The balloon impasse sign in percutaneous transvenous mitral valvuloplasty.
ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transvenous mitral valvuloplasty (PTMV) is an established therapy for rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). While the Wilkins score standardizes the description of valve anatomy and predicts successful PTMV, echocardiographic assessment has some limitations. The 'balloon impasse' sign is the inability to cross a stenotic valve with a deflated Inoue balloon. This sign was described in the 1990s as an indicator of severe subvalvular thickening (regardless of the echocardiographic findings), portending an increased risk of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) post-PTMV. Despite its implications for management, it has been seldom reported. A 57-year-old woman with symptomatic, severe MS and a Wilkins score of 7 underwent PTMV. The 'balloon impasse' sign was observed when attempting to cross the stenotic valve. When the balloon was fully inflated, severe MR was noted, and the patient required mitral valve replacement. This case demonstrates the continued importance of the 'balloon impasse' sign and its implications for the therapeutic efficacy of PTMV.
Project description:Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major health hazard in most developing countries as well as sporadically in developed economies with high prevalence rates. Mitral stenosis is among the important morbid valvular conditions accounting for 25% of RHD cases. Percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy (PTMC) using Inoue balloon is the standard treatment for severe mitral stenosis with favorable Wilkins score. In certain cases it is difficult to cross mitral valve (MV) either due to dilated left atrium (LA), low septal puncture, or severe mitral valvular and subvalvular stenosis leading to prolonged procedure time or failure of PTMC procedure. We describe a case of RHD with severe mitral stenosis and dilated LA where crossing MV was difficult and successful PTMC was performed using rapid snare sliding technique to cross the MV. <Learning objective: Percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy using Inoue balloon is the standard intervention used to treat severe mitral valvular stenosis worldwide. Sometimes we come across difficulty in crossing mitral valve (MV) due to varied reasons leading to failure of this technique. We present a case of rheumatic heart disease with severe mitral stenosis where we had difficulty to cross MV using various techniques and a rapid snare sliding technique was found to be quick, safe, and a good alternative with good results and few complications. We describe the interventional steps of this technique in this case report.>.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Results of percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) are basically dependent on suitable patient selection. Currently used two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (2DE) scores have many limitations. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (3DE)-based scores were developed for better patient selection and outcome prediction. We aimed to compare between 3D-Anwar and 2D-Wilkins scores in mitral assessment for BMV, and investigate the additive value of 3DE in prediction of immediate post-procedural outcome. Fifty patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and candidates for BMV were included. Patients were subjected to 2D- and real-time 3D-transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) before and immediately after BMV for assessing MV area (MVA), 2D-Wilkins and 3D-Anwar score, commissural splitting, and mitral regurgitation (MR). Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was also undertaken immediately before and intra-procedural. Percutaneous BMV was performed by either multi-track or Inoue balloon technique. RESULTS:The 2DE underestimated post-procedural MVA than 3DE (p = 0.008). Patients with post-procedural suboptimal MVA or significant MR had higher 3D-Anwar score compared to 2D-Wilkins score (p = 0.008 and p = 0.03 respectively). The 3D-Anwar score showed a negative correlation with post-procedural MVA (r = -?0.48, p = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for both scores revealed superior prediction of suboptimal results by 3D-Anwar score (p < 0.0001). The 3DE showed better post-procedural posterior-commissural splitting than 2DE (p = 0.004). Results of both multi-track and Inoue balloon were comparable except for favorable posterior-commissural splitting by multi-track balloon (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION:The 3DE gave valuable additive data before BMV that may predict immediate post-procedural outcome and suboptimal results.
Project description:Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) is widely used for selected, high-risk patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR). This report describes a case of 81-year-old woman presenting with severe and highly symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) caused by a flail of the posterior mitral valve leaflet (PML). PMVR turned out to be challenging in this patient because of a stenosis and tortuosity of both iliac veins as well as sclerosis of the interatrial septum, precluding the vascular and left atrial access by standard methods, respectively. We managed to achieve atrial access by venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and balloon dilatation of the interatrial septum. Subsequently, we could advance the MitraClip® system to the left atrium, and deployment of the clip in the central segment of the mitral valve leaflets (A2/P2) resulted in a significant reduction of MR.
Project description:Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) is one of the nonsurgical commissurotomy in patients with hemodynamically significant mitral stenosis. The aim of the present study is to assess the immediate, intermediate and long term outcomes of PTMC in relation to initial mitral valve score and to assess its impact on mitral valve area (MVA), clinical and hemodynamic parameters.It is a retrospective study on a total of 303 patients who underwent successful PTMC between 1994 and 2001, were called back and their preprocedural, immediate post and follow-up (4, 7 and 10 year.) data were analyzed. Echo was performed in patients before and after PTMC. The patients were divided into two groups, group-I with Wilkins score of ≤ 8 and group-II with Wilkins score between 8 and 12.PTMC patients who have completed 4, 7 and 10 years of follow up revealed the mitral valve area, mean transmitral gradient and pulmonary artery pressures to be significantly different in both group-I and group-II. At all follow-up periods group-II showed higher restenosis than group-I, but its distribution between the groups was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.029; p = 0.986). Furthermore, losses of the MVA during different periods of follow-up revealed a gradual increase in attrition.MV score, Mitral valve area, mitral gradient and pulmonary artery pressures appeared to influence the outcome of PTMC. A clear-cut prospective assessment of individual components of the mitral valve apparatus using 3-D echocardiographic images may provide a more precise prediction of the PTMC outcome based on its morphological abnormalities.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) with dedicated devices promises to fill the treatment gap between open-heart surgery and edge-to-edge repair for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We herein present a single-centre experience of a TMVR series with two transapical devices.<h4>Methods and results</h4>A total of 11 patients were treated with the Tendyne™ (N?=?7) or the Tiara™ TMVR systems (N?=?4) from 2016 to 2020 either as compassionate-use procedures or as commercial implants. Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected at baseline, discharge and follow-up and are presented in accordance with the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium (MVARC) definitions. The study cohort [age 77 years (73, 84); 27.3% male] presented with primary (N?=?4), secondary (N?=?5) or mixed (N?=?2) MR etiology. Patients were symptomatic (all NYHA III/IV) and at high surgical risk [logEuroSCORE II 8.1% (4.0, 17.4)]. Rates of impaired RV function (72.7%), severe pulmonary hypertension (27.3%), moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation (63.6%) and prior aortic valve replacement (63.6%) were high. Severe mitral annulus calcification was present in two patients. Technical success was achieved in all patients. In 90.9% (N?=?10) MR was completely eliminated (i.e. no or trace MR). Procedural and 30-day mortality were 0.0%. At follow-up NYHA class was I/II in the majority of patients. Overall mortality after 3 and 6 months was 10.0% and 22.2%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TMVR was performed successfully in these selected patients with complete elimination of MR in the majority of patients. Short-term mortality was low and most patients experienced persisting functional improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We studied the course of plasma concentrations of 4 cardiovascular biomarkers: natriuretic peptides (BNP, NT-proBNP; mid-regional (MR) pro-atrial NP); and soluble endothelial CD146 (sCD146), in patients with severe mitral valve stenosis undergoing percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) to identify potential markers of procedural success. METHODS:Biomarkers were tested in 40 patients the day before and the day after PMC. Success was defined as mitral valve area???1.5?cm2; or an increase of ?0.5?cm2 in mitral valve area associated with echocardiographic mitral regurgitation <grade 3-4 post-PMC. RESULTS:Average age was 63.5?±?12.7?years; 32(80%) were female. Before PMC, mean valve area was 1.1?±?0.2?cm2, mean gradient 9.1?±?3.5?mmHg. PMC was successful in 30 (75%) and unsuccessful in 10 (25%). PMC yielded a significant reduction in MR-proANP and sCD146, driven by a significant reduction in these biomarkers in patients with successful procedure, whereas no reduction was observed in patients with unsuccessful procedure. A significant correlation was found between changes in plasma sCD146 and the relative change in mitral valve area. Elevated pre-procedural sPAP correlated with high sCD146, and accordingly, a significant correlation between the decrease in sPAP and sCD146 after PMC was shown. CONCLUSIONS:MR-proANP and plasma sCD146 decreased significantly immediately after successful PMC. They appear to be markers of immediate success of PMC and of the hemodynamic improvement achieved by this procedure in patients with MS. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is part of the cohorts registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on June 16, 2011 under the number NCT01374880.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Several approaches for transcatheter mitral valve repair for functional mitral valve regurgitation are established. Interventional direct annuloplasty is a novel trans-venous, trans-septal approach. While feasibility was proven recently, knowledge on its influence on cardiac dimensions, pressures, biomarkers, and clinical outcomes is sparse.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Patients consecutively treated with direct annuloplasty-only procedures between December 2015 and April 2018 were included in this monocentric analysis. Echocardiographic measurements, biomarker levels, clinical status [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and 6 min walk test] were assessed at baseline, at discharge, and at a 30 day follow-up. Overall, 18 patients (in mean 77.0 ± 7.4 years, 44.4% women) with initially all high-grade mitral valve regurgitation (MR) were included in this study. Procedural success rate was high (94.4%) without severe complications. Direct annuloplasty resulted in MR-reduction (post-procedural-MR mild or no/trace: 72.2%) and the proportion of patients with severe dyspnoea (NYHA III/IV) was reduced (88.9% vs. 50%, P = 0.008). Clinical results were associated with a relevant diminution of left atrial volumes (-16.5%, P < 0.001) and cardiac pressures [left atrial pressure (-32.3%, P = 0.019) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP, -15.8%, P = 0.025)]. Patients with lower baseline levels of PAP (P = 0.022) as well as elevated highly sensitive troponin (P = 0.034) were more likely to archive clinical benefit (improvement in NYHA class ?1 grade) after 1 month, which could not be correlated with the grade of MR-reduction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Transcatheter mitral valve repair by direct annuloplasty results in a relevant reduction of intracardiac pressures, left atrial volumes, dyspnoea, and MR. Lower PAP and higher troponin values at baseline could be associated to dyspnoea reduction.
Project description:A precise pre-procedural evaluation of mitral valve (MV) pathology is essential for planning the surgical strategy for severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and preparing for the intraoperative procedure. In the present case, a 38-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo MV replacement due to severe MR. She had a history of undergoing percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty due to rheumatic mitral stenosis during a previous pregnancy. A preoperative transthoracic echocardiography suggested a tear in the mid tip of the anterior mitral leaflet. However, the "en face" view of the MV in the left atrial perspective using intraoperative real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D-TEE) provided a different diagnosis: a torn cleft in the P2-scallop of the posterior mitral leaflet (PML) with rupture of the chordae. Thus, surgical planning was changed intraoperatively to MV repair (MVRep) consisting of patch closure of the PML, commissurotomy, and lifting annuloplasty. The present case shows that intraoperative RT 3D-TEE provides more precise and reliable spatial information of MV for MVRep and facilitates critical surgical decision-making.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The MitraClip (MC) procedure was designed for high-risk surgical patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Some patients do not meet the required anatomical criteria due to advanced left ventricular remodelling and mitral annular dilatation leading to leaflet tethering and insufficient coaptation surface. Theoretically, 'temporary remodelling' of the mitral valve apparatus by pharmacological and/or mechanical support using intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) could improve leaflets coaptation. CASE SUMMARY:We report a case series of four patients with severe MR and non-coapting leaflets who underwent MC implantation. Sufficient coaptation was achieved only after insertion of IABP. The first patient presented with worsening heart failure and severe MR after a non-reperfused posterior wall myocardial infarction (MI), underwent a successful procedure with good results. The second patient presented with worsening heart failure secondary to rheumatic MR, and underwent MC procedure with good results after the insertion of IABP. The third patient developed worsening heart failure and severe MR 2 months after an acute inferior-lateral MI, and underwent a successful procedure. The fourth patient presented with respiratory failure, the patient underwent the procedure, but unfortunately died a few days following the procedure from multiorgan failure. In each case, the insertion of the IABP decreased annular mitral diameter and increased the coaptation surface as assessed by transoesophageal echocardiography. DISCUSSION:For patients suffering from symptomatic severe MR who are not suitable candidates for MC procedure, IABP system enabled us to overcome mitral leaflet gap and complete the MC procedure successfully.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carpentier's techniques for degenerative posterior mitral leaflet prolapse have been established with excellent long-term results reported. However, residual mitral regurgitation (MR) occasionally occurs even after a straightforward repair, though the involved mechanisms are not fully understood. We sought to identify specific preoperative echocardiographic findings associated with residual MR after a posterior mitral leaflet repair. METHODS AND RESULTS:We retrospectively studied 117 consecutive patients who underwent a primary mitral valve repair for isolated posterior mitral leaflet prolapse including a preoperative 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography examination. Twelve had residual MR after the initial repair, of whom 7 required a corrective second pump run, 4 underwent conversion to mitral valve replacement, and 1 developed moderate MR within 1 month. Their preoperative parameters were compared with those of 105 patients who had an uneventful mitral valve repair. There were no hospital deaths. Multivariate analysis identified preoperative anterior mitral leaflet tethering angle as a significant predictor for residual MR (odds ratio, 6.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-33.8; P=0.0049). Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis revealed a cut-off value of 24.3° (area under the curve, 0.77), indicating that anterior mitral leaflet angle predicts residual MR. In multivariate regression analysis, smaller anteroposterior mitral annular diameter (P<0.001) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.002) were significantly associated with higher anterior mitral leaflet angle, whereas left ventricular and left atrial dimension had no significant correlation. CONCLUSIONS:Anterior mitral leaflet tethering in cases of posterior mitral leaflet prolapse has an adverse impact on early results following mitral valve repair. The findings of preoperative 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography are important for consideration of a careful surgical strategy.