Advances in IVUS/OCT and Future Clinical Perspective of Novel Hybrid Catheter System in Coronary Imaging.
ABSTRACT: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed and improved as both diagnostic and guidance tools for interventional procedures over the past three decades. IVUS has a resolution of 100 ?m with a high tissue penetration and capability of assessing the entire structure of a coronary artery including the external elastic membrane, whereas OCT has a higher resolution of 10-20 ?m to assess endoluminal structures with a limited tissue penetration compared to IVUS. Recently, two companies, CONAVI and TERUMO, integrated IVUS and OCT into a single catheter system. With their inherent strength and limitations, the combined IVUS and OCT probes are complementary and work synergistically to enable a comprehensive depiction of coronary artery. In this review, we summarize the performance of the two intracoronary imaging modalities-IVUS and OCT-and discuss the expected potential of the novel hybrid IVUS-OCT catheter system in the clinical field.
Project description:For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis, biomedical imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed. The combined use of IVUS and OCT is hypothesized to remarkably increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. We have developed an integrated IVUS-OCT imaging apparatus, which includes the integrated catheter, motor drive unit, and imaging system. The dual-function imaging catheter has the same diameter of current clinical standard. The imaging system is capable for simultaneous IVUS and OCT imaging in real time. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments on rabbits with atherosclerosis were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the integrated intravascular imaging modality.
Project description:We have developed a novel miniature integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) probe, with a 1.5-mm-long rigid part and 0.9-mm outer diameter, for real-time intracoronary imaging of atherosclerotic plaques and guiding of interventional procedures. By placing the OCT ball lens and IVUS transducer back-to-back at the same axial position, this probe can provide automatically coregistered, coaxial OCT-IVUS imaging. To demonstrate its real-time capability, three-dimensional OCT-IVUS imaging of a pig's coronary artery displaying in polar coordinates, as well as images of three major types of atherosclerotic plaques in human cadaver coronary segments, were obtained using this probe and our upgraded system. Histology validation is also presented.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Coronary angiography (CAG) is the standard modality for assessment of coronary stenoses and intraprocedural guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, the limitations of CAG are well recognized. Intracoronary imaging (ICI) can potentially overcome these limitations. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are the main ICI techniques utilized in clinical practice. AIM:This narrative literature review addresses the current clinical applications of OCT in relation to IVUS and CAG in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Items reviewed are: technical implications of OCT and IVUS, lesion characterization and decision-making, stent optimization criteria, post-stenting results, safety in terms of procedural complications, clinical outcomes, and indications. MAIN FINDINGS:OCT is able to reveal more detail than IVUS due to its higher resolution. However, this higher resolution comes at the cost of a lower penetration depth. Pre-stenting OCT results in procedural change in more than 50% of the cases in terms of stent length and diameter. Post-stenting OCT resulting in stent optimization is reported in at least 27% of the cases. Malapposition and under-expansion are treated with post-dilatations, while edge dissections are treated with additional stent placement. Stent expansion, stent apposition, distal stent edge dissections, and reference lumen areas seem to be the most important stent optimization criteria for both decision-making and for reducing the risk of adverse events during follow-up. Both OCT and IVUS are superior in terms of post-stenting results compared with CAG alone. However, there is no consensus about whether OCT guidance results in better stent expansion than IVUS guidance. OCT, IVUS, and CAG are safe procedures with few reported procedural complications. In general, OCT guidance seems to contribute to favorable clinical outcomes compared with CAG guidance only. However, OCT guidance results in similar clinical outcomes as with IVUS guidance. OCT could be considered for lumen assessment and stent-related morphology in more complex cases in which CAG interpretation remains uncertain. Since OCT and IVUS have distinct characteristics, these techniques are complementary and should be considered carefully for each patient case based on the benefits and limitations of both techniques.
Project description:Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. The majority of CAD-induced deaths are due to the rupture of vulnerable plaques. Accurate assessment of plaques is crucial to optimize treatment and prevent death in patients with CAD. Current diagnostic techniques are often limited by either spatial resolution or penetration depth. Several studies have proved that the combined use of optical and ultrasonic imaging techniques increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. Here, we introduce an ultrafast optical-ultrasonic dual-modality imaging system and flexible miniaturized catheter, which enables the translation of this technology into clinical practice. This system can perform simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging at 72 frames per second safely in vivo, i.e., visualizing a 72?mm-long artery in 4?seconds. Results obtained in atherosclerotic rabbits in vivo and human coronary artery segments show that this ultrafast technique can rapidly provide volumetric mapping of plaques and clearly identify vulnerable plaques. By providing ultrafast imaging of arteries with high resolution and deep penetration depth simultaneously, this hybrid IVUS-OCT technology opens new and safe opportunities to evaluate in real-time the risk posed by plaques, detect vulnerable plaques, and optimize treatment decisions.
Project description:Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging technique that is increasingly used for intracoronary imaging to characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaques and vascular responses after coronary stent implantation. Introduction of optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI; second generation OCT) has simplified practical use of this novel imaging modality resulting in a more widespread availability in interventional cardiology. Here we highlight recent insights into the acute and chronic vascular response after coronary stent implantation by OCT imaging. OCT provides cross-sectional images with approximately 10-fold higher resolution as compared to intravascular-ultrasound (IVUS), allowing for precise evaluation of tissue coverage and malapposition of coronary stent struts. More than 30 studies using OCT to compare vascular responses to different stents have now been reported. Recent studies have examined the relation between OCT-image characteristics and tissue composition around stent struts. OCT is used for evaluation of novel stent concepts, such as bioengineered stents and bioabsorbable stents, where it provides more accurate information than IVUS. While intracoronary OCT imaging is further developed, including faster 3D-OCT-image-reconstruction, larger OCT studies/registries with standardized analysis will provide more insights into clinical implications of observations from OCT-imaging after coronary stent implantation.
Project description:The bioresorbable vascular stent (BVS) is totally translucent and radiolucent, leading to challenges when using conventional invasive imaging modalities. Agreement between quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the BVS is unknown. Forty five patients enrolled in the ABSORB cohort B1 study underwent coronary angiography, IVUS and OCT immediately post BVS implantation, and at 6 months. OCT estimated stent length accurately compared to nominal length (95% CI of the difference: -0.19; 0.37 and -0.15; 0.47 mm(2) for baseline and 6 months, respectively), whereas QCA incurred consistent underestimation of the same magnitude at both time points (Pearson correlation = 0.806). IVUS yielded low accuracy (95% CI of the difference: 0.77; 3.74 and -1.15; 3.27 mm(2) for baseline and 6 months, respectively), with several outliers and random variability test-retest. Minimal lumen area (MLA) decreased substantially between baseline and 6 months on QCA and OCT and only minimally on IVUS (95% CI: 0.11; 0.42). Agreement between the different imaging modalities is poor: worst agreement Videodensitometry-IVUS post-implantation (ICCa 0.289); best agreement IVUS-OCT at baseline (ICCa 0.767). All pairs deviated significantly from linearity (P < 0.01). Passing-Bablok non-parametric orthogonal regression showed constant and proportional bias between IVUS and OCT. OCT is the most accurate technique for measuring stent length, whilst QCA incurs systematic underestimation (foreshortening) and solid state IVUS incurs random error. Volumetric calculations using solid state IVUS are therefore not reliable. There is poor agreement for MLA estimation between all the imaging modalities studied, including IVUS-OCT, hence their values are not interchangeable.
Project description:The main objective of this study was to assess the blood flow rate and velocity in coronary artery stenosis using intracoronary frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). A correlation between fractional flow reserve (FFR) and FD-OCT derived blood flow velocity is also included in this study.A total of 20 coronary stenoses in 15 patients were assessed consecutively by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), FFR and FD-OCT. A percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization system was used in this study which combines wireless FFR measurement and FD-OCT imaging in one platform. Stenoses were labelled severe if FFR ≤ 0.8. Blood flow rate and velocity in each stenosis segment were derived from the volumetric analysis of the FD-OCT pull back images. The FFR value was ≤ 0.80 in 5 stenoses (25%). The mean blood flow rate in severe coronary stenosis (n = 5) was 2.54 ± 0.55 ml/s as compared to 4.81 ± 1.95 ml/s in stenosis with FFR > 0.8 (n = 15). A good and significant correlation between FFR and FD-OCT blood flow velocity in coronary artery stenosis (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) was found.The assessment of stenosis severity using FD-OCT derived blood flow rate and velocity has the ability to overcome many limitations of QCA and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intravascular imaging with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important adjunct to invasive coronary angiography. OBJECTIVES:The primary objective was to examine the frequency of intravascular coronary imaging, trends in imaging use, and outcomes of patients undergoing angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the United States. METHODS:Adult patients ?18 years of age undergoing in-hospital cardiac catheterization from January 2004 to December 2014 were identified from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify IVUS and OCT use during diagnostic angiography and PCI. RESULTS:Among 3,211,872 hospitalizations with coronary angiography, intracoronary imaging was performed in 88,775 cases (4.8% of PCI and 1.0% of diagnostic procedures), with IVUS in 98.9% and OCT in 1.1% of cases. Among patients undergoing PCI, the rate of intravascular coronary imaging increased from 2.1% in 2004-2005 to 6.6% in 2013-2014 (P?<?0.001 for trend). Use of intravascular coronary imaging was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing PCI (adjusted OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.71-0.83). There was marked variability in intravascular imaging by hospital, with 63% and 13% of facilities using intravascular imaging in <5% and >15% of PCIs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In a large administrative database from the United States, intravascular imaging use was low, increased over time, and imaging was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. Substantial variation in the frequency of intravascular imaging by hospital was observed. Additional investigation to determine clinical benefits of IVUS and OCT are warranted.
Project description:Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) secondary to coronary vessel plaques represent a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advancements in imaging technology over the last 3 decades have continuously enabled the study of coronary plaques via invasive imaging methods like intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The introduction of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a modality that could detect the lipid (cholesterol) content of atherosclerotic plaques in the early nineties, opened the potential of studying "vulnerable" or rupture-prone, lipid-rich coronary plaques in ACS patients. Most recently, the ability of NIRS-IVUS to identify patients at risk of future adverse events was shown in a prospective multicenter trial, the Lipid-Rich-plaque Study. Intracoronary NIRS-IVUS imaging offers a unique method of coronary lipid-plaque characterization and could become a valuable clinical diagnostic and treatment monitoring tool.
Project description:The authors present the clinical imaging of human coronary arteries in vivo using a multimodality optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared autofluorescence (NIRAF) intravascular imaging system and catheter.Although intravascular OCT is capable of providing microstructural images of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, it is limited in its capability to ascertain the compositional/molecular features of plaque. A recent study in cadaver coronary plaque showed that endogenous NIRAF is elevated in necrotic core lesions. The combination of these 2 technologies in 1 device may therefore provide synergistic data to aid in the diagnosis of coronary pathology in vivo.We developed a dual-modality intravascular imaging system and 2.6-F catheter that can simultaneously acquire OCT and NIRAF data from the same location on the artery wall. This technology was used to obtain volumetric OCT-NIRAF images from 12 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Images were acquired during a brief, nonocclusive 3- to 4-ml/s contrast purge at a speed of 100 frames/s and a pullback rate of 20 or 40 mm/s. OCT-NIRAF data were analyzed to determine the distribution of the NIRAF signal with respect to OCT-delineated plaque morphological features.High-quality intracoronary OCT and NIRAF image data (>50-mm pullback length) were successfully acquired without complication in all patients (17 coronary arteries). The maximum NIRAF signal intensity of each plaque was compared with OCT-defined type, showing a statistically significant difference between plaque types (1-way analysis of variance, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, coronary arterial NIRAF intensity was elevated only focally in plaques with a high-risk morphological phenotype (p < 0.05), including OCT fibroatheroma, plaque rupture, and fibroatheroma associated with in-stent restenosis.This OCT-NIRAF study demonstrates that dual-modality microstructural and fluorescence intracoronary imaging can be safely and effectively conducted in human patients. Our findings show that NIRAF is associated with a high-risk morphological plaque phenotype. The focal distribution of NIRAF in these lesions furthermore suggests that this endogenous imaging biomarker may provide complementary information to that obtained by structural imaging alone.