The effect of small versus large clog size on emergency response time: A randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To assess the effect on healthcare professional emergency response time and safety of small compared to large clog size. DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial. SETTING:The intensive care unit of a single university medical centre in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:Intensive care medicine professionals. INTERVENTIONS:Participants were randomized to wear European size 38 clogs (US male size 6½, US female size 7½) or European size 47 clogs (US male size 13½, US female size 14½) clogs and were required to run a 125 m course from the coffee break room to the elevator providing access to the emergency department. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the time to complete the running course. Height, shoe size, self-described fitness, age and staff category were investigated as possible effect modifiers. Secondary endpoints were reported clog comfort and suspected unexpected clog-related adverse events (SUCRAEs). RESULTS:50 participants were randomized (25 to European size 38 clogs and 25 to size 47 clogs). Mean age was 37 years (SD 12) and 29 participants (58%) were female. The primary outcome was 4.4 s (95% CI -7.1; -1.6) faster in the size 5 clogs group compared to the size 12 clogs group. This effect was not modified by any of the predefined participant characteristics. No differences were found in reported clog comfort or SUCRAEs. CONCLUSIONS:European size 38 clogs lead to faster emergency response times than size 47 clogs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT04406220.
Project description:Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a novel technique for the assessment of jugular venous pressure. Distance education may allow for efficient dissemination of this technique. We compared online learning to a live course for teaching ultrasonography jugular venous pressure (u-JVP) to determine if these teaching methods yielded different levels of comfort with and use of u-JVP.This was an interventional trial of Canadian emergency physicians who had taken a basic POCUS course. The participants were in one of three Groups: online learning (Group OL), live teaching (Group LT), control (Group C). Group LT participants also took an advanced course prior to the study that included instruction in u-JVP. The participants who took the basic course were randomized to Group OL or Group C. Group OL was subject to the intervention, online learning. Group C only received an article citation regarding u-JVP. Questionnaires were completed before and after the intervention. The primary outcome was physician self-reported use and comfort with the technique of u-JVP after online learning compared to live teaching.Of the 287 advanced course participants, 42 completed the questionnaires (Group LT). Of the 3303 basic course participants, 47 who were assigned to Group OL completed the questionnaires and 47 from Group C completed the questionnaires. Use of u-JVP increased significantly in Group OL (from 15% to 55%) and Group C (from 21% to 47%) with the intervention. The comfort with use did not differ between Group LT and Group OL (p=0.14). The frequency of use remained higher in Group LT than Group OL (p=0.07).Online learning increases the use and comfort with performing u-JVP for emergency physicians with prior POCUS experience. Although the comfort with use of u-JVP was similar in Groups LT and OL, online learning appears to yield levels of use that are less than those of a live course.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the growing interest in screening for food insecurity in the clinical setting, little evidence exists regarding screening formats that maximize disclosure and caregiver comfort. METHODS:In this randomized trial, we asked English-speaking adult caregivers of pediatric patients in the emergency department at an urban, freestanding children's hospital to complete a validated, 2-question screen for food insecurity. Respondents were assigned via block randomization to complete the survey by either verbal interview or electronic tablet. Caregivers reported the perceived importance of the screening questions, comfort level with screening in the emergency department or in their child's primary care site, and their preferred screening modality. RESULTS:Of the 1818 participants, 20.6% screened positive for food insecurity. There was a significantly higher rate of reported food insecurity for those screened by tablet (23.6%) compared to those screened verbally (17.7%) (P?=?.002). Of those who had a preference of screening modality, 83.2% of all participants and 84.5% of patients reporting food insecurity preferred the tablet-based screen over verbal interview. Overall, more participants reported comfort completing the screen in the emergency department compared to their child's doctor's office; however, comfort in both of these setting was rated highly (86.1% vs 80.2%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Although both verbal interview and tablet-based screening modalities were effective in identifying food insecurity, tablet-based screening had a higher disclosure rate and was the participants' preferred screening method. There is a high level of comfort with screening regardless of clinical setting; it is possible that an added level of anonymity in the emergency department enhanced participants' comfort levels.
Project description:IntroductionThe provision of real-time medical direction to emergency medical services (EMS) providers is a core skill for the emergency physician, yet it is one with a wide variability of training received within residency.MethodsWe developed a complete training module for providing online medical control to EMS providers, including two lectures, multiple case-based scenarios for practice via two-way radio, a survey of participants’ self-perceived knowledge and comfort in this area, and a postmodule knowledge test. Participants completed the survey both before and after the module. The module was given during the regularly scheduled didactic conference series. There were 22 participants, some of whom were attendings and medical students.ResultsThe survey responses showed a statistically significant improvement after completion of the module for all questions, including improved self-perceived comfort with providing online medical control. Additionally, all participants passed the postmodule knowledge test with a mean score of 95%.DiscussionThis module was well received and showed significant results in improving the participants’ self-perceived and tested knowledge of EMS as well as their comfort with providing online medical control. The module offers an excellent baseline training experience for use by other residencies or agency medical directors.
Project description:A good mobile phone design may increase the productivity of users, as well as their comfort. To achieve mobile users' satisfaction, there is a need to come up with an ideal measurement that would not strain the human's body parts used to control the devices.To investigate the correlation between smartphone and hand anthropometry measurements and the development of hand discomfort and pain.89 Ahlia University students between the ages of 17- and 30-year-old participated in this study. Participants completed a demographic data sheet and had both of their hand dimensions and grip strength measured.A total number of 89 participants were recruited in this study with (57.3%) females and (42.7%) males. 38% have had hand pain recently while 61.8% did not experience any hand pain. There was weak negative correlation between the phone size (r?=?-0.04, P?=?.7), hand size (r?=?-0.08, P?=?.5), and the hand grip strength (r?=?-0.03, P?=?.7) all with the reporting of hand pain. For the phone screen size and the hand lengths (r?=?0.22, P?=?.13) there was weak positive correlation.Mobile phone manufacturers should take into account the users' comfort when designing their phones as this could lead to hand pain and other musculoskeletal problems. Furthermore, hand pain is multifactorial so hand size; phone size and grip strength may be taken into account.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: We determined if targeted education of emergency physicians (EPs) regarding the treatment of mental illness will improve their comfort level in treating psychiatric patients boarding in the emergency department (ED) awaiting admission. METHODS: We performed a pilot study examining whether an educational intervention would change an EP's comfort level in treating psychiatric boarder patients (PBPs). We identified a set of psychiatric emergencies that typically require admission or treatment beyond the scope of practice of emergency medicine. Diagnoses included major depression, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder, general anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, and criminal behavior. We designed equivalent surveys to be used before and after an educational intervention. Each survey consisted of 10 scenarios of typical psychiatric patients. EPs were asked to rate their comfort levels in treating the described patients on a visual analogue scale. We calculated summary scores for the non intervention survey group (NINT) and intervention survey group (INT) and compared them using Student's t-test. RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent (33/42) of eligible participants completed the pre-intervention survey (21 attendings, 12 residents) and comprised the NINT group. Fifty-five percent (23/42) completed the post-intervention survey (16 attendings, 7 residents) comprising the INT group. A comparison of summary scores between 'NINT' and 'INT' groups showed a highly significant improvement in comfort levels with treating the patients described in the scenarios (P = 0.003). Improvements were noted on separate analysis for faculty (P = 0.039) and for residents (P = 0.012). Results of a sensitivity analysis excluding one highly significant scenario showed decreased, but still important differences between the NINT and INT groups for all participants and for residents, but not for faculty (all: P = 0.05; faculty: P = 0.25; residents: P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests that the comfort level of EPs, when asked to treat PBPs, may be improved with education. We believe our data support further study of this idea and of whether an improved comfort level will translate to a willingness to treat.
Project description:Introduction:The emergency department (ED) observation unit has become a unique practice opportunity to liberate inpatient capacity in the United States. Substantial variations in clinical practice and level of comfort among ED providers existed in a large health care system. We aimed to study the effectiveness of an educational module targeted for emergency medicine providers. Methods:We developed a 20-minute online module including pretest, learning module, and posttest. The format consisted of Likert-scale (1 = least comfortable, 5 = most comfortable), true-or-false, and multiple-choice questions. The learning module contained slides, script, and figures describing management strategy for commonly encountered conditions in the observation unit. The institutional review board granted exempted review. Pre- and posttest scores were evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and a p value of less than .05 was considered significant. Results:Twenty-one participants completed the pretest, with a mean score of 63.8 (SD = 19.3), and 14 participants completed the posttest, with a mean score of 87.9 (SD = 9.7; p = .0001). Eight participants responded to a follow-up survey, a response rate of 57%. Responses demonstrated that levels of provider comfort in selection of observation (M = 4.3, SD = 1.5), choice of stress test for chest pain (M = 4.3, SD = 1.0), asthma management (M = 4.1, SD = 1.0), anaphylaxis care (M = 4.1, SD = 1.4), and documentation (M = 4.3, SD = 0.9) were high. Discussion:An online learning module can be useful to enhance the knowledge of observation medicine among emergency medicine providers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Food allergy is estimated to affect 3-4% of adults in the US, but there are limited educational resources for primary care physicians. The goal of this study was to develop and pilot a food allergy educational resource based upon a needs survey of non-allergist healthcare providers. METHODS: A survey was undertaken to identify educational needs and preferences for providers, with a focus on physicians caring for adults and teenagers, including emergency medicine providers. The results of the survey were used to develop a teaching program that was subsequently piloted on primary care and emergency medicine physicians. Knowledge base tests and satisfaction surveys were administered to determine the effectiveness of the educational program. RESULTS: Eighty-two physicians (response rate, 65%) completed the needs assessment survey. Areas of deficiency and educational needs identified included: identification of potentially life-threatening food allergies, food allergy diagnosis, and education of patients about treatment (food avoidance and epinephrine use). Small group, on-site training was the most requested mode of education. A slide set and narrative were developed to address the identified needs. Twenty-six separately enrolled participants were administered the teaching set. Pre-post knowledge base scores increased from a mean of 38% correct to 64% correct (p < 0.001). Ability to correctly demonstrate the use of epinephrine self injectors increased significantly. Nearly all participants (>95%) indicated that the teaching module increased their comfort with recognition and management of food allergy. CONCLUSION: Our pilot food allergy program, developed based upon needs assessments, showed strong participant satisfaction and educational value.
Project description:Individuals with heart failure (HF) who are hospitalized and admitted to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are at high risk for rehospitalization and death. The care preferences of this high-risk population have not been studied.To describe care preferences of patients with HF admitted to SNFs for rehabilitation based on Medical Orders for Scope of Treatment (MOST) documentation, and evaluate goal-concordant care based on MOST documentation, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalization.Retrospective study of patients with HF in 35 SNFs enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of HF-disease management versus usual care between July 2014 and May 2016.Validity of MOST forms, care preference documentation, and ED visits/hospitalizations within 60 days of SNF admission.Of 370 patients (mean age 78.6 years, 58% women, 25% systolic HF), 278 (75%) had a MOST form in the SNF chart, of which 96 forms (35%) were invalid. The most common reason for an invalid MOST form was missing date accompanying patient or provider signature. Of 182 valid MOST forms, 47% of patients chose no cardiopulmonary resuscitation ("No CPR"), 58% selected "Full Treatment," 17% chose "Selective Treatment," and 23% chose "Comfort-Focused Treatment." Patients who were older [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25, 1.81] and female (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.18, 4.59) had higher odds of choosing "No CPR." Sixty-six of 182 patients (36%) with valid MOST forms had an ED/hospital visit within 60 days of SNF admission; only 3 patients received medical care that was potentially discordant: all 3 chose "Comfort-Focused Treatment" and were hospitalized for more than symptom management.Seventy-five percent of patients with HF admitted to SNFs had care preferences documented using the MOST form, and 95% received goal-concordant care based on care preferences documented during the SNF admission. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT01822912.
Project description:CONTEXT:Although patient and physician characteristics are thought to be predictive of discretionary interventions at the end of life (EoL), few studies have data on both parties. OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that patient preferences and physician attitudes are both independently associated with discretionary interventions at the EoL. METHODS:We report secondary analyses of data collected prospectively from physicians (n = 38) and patients with advanced cancer (n = 265) in the Values and Options in Cancer Care study. Predictor variables were patient attitudes toward EoL care and physician-reported comfort with medical paternalism, assessed indirectly using a modified version of the Control Preference Scale. We explored whether the magnitude of the physician variable was influenced by the inclusion of particular patient treatment-preference variables (i.e., effect modification). Outcomes were a chemotherapy use score (?14 days before death [scored 2], 15-31 days before death [scored 1], and >31 days [scored 0]) and an emergency department visit/inpatient admission score (two or more admissions in the last 31 days [scored 2], one admission , and 0 admissions ) in the last month of life. RESULTS:Chemotherapy scores were nearly 0.25 points higher if patients expressed a preference for experimental treatments with unknown benefit at study entry (0.238 points, 95% CI = 0.047-0.429) or reported an unfavorable attitude toward palliative care (0.247 points, 95% CI = 0.047-0.450). A two-standard deviation difference in physician comfort with medical paternalism corresponded to standardized effects of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.03-0.66) for chemotherapy and 0.33 (95% CI = 0.04-0.61) for emergency department visits/inpatient admissions. There was no evidence of effect modification. CONCLUSION:Patient treatment preferences and physician attitudes are independently associated with higher levels of treatment intensity before death. Greater research, clinical, and policy attention to patient treatment preferences and physician comfort with medical paternalism might lead to improvements in care of patients with advanced disease.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>A patient that cannot be oxygenated or ventilated requires immediate and effective assessment, treatment, and transportation. Pediatric needle cricothyrotomy is used infrequently, therefore providers have a tendency to lose proficiency. Simulation training and evaluation are valuable tools to improve provider experience and skill.<h4>Methods</h4>A case was designed involving a 3-year-old male with a peanut allergy that presents with rash, swelling, and severe respiratory distress. The patient's respiratory distress and swelling worsens despite treatment with epinephrine and other allergic reaction medications. The patient then becomes unresponsive and impossible to oxygenate or ventilate. The primary objective of this case is airway management with needle cricothyrotomy in the pediatric population. A secondary objective is appropriate postprocedure management including appropriate ventilation rates and emergency medical transportation methods.<h4>Results</h4>This case was initially presented to 45 paramedics. Provider comfort with managing airway emergencies in young children improved from 47% to 89%. Confidence in performing pediatric needle cricothyrotomy improved from 16% to 87%. All providers felt the exercise was valuable and 98% felt the simulation provided appropriate realism.<h4>Discussion</h4>This scenario provides an outstanding opportunity for paramedic evaluation and training in pediatric needle cricothyrotomy and significantly improved the comfort level of providers' management of a failed pediatric airway. As we reflected on the use of this module, it was apparent that this was a very beneficial opportunity to spend one-on-one time between participants and their medical director. The training staff also benefited from the repeated emphasis of good assessment and treatment of a complex patient scenario.