Topological flat bands in frustrated kagome lattice CoSn.
ABSTRACT: Electronic flat bands in momentum space, arising from strong localization of electrons in real space, are an ideal stage to realize strongly-correlated phenomena. Theoretically, the flat bands can naturally arise in certain geometrically frustrated lattices, often with nontrivial topology if combined with spin-orbit coupling. Here, we report the observation of topological flat bands in frustrated kagome metal CoSn, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and band structure calculations. Throughout the entire Brillouin zone, the bandwidth of the flat band is suppressed by an order of magnitude compared to the Dirac bands originating from the same orbitals. The frustration-driven nature of the flat band is directly confirmed by the chiral d-orbital texture of the corresponding real-space Wannier functions. Spin-orbit coupling opens a large gap of 80?meV at the quadratic touching point between the Dirac and flat bands, endowing a nonzero Z2 invariant to the flat band. These findings demonstrate that kagome-derived flat bands are a promising platform for novel emergent phases of matter at the confluence of strong correlation and topology.
Project description:Layered kagome-lattice 3d transition metals are emerging as an exciting platform to explore the frustrated lattice geometry and quantum topology. However, the typical kagome electronic bands, characterized by sets of the Dirac-like band capped by a phase-destructive flat band, have not been clearly observed, and their orbital physics are even less well investigated. Here, we present close-to-textbook kagome bands with orbital differentiation physics in CoSn, which can be well described by a minimal tight-binding model with single-orbital hopping in Co kagome lattice. The capping flat bands with bandwidth less than 0.2?eV run through the whole Brillouin zone, especially the bandwidth of the flat band of out-of-plane orbitals is less than 0.02?eV along ?-M. The energy gap induced by spin-orbit interaction at the Dirac cone of out-of-plane orbitals is much smaller than that of in-plane orbitals, suggesting orbital-selective character of the Dirac fermions.
Project description:The energy dispersion of fermions or bosons vanishes in momentum space if destructive quantum interference occurs in a frustrated Kagome lattice with only nearest-neighbor hopping. A discrete flat band (FB) without any dispersion is consequently formed, promising the emergence of fractional quantum Hall states at high temperatures. Here, we report the experimental realization of an FB with possible nontrivial topology in an electronic Kagome lattice on twisted multilayer silicene. Because of the unique low-buckled two-dimensional structure of silicene, a robust electronic Kagome lattice has been successfully induced by moiré patterns after twisting the silicene multilayers. The electrons are localized in the Kagome lattice because of quantum destructive interference, and thus, their kinetic energy is quenched, which gives rise to an FB peak in the density of states. A robust and pronounced one-dimensional edge state has been revealed at the Kagome edge, which resides at higher energy than the FB. Our observations of the FB and the exotic edge state in electronic Kagome lattice open up the possibility that fractional Chern insulators could be realized in two-dimensional materials.
Project description:Based on the first-principles evolutionary materials design, we report a stable boron Kagome lattice composed of triangles in triangles on a two-dimensional sheet. The Kagome lattice can be synthesized on a silver substrate, with selecting Mg atoms as guest atoms. While the isolated Kagome lattice is slightly twisted without strain, it turns into an ideal triangular Kagome lattice under tensile strain. In the triangular Kagome lattice, we find the exotic electronic properties, such as topologically non-trivial flat band near the Fermi energy and half-metallic ferromagnetism, and predict the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.
Project description:We analyze the symmetry and topological features of a family of materials closely related to penta-graphene, derived from it by adsorption or substitution of different atoms. Our description is based on a novel approach, called topological quantum chemistry, that allows to characterize the topology of the electronic bands, based on the mapping between real and reciprocal space. In particular, by adsorption of alkaline (Li or Na) atoms we obtain a nodal line metal at room temperature, with a continuum of Dirac points around the perimeter of the Brillouin zone. This behavior is also observed in some substitutional derivatives of penta-graphene, such as penta-PC2. Breaking of time-reversal symmetry can be achieved by the use of magnetic atoms; we study penta-MnC2, which also presents spin-orbit coupling and reveals a Chern insulator phase. We find that for this family of materials, symmetry is the source of protection for metallic and nontrivial topological phases that can be associated to the presence of fractional band filling, spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry breaking.
Project description:Primarily considered a medium of geometric frustration, there has been a growing recognition of the kagome network as a harbor of lattice-borne topological electronic phases. In this study we report the observation of magnetoquantum de Haas-van Alphen oscillations of the ferromagnetic kagome lattice metal Fe<sub>3</sub>Sn<sub>2</sub>. We observe a pair of quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces arising from bulk massive Dirac states and show that these band areas and effective masses are systematically modulated by the rotation of the ferromagnetic moment. Combined with measurements of Berry curvature induced Hall conductivity, our observations suggest that the ferromagnetic Dirac fermions in Fe<sub>3</sub>Sn<sub>2</sub> are subject to intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the d electron sector which is likely of Kane-Mele type. Our results provide insights for spintronic manipulation of magnetic topological electronic states and pathways to realizing further highly correlated topological materials from the lattice perspective.
Project description:Relativistic massless Dirac fermions can be probed with high-energy physics experiments, but appear also as low-energy quasi-particle excitations in electronic band structures. In condensed matter systems, their massless nature can be protected by crystal symmetries. Classification of such symmetry-protected relativistic band degeneracies has been fruitful, although many of the predicted quasi-particles still await their experimental discovery. Here we reveal, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the existence of two-dimensional type-II Dirac fermions in the high-temperature superconductor La1.77Sr0.23CuO4. The Dirac point, constituting the crossing of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] bands, is found approximately one electronvolt below the Fermi level (EF) and is protected by mirror symmetry. If spin-orbit coupling is considered, the Dirac point degeneracy is lifted and the bands acquire a topologically non-trivial character. In certain nickelate systems, band structure calculations suggest that the same type-II Dirac fermions can be realised near EF.
Project description:In this article, we predict the emergence of non-trivial band topology in the family of XX'Bi compounds having [Formula: see text] (# 189) space group. Using first principles calculations within hybrid functional framework, we demonstrate that NaSrBi and NaCaBi are strong topological insulator under controlled band engineering. Here, we propose three different ways to engineer the band topology to get a non-trivial order: (i) hydrostatic pressure, (ii) biaxial strain (due to epitaxial mismatch), and (iii) doping. Non-triviality is confirmed by investigating bulk band inversion, topological Z2 invariant, surface dispersion and spin texture. Interestingly, some of these compounds also show a three dimensional topological nodal line semi-metal (NLS) state in the absence of spin orbit coupling (SOC). In these NLS phases, the closed loop of band degeneracy in the Brillouin zone lie close to the Fermi level. Moreover, a drumhead like flat surface state is observed on projecting the bulk state on the  surface. The inclusion of SOC opens up a small band gap making them behave like a topological insulator.
Project description:Based on the first principles calculation, we investigate the electronic band structures of graphene-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 heterojunctions under gate-voltages. By simultaneous control of external electric fields and carrier charging concentrations, we show that the graphene's Dirac point position inside the MoS2 bandgap is easily modulated with respect to the co-varying Fermi level, while keeping the graphene's linear band structure around the Dirac point. The easy modulation of graphene bands is not confined to the special cases where the conduction-band-minimum point of MoS2 and the Dirac point of graphene are matched up in reciprocal space, but is generalized to their dislocated cases. This flexibility caused by the strong decoupling between graphene and MoS2 bands enhances the gate-controlled switching performance in MoS2-graphene hybrid stacking-device.
Project description:The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is one of the most fundamental phenomena in physics. In the highly conductive regime, ferromagnetic metals have been the focus of past research. Here, we report a giant extrinsic AHE in KV3Sb5, an exfoliable, highly conductive semimetal with Dirac quasiparticles and a vanadium Kagome net. Even without report of long range magnetic order, the anomalous Hall conductivity reaches 15,507 ?-1 cm-1 with an anomalous Hall ratio of ? 1.8%; an order of magnitude larger than Fe. Defying theoretical expectations, KV3Sb5 shows enhanced skew scattering that scales quadratically, not linearly, with the longitudinal conductivity, possibly arising from the combination of highly conductive Dirac quasiparticles with a frustrated magnetic sublattice. This allows the possibility of reaching an anomalous Hall angle of 90° in metals. This observation raises fundamental questions about AHEs and opens new frontiers for AHE and spin Hall effect exploration, particularly in metallic frustrated magnets.
Project description:Frustrated interactions exist throughout nature, with examples ranging from protein folding through to frustrated magnetic interactions. Whilst magnetic frustration is observed in numerous electrically insulating systems, in metals it is a rare phenomenon. The interplay of itinerant conduction electrons mediating interactions between localised magnetic moments with strong spin-orbit coupling is likely fundamental to these systems. Therefore, knowledge of the precise shape and topology of the Fermi surface is important in any explanation of the magnetic behaviour. PdCrO2, a frustrated metallic magnet, offers the opportunity to examine the relationship between magnetic frustration, short-range magnetic order and Fermi surface topology. By mapping the short-range order in reciprocal space and experimentally determining the electronic structure, we have identified the dual role played by the Cr electrons in which the itinerant ones on the nested paramagnetic Fermi surface mediate the frustrated magnetic interactions between local moments.