Concordance of PD-L1 expression and CD8+ TIL intensity between NSCLC and synchronous brain metastases.
ABSTRACT: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are thought to be necessary to PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockades in many tumors. The aim of the study was to explore the variation of PD-L1 expression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its clinical implications. METHODS:A total of 142 paired SCC specimens before and after platinum-based NAC were obtained from cervical cancer patients. The expression of PD-L1 and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was detected by immunohistochemistry and the association between TILs, chemotherapy response, clinical outcome and PD-L1 expression was evaluated. RESULTS:The fraction of patients with high PD-L1 expression was significantly increased from 32.4 to 46.5% after NAC (?2?=?5.897, p?=?0.015), while the increase of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs was not significant. High PD-L1 expression was not associated with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs before NAC, however CD8+ TILs infiltration was positively associated with high PD-L1 expression after NAC (r?=?0.205, p?=?0.014). The decreased PD-L1 expression was more observed in patients with clinical response to NAC (?2?=?6.890, p?=?0.009). A longer DFS was seen in patients with decreased PD-L1 expression than those with elevated or stable PD-L1 expression (p?=?0.048, 95% CI: 0.091-0.987), while the difference was not significant in multivariate analysis (p?=?0.113, 95% CI: 0.108-1.266). CONCLUSIONS:Cisplatin based chemotherapy can increase PD-L1 expression in cervical cancer. The increased PD-L1 expression and a lymphocyte predominant microenvironment after chemotherapy provide a rational for use of PD-1/PD-L1 axis-inhibitor in the neoadjuvant setting.
Project description:The dynamics of PD-L1 expression may limit its use as a tissue-based predictive biomarker. We sought to expand our understanding of the dynamics of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with lung cancer-related brain metastases.Paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases were identified and assessed for PD-L1 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry. Lesions with 5% or greater PD-L1 expression were considered positive. Agreement statistics and the ?(2) or Fisher's exact test were used for analysis.We analyzed 146 paired lesions from 73 cases. There was disagreement of tumor cell PD-L1 expression in 10 cases (14%, ? = 0.71), and disagreement of TIL PD-L1 expression in 19 cases (26%, ? = 0.38). Most paired lesions with discordant tumor cell expression of PD-L1 were obtained 6 or more months apart. When specimens were categorized using a proposed tumor microenvironment categorization scheme based on PD-L1 expression and TILs, there were significant changes in the classifications because many of the brain metastases lacked either PD-L1 expression, tumor lymphocyte infiltration or both even when they were present in the primary lung cancer specimens (P = 0.009).We identified that there are significant differences between the tumor microenvironment of paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases. When physicians decide to treat patients with lung cancer with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, they must do so in the context of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aimed to compare intra- and extracranial responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in lung cancer with brain metastases (BM), and to explore tumor microenvironments of the brain and lungs focusing on the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway. METHODS:Two cohorts of lung cancer patients with BM were analyzed. Cohort 1 included 18 patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and intra- and extracranial responses were assessed. Cohort 2 comprised 20 patients who underwent both primary lung surgery and brain metastasectomy. Specimens from cohort 2 were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for the following markers: CD3, CD4, CD8, FOXP3, and PD-1 on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 on tumor cells. RESULTS:Seven patients (38.9%) in cohort 1 showed progressive disease in both primary and intracranial lesions. Although the other 11 patients exhibited a partial response or stable disease in the primary lesion, eight showed a progression in BM. Interestingly, PD-1+ TILs were significantly decreased in BM (P?=?0.034). For fifteen patients with adenocarcinoma, more distinctive patterns were observed in CD3+ (P?=?0.078), CD8+ (P?=?0.055), FOXP3+ (P?=?0.016), and PD-1+ (P?=?0.016) TILs. CONCLUSIONS:There may be discordant responses to an ICI of lung cancer between primary lung lesion and BM based on discrepancies in the tumor microenvironment. The diminished infiltration of PD-1+ TILs in tumor tissue within the brain may be one of the major factors that hinder the response to anti-PD-1 antibody in BM.
Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:The activation of immune cells by targeting checkpoint inhibitors showed promising results with increased patient survival in distinct primary cancers. Since only limited data exist for human brain metastases, we aimed at characterizing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and expression of immune checkpoints in the respective tumors. Two brain metastases cohorts, a mixed entity cohort (n = 252) and a breast carcinoma validation cohort (n = 96) were analyzed for CD3+, CD8+, FOXP3+, PD-1+ lymphocytes and PD-L1+ tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. Analyses for association with clinico-epidemiological and neuroradiological parameters such as patient survival or tumor size were performed. TILs infiltrated brain metastases in three different patterns (stromal, peritumoral, diffuse). While carcinomas often show a strong stromal infiltration, TILs in melanomas often diffusely infiltrate the tumors. Highest levels of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were seen in renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and strongest PD-1 levels on RCCs and melanomas. High amounts of TILs, high ratios of PD-1+/CD8+ cells and high levels of PD-L1 were negatively correlated with brain metastases size, indicating that in smaller brain metastases CD8+ immune response might get blocked. PD-L1 expression strongly correlated with TILs and FOXP3 expression. No significant association of patient survival with TILs was observed, while high levels of PD-L1 showed a strong trend towards better survival in melanoma brain metastases (Log-Rank p = 0.0537). In summary, melanomas and RCCs seem to be the most immunogenic entities. Differences in immunotherapeutic response between tumor entities regarding brain metastases might be attributable to this finding and need further investigation in larger patient cohorts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immuno-oncology and cancer immunotherapies are areas of intense research. The numbers and locations of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are important measures of the immune response to cancer with prognostic, pharmacodynamic, and predictive potential. We describe the development, validation, and application of advanced image analysis methods to characterize multiple immunohistochemistry-derived CD8 parameters in clinical and nonclinical tumor tissues. METHODS:Commercial resection tumors from nine cancer types, and paired screening/on-drug biopsies of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients enrolled in a phase 1/2 clinical trial investigating the PD-L1 antibody therapy durvalumab (NCT01693562), were immunostained for CD8. Additional NCT01693562 samples were immunostained with a CD8/PD-L1 dual immunohistochemistry assay. Whole-slide scanning was performed, tumor regions were annotated by a pathologist, and images were analyzed with customized algorithms using Definiens Developer XD software. Validation of image analysis data used cell-by-cell comparison to pathologist scoring across a range of CD8+ TIL densities of all nine cancers, relying primarily on 95% confidence in having at least moderate agreement regarding Lin concordance correlation coefficient (CCC = 0.88-0.99, CCC_lower = 0.65-0.96). RESULTS:We found substantial variability in CD8+ TILs between individual patients and across the nine types of human cancer. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma had several-fold more CD8+ TILs than some other cancers. TIL densities were significantly higher in the invasive margin versus tumor center for carcinomas of head and neck, kidney and pancreas, and NSCLC; the reverse was true only for prostate cancer. In paired patient biopsies, there were significantly increased CD8+ TILs 6 weeks after onset of durvalumab therapy (mean of 365 cells/mm2 over baseline; P = 0.009), consistent with immune activation. Image analysis accurately enumerated CD8+ TILs in PD-L1+ regions of lung tumors using the dual assay and also measured elongate CD8+ lymphocytes which constituted a fraction of overall TILs. CONCLUSIONS:Validated image analysis accurately enumerates CD8+ TILs, permitting comparisons of CD8 parameters among tumor regions, individual patients, and cancer types. It also enables the more complex digital solutions needed to better understand cancer immunity, like analysis of multiplex immunohistochemistry and spatial evaluation of the various components comprising the tumor microenvironment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01693562 . Study code: CD-ON-MEDI4736-1108. Interventional study (ongoing but not currently recruiting). Actual study start date: August 29, 2012. Primary completion date: June 23, 2017 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure).
Project description:The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with favorable long-term outcome in breast cancer. However, little is known about changes in TILs during metastatic progression. To confirm our hypothesis that malignant tumors escape from the host immune system during metastasis, we evaluated the percentage of TILs in paired samples of primary and metastatic breast tumors. We retrospectively identified 25 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2+ , n = 14) and triple negative (TN, n = 11) early breast cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2009 at Tokai University Hospital (Isehara, Japan) and who subsequently experienced regional or distant recurrence confirmed by tumor biopsy/resection. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides of these paired samples were evaluated for stromal TILs. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out using primary antibodies against CD4, CD8, Foxp3, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), PD-L2, and HLA class I for characterizing the TILs and breast tumors. The percentage of TILs in the primary tumors was significantly higher (average 34.6%) than that in metastatic tumors (average 15.7%) (paired t-test, P = 0.004) and that of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells significantly decreased from primary to metastatic tumors (paired t-test, P = 0.008 and P = 0.026, respectively). The PD-L1, PD-L2, and HLA class I antibody expression changed from positive to negative and vice versa from the primary to the metastatic tumors. Tumors at first metastatic recurrence in HER2+ and TN breast cancers have a lower percentage of TILs and CD8+ and CD4+ T cells compared to primary tumors, which indicates that immune escape plays a role in tumor progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:To evaluate the association between programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on both tumor cells (TC) and inflammatory cells (IC), tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and other clinicopathological parameters in primary infiltrative breast cancer (IBC) of young women, a population shown to have a worse prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective study was performed collecting data from patients younger than 40 years old. Forty-five young women with IBC were included. Whole tissue sections were used to evaluate all parameters. RESULTS:Twenty percent (20%) of cases showed PD-L1 expression by tumor cells (PDL1TC) and 44.4% showed PD-L1 expression by immune cells (PDL1IC). Furthermore, 28.88% revealed high stromal TILs. PDL1TC and PDL1IC expression were significantly associated with tumor diameter and expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and Ki67. PDL1TC expression was also associated with grade. High TILs were associated with tumor diameter, ER and Ki67 expression. PDL1TC, PDL1IC expression and TILs were associated with the density of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. CONCLUSION:Our results are similar to those of other age groups, as reported in the literature.
Project description:Background:It has been proven that the treatment window of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is short, so it is vital to find other possible therapeutic targets. CD39 inhibits natural killer (NK) cells and promotes the occurrence and metastasis of tumors. There has been little research about the role of CD39 in SCLC, so we explored the correlation between CD39 and other surface antigens, and its association with survival in SCLC. Methods:This study included 75 patients with SCLC from Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. After paraffin embedding and sectioning, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied. Then we identify cutoff value for CD39 and other surface antigens based on the analysis of ROC curve in RFS by SPSS. All statistical analyses were based on SPSS and Graphpad Prism8. Chi-square test, Kendall's tau-b correlation analysis, Logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were conducted. In all analyses, P = 0.05 distinguished whether they had statistical significance. Results:Of the 75 SCLC patients enrolled in this study, 61.33% positively expressed CD39. A correlation between CD39 and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) (P=0.007), CD3 (P<0.001), CD4 (P<0.001), CD8 (P<0.001), and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) (P<0.001) on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was identified by correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we found that CD39 affected relapse-free survival (RFS) [negative vs. positive, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2765-0.9862, P=0.0390]. SCLC patients with high-expressed CD39 and low-expressed PD-L1 had poor prognosis (P<0.001). Positive expression of CD39 and negative expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 also indicated shorter RFS (P=0.0409). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to confirm the factors that influenced RFS. Conclusions:CD39, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), and PD-L1 expressed on TILs but not on tumor cells. CD39 has a significant association with PD-L1, CD3, CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 on TILs. The positive expression of CD39 predicts poor prognosis. SCLC patients with low expression of CD39 combined with high expression of PD-L1 or CD3, CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 have a more favorable prognosis.
Project description:Small-cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a rare but highly aggressive disease. It is currently unclear whether immune checkpoint therapies that have been approved for urothelial carcinomas will also be efficient in small-cell carcinomas. In this study, we analyzed potential predictors of response including PD-L1 expression and the quantity and location of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 12 small-cell and 69 "classical" urothelial cancers by immunohistochemistry. The analysis revealed that small-cell carcinomas were characterized by the virtual absence of PD-L1 expression and an "immune-excluded" phenotype with only a few TILs in the center of the tumor (CT). In small-cell carcinomas, the average immune cell density in the CT (CD3: 159 ± 206, CD8: 87 ± 169 cells/mm2) was more than 3 times lower than that in the urothelial carcinomas (CD3: 625 ± 800, p < 0.001; CD8: 362 ± 626 cells/mm2, p = 0.004) while there was no significant difference in the immune cell density at the invasive margin (IM) (small-cell carcinomas CD3: 899 ± 733, CD8: 404 ± 433 cells/mm2; urothelial carcinomas CD3: 1167 ± 1206, p = 0.31; CD8: 582 ± 864 cells/mm2, p = 0.27). Positive PD-L1 staining was found in 39% of urothelial cancers, but in only 8% of small-cell bladder cancer cases (p = 0.04). Concordant with these data, a sharp decrease of PD-L1 positivity from >80% to 0% positive cells and of TILS in the CT from 466-1063 CD3-positive cells/mm2 to 50-109 CD3-positive cells/mm2 was observed in two cancers with clear-cut progression from "classical" urothelial to small-cell carcinoma. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that small-cell bladder cancer commonly exhibits an immune-excluded phenotype.