Tales of 1,008 small molecules: phenomic profiling through live-cell imaging in a panel of reporter cell lines.
ABSTRACT: Phenomic profiles are high-dimensional sets of readouts that can comprehensively capture the biological impact of chemical and genetic perturbations in cellular assay systems. Phenomic profiling of compound libraries can be used for compound target identification or mechanism of action (MoA) prediction and other applications in drug discovery. To devise an economical set of phenomic profiling assays, we assembled a library of 1,008 approved drugs and well-characterized tool compounds manually annotated to 218 unique MoAs, and we profiled each compound at four concentrations in live-cell, high-content imaging screens against a panel of 15 reporter cell lines, which expressed a diverse set of fluorescent organelle and pathway markers in three distinct cell lineages. For 41 of 83 testable MoAs, phenomic profiles accurately ranked the reference compounds (AUC-ROC???0.9). MoAs could be better resolved by screening compounds at multiple concentrations than by including replicates at a single concentration. Screening additional cell lineages and fluorescent markers increased the number of distinguishable MoAs but this effect quickly plateaued. There remains a substantial number of MoAs that were hard to distinguish from others under the current study's conditions. We discuss ways to close this gap, which will inform the design of future phenomic profiling efforts.
Project description:Rapidly spreading antibiotic resistance and the low discovery rate of new antimicrobial compounds demand more effective strategies for early drug discovery. One bottleneck in the drug discovery pipeline is the identification of the modes of action (MoAs) of new compounds. We have developed a rapid systematic metabolome profiling strategy to classify the MoAs of bioactive compounds. The method predicted MoA-specific metabolic responses in the nonpathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis after treatment with 62 reference compounds with known MoAs and different metabolic and nonmetabolic targets. We then analyzed a library of 212 new antimycobacterial compounds with unknown MoAs from a drug discovery effort by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). More than 70% of these new compounds induced metabolic responses in M. smegmatis indicative of known MoAs, seven of which were experimentally validated. Only 8% (16) of the compounds appeared to target unconventional cellular processes, illustrating the difficulty in discovering new antibiotics with different MoAs among compounds used as monotherapies. For six of the GSK compounds with potentially new MoAs, the metabolome profiles suggested their ability to interfere with trehalose and lipid metabolism. This was supported by whole-genome sequencing of spontaneous drug-resistant mutants of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in vitro compound-proteome interaction analysis for one of these compounds. Our compendium of drug-metabolome profiles can be used to rapidly query the MoAs of uncharacterized antimicrobial compounds and should be a useful resource for the drug discovery community.
Project description:Universal phenotyping techniques that can discriminate among various states of biological systems have great potential. We applied 557 fluorescent library compounds to NCI's 60 human cancer cell-lines (NCI-60) to generate a systematic fluorescence phenotypic profiling data. By the kinetic fluorescence intensity analysis, we successfully discriminated the organ origin of all the 60 cell-lines.
Project description:Cytological profiling is a high-content image-based screening technology that provides insight into the mode of action (MOA) for test compounds by directly measuring hundreds of phenotypic cellular features. We have extended this recently reported technology to the mechanistic characterization of unknown natural products libraries for the direct prediction of compound MOAs at the primary screening stage. By analyzing a training set of commercial compounds of known mechanism and comparing these profiles to those obtained from natural product library members, we have successfully annotated extracts based on MOA, dereplicated known compounds based on biological similarity to the training set, and identified and predicted the MOA of a unique family of iron siderophores. Coupled with traditional analytical techniques, cytological profiling provides an avenue for the creation of "function-first" approaches to natural products discovery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In modern biomedical research of complex diseases, a large number of demographic and clinical variables, herein called phenomic data, are often collected and missing values (MVs) are inevitable in the data collection process. Since many downstream statistical and bioinformatics methods require complete data matrix, imputation is a common and practical solution. In high-throughput experiments such as microarray experiments, continuous intensities are measured and many mature missing value imputation methods have been developed and widely applied. Numerous methods for missing data imputation of microarray data have been developed. Large phenomic data, however, contain continuous, nominal, binary and ordinal data types, which void application of most methods. Though several methods have been developed in the past few years, not a single complete guideline is proposed with respect to phenomic missing data imputation.<h4>Results</h4>In this paper, we investigated existing imputation methods for phenomic data, proposed a self-training selection (STS) scheme to select the best imputation method and provide a practical guideline for general applications. We introduced a novel concept of "imputability measure" (IM) to identify missing values that are fundamentally inadequate to impute. In addition, we also developed four variations of K-nearest-neighbor (KNN) methods and compared with two existing methods, multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE) and missForest. The four variations are imputation by variables (KNN-V), by subjects (KNN-S), their weighted hybrid (KNN-H) and an adaptively weighted hybrid (KNN-A). We performed simulations and applied different imputation methods and the STS scheme to three lung disease phenomic datasets to evaluate the methods. An R package "phenomeImpute" is made publicly available.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Simulations and applications to real datasets showed that MICE often did not perform well; KNN-A, KNN-H and random forest were among the top performers although no method universally performed the best. Imputation of missing values with low imputability measures increased imputation errors greatly and could potentially deteriorate downstream analyses. The STS scheme was accurate in selecting the optimal method by evaluating methods in a second layer of missingness simulation. All source files for the simulation and the real data analyses are available on the author's publication website.
Project description:Background:The influence of the Warburg phenomenon on chemotherapy response is unknown. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mimics the Warburg effect, repressing respiration in the presence of adequate glucose. Yeast phenomic experiments were conducted to assess potential influences of Warburg metabolism on gene-drug interaction underlying the cellular response to doxorubicin. Homologous genes from yeast phenomic and cancer pharmacogenomics data were analyzed to infer evolutionary conservation of gene-drug interaction and predict therapeutic relevance. Methods:Cell proliferation phenotypes (CPPs) of the yeast gene knockout/knockdown library were measured by quantitative high-throughput cell array phenotyping (Q-HTCP), treating with escalating doxorubicin concentrations under conditions of respiratory or glycolytic metabolism. Doxorubicin-gene interaction was quantified by departure of CPPs observed for the doxorubicin-treated mutant strain from that expected based on an interaction model. Recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc) and Gene Ontology (GO)-based analyses of interactions identified functional biological modules that differentially buffer or promote doxorubicin cytotoxicity with respect to Warburg metabolism. Yeast phenomic and cancer pharmacogenomics data were integrated to predict differential gene expression causally influencing doxorubicin anti-tumor efficacy. Results:Yeast compromised for genes functioning in chromatin organization, and several other cellular processes are more resistant to doxorubicin under glycolytic conditions. Thus, the Warburg transition appears to alleviate requirements for cellular functions that buffer doxorubicin cytotoxicity in a respiratory context. We analyzed human homologs of yeast genes exhibiting gene-doxorubicin interaction in cancer pharmacogenomics data to predict causality for differential gene expression associated with doxorubicin cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This analysis suggested conserved cellular responses to doxorubicin due to influences of homologous recombination, sphingolipid homeostasis, telomere tethering at nuclear periphery, actin cortical patch localization, and other gene functions. Conclusions:Warburg status alters the genetic network required for yeast to buffer doxorubicin toxicity. Integration of yeast phenomic and cancer pharmacogenomics data suggests evolutionary conservation of gene-drug interaction networks and provides a new experimental approach to model their influence on chemotherapy response. Thus, yeast phenomic models could aid the development of precision oncology algorithms to predict efficacious cytotoxic drugs for cancer, based on genetic and metabolic profiles of individual tumors.
Project description:Here we report Digital RNA with pertUrbation of Genes (DRUG-seq), a high-throughput platform for drug discovery. Pharmaceutical discovery relies on high-throughput screening, yet current platforms have limited readouts. RNA-seq is a powerful tool to investigate drug effects using transcriptome changes as a proxy, yet standard library construction is costly. DRUG-seq captures transcriptional changes detected in standard RNA-seq at 1/100th the cost. In proof-of-concept experiments profiling 433 compounds across 8 doses, transcription profiles generated from DRUG-seq successfully grouped compounds into functional clusters by mechanism of actions (MoAs) based on their intended targets. Perturbation differences reflected in transcriptome changes were detected for compounds engaging the same target, demonstrating the value of using DRUG-seq for understanding on and off-target activities. We demonstrate DRUG-seq captures common mechanisms, as well as differences between compound treatment and CRISPR on the same target. DRUG-seq provides a powerful tool for comprehensive transcriptome readout in a high-throughput screening environment.
Project description:High-throughput screening and gene signature analyses frequently identify lead therapeutic compounds with unknown modes of action (MoAs), and the resulting uncertainties can lead to the failure of clinical trials. We developed an approach for uncovering MoAs through an interpretable machine learning model of transcriptomics, epigenomics, metabolomics, and proteomics. Examining compounds with beneficial effects in models of Huntington's Disease, we found common MoAs for compounds with unrelated structures, connectivity scores, and binding targets. The approach also predicted highly divergent MoAs for two FDA-approved antihistamines. We experimentally validated these effects, demonstrating that one antihistamine activates autophagy, while the other targets bioenergetics. The use of multiple omics was essential, as some MoAs were virtually undetectable in specific assays. Our approach does not require reference compounds or large databases of experimental data in related systems and thus can be applied to the study of agents with uncharacterized MoAs and to rare or understudied diseases.
Project description:High-throughput screening and gene signature analyses frequently identify lead therapeutic compounds with unknown modes of action (MoAs), and the resulting uncertainties can lead to the failure of clinical trials. We developed a multi-omics approach for uncovering MoAs through an interpretable machine learning model of the effects of compounds on transcriptomic, epigenomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data. We applied this approach to examine compounds with beneficial effects in models of Huntington’s disease, finding common MoAs for previously unrelated compounds that were not predicted based on similarities in the compounds’ structures, connectivity scores, or binding targets. We experimentally validated two such disease-relevant MoAs, autophagy activation and bioenergetics manipulation. This interpretable machine learning approach can be used to find and evaluate MoAs in future drug development efforts. Overall design: Cells expressing mutant huntingtin were treated in triplicate with serum-free DMEM with vehicle (Q111SST) or serum-free DMEM with one of 14 protective compounds for 24 hours. Wild type cells were also treated with serum-free DMEM with vehicle (Q7SST) as an additional control for 24 hours. We examined the compounds' transcriptomic effects on the cells using RNA-Seq.
Project description:High-throughput screening and gene signature analyses frequently identify lead therapeutic compounds with unknown modes of action (MoAs), and the resulting uncertainties can lead to the failure of clinical trials. We developed a multi-omics approach for uncovering MoAs through an interpretable machine learning model of the effects of compounds on transcriptomic, epigenomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data. We applied this approach to examine compounds with beneficial effects in models of Huntington’s disease, finding common MoAs for previously unrelated compounds that were not predicted based on similarities in the compounds’ structures, connectivity scores, or binding targets. We experimentally validated two such disease-relevant MoAs, autophagy activation and bioenergetics manipulation. This interpretable machine learning approach can be used to find and evaluate MoAs in future drug development efforts. Overall design: Cells expressing mutant huntingtin were treated in triplicate with serum-free DMEM with vehicle (Q111SST) or serum-free DMEM with one of 14 protective compounds for 24 hours. Wild type cells were also treated with serum-free DMEM with vehicle (Q7SST) as an additional control for 24 hours. We examined the compounds' epigenomic effects on the cells using H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq.
Project description:Knowledge about synthetic lethality can be applied to enhance the efficacy of anticancer therapies in individual patients harboring genetic alterations in their cancer that specifically render it vulnerable. We investigated the potential for high-resolution phenomic analysis in yeast to predict such genetic vulnerabilities by systematic, comprehensive, and quantitative assessment of drug-gene interaction for gemcitabine and cytarabine, substrates of deoxycytidine kinase that have similar molecular structures yet distinct antitumor efficacy. Human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) was conditionally expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic library of knockout and knockdown (YKO/KD) strains, to globally and quantitatively characterize differential drug-gene interaction for gemcitabine and cytarabine. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that autophagy, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and apoptosis-related processes influence gemcitabine specifically, while drug-gene interaction specific to cytarabine was less enriched in gene ontology. Processes having influence over both drugs were DNA repair and integrity checkpoints and vesicle transport and fusion. Non-gene ontology (GO)-enriched genes were also informative. Yeast phenomic and cancer cell line pharmacogenomics data were integrated to identify yeast-human homologs with correlated differential gene expression and drug efficacy, thus providing a unique resource to predict whether differential gene expression observed in cancer genetic profiles are causal in tumor-specific responses to cytotoxic agents.