific inhibition with the overall goal of improving trastuzumab therapy.