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Identification of olfactory genes of a forensically important blow fly, Aldrichina grahami (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

ABSTRACT: Background:The time-length between the first colonization of necrophagous insect on the corpse and the beginning of investigation represents the most important forensic concept of minimum post-mortem inference (PMImin). Before colonization, the time spent by an insect to detect and locate a corpse could significantly influence the PMImin estimation. The olfactory system plays an important role in insect food foraging behavior. Proteins like odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) represent the most important parts of this system. Exploration of the above genes and their necrophagous products should facilitate not only the understanding of their roles in forging but also their influence on the period before PMImin. Transcriptome sequencing has been wildly utilized to reveal the expression of particular genes under different temporal and spatial condition in a high throughput way. In this study, transcriptomic study was implemented on antennae of adult Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a necrophagous insect with forensic significance, to reveal the composition and expression feature of OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs genes at transcriptome level. Method:Antennae transcriptome sequencing of A. grahami was performed using next-generation deep sequencing on the platform of BGISEQ-500. The raw data were deposited into NCBI (PRJNA513084). All the transcripts were functionally annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed between female and male antennae. The transcripts of OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs were identified based on sequence feature. Phylogenetic development of olfactory genes of A. grahami with other species was analyzed using MEGA 5.0. RT-qPCR was utilized to verify gene expression generated from the transcriptome sequencing. Results:In total, 14,193 genes were annotated in the antennae transcriptome based on the GO and the KEGG databases. We found that 740 DEGs were differently expressed between female and male antennae. Among those, 195 transcripts were annotated as candidate olfactory genes then checked by sequence feature. Of these, 27 OBPs, one CSPs, 49 ORs, six IRs and two SNMPs were finally identified in antennae of A. grahami. Phylogenetic development suggested that some olfactory genes may play a role in food forging, perception of pheromone and decomposing odors. Conclusion:Overall, our results suggest the existence of gender and spatial expression differences in olfactory genes from antennae of A. grahami. Such differences are likely to greatly influence insect behavior around a corpse. In addition, candidate olfactory genes with predicted function provide valuable information for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of olfactory detection of forensically important fly species and thus deepen our understanding of the period before PMImin.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7414772 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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