PurposeTreatment of multiple myeloma has evolved tremendously and optimal utilization of available therapies will ensure maximal patient benefits.
Patients and methodsWe report the Southwest Oncology Group randomized phase II trial (S1304) comparing twice weekly low-dose (27 mg/m2; arm 1) to high-dose carfilzomib (56 mg/m2; arm 2), both with dexamethasone, administered for 12 cycles (11 months) for relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma with up to six prior lines of therapy (NCT01903811). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and patients on arm 1 could cross-over to arm 2 after progression on treatment.
ResultsAmong 143 enrolled patients, of whom 121 were eligible and analyzable, the overall response rate was 42.8%, with no significant difference between the arms (P = 0.113). Also, neither the median PFS [5 months and 8 months, respectively; HR, 1.061; 80% Wald confidence interval (CI), 0.821-1.370; P = 0.384] nor the median overall survival were significantly different (26 and 22 months, respectively; HR, 1.149, 80% Wald CI, 0.841-.571; P = 0.284). Sixteen patients crossed over to arm 2 with a median PFS benefit of 3 months. Certain adverse events (AE) were more frequent in arm 2, including fatigue, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy, but there was no significant difference in cardiopulmonary AEs.
ConclusionsThis randomized trial did not support a benefit of fixed duration, twice weekly 56 mg/m2 dosing of carfilzomib over the 27 mg/m2 dose for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. However, treatment to progression in earlier patient populations with high-dose carfilzomib using different schedules should still be considered as part of the standard of care.