ABSTRACT: Recanalization therapy by intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy is critical for the treatment of cerebral infarction. However, the recanalization treatment will also exacerbate acute brain injury and even severely threatens human life due to the reperfusion injury. So far, the underlying mechanisms for cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury are poorly understood and effective therapeutic interventions are yet to be discovered. Therefore, in the research, we subjected SK-N-BE(2) cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGDR) insult and performed a pooled genome-wide CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) knockout screen to discover new potential therapeutic targets for cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We used Metascape to identify candidate genes which might involve in OGDR resistance. We found that the genes contributed to OGDR resistance were primarily involved in neutrophil degranulation, mitochondrial translation, and regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process and response to oxidative stress. We then knocked down some of the identified candidate genes individually. We demonstrated that MRPL19, MRPL32, MRPL52 and MRPL51 inhibition increased cell viability and attenuated OGDR-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrated that OGDR down-regulated the expression of MRPL19 and MRPL51 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that genome-scale screening with Cas9 is a reliable tool to analyse the cellular systems that respond to OGDR injury. MRPL19 and MRPL51 contribute to OGDR resistance and are supposed to be promising targets for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion damage.
Project description:Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation (OGDR) induces oxidative injury to endometrial cells in vitro. We tested the potential effect of ginsenoside Rh3 (GRh3) in the process. Our results show that GRh3 activated Nrf2 signaling in T-HESC cells and primary murine endometrial cells. GRh3 induced Nrf2 Ser-40 phosphorylation and Keap1-Nrf2 disassociation, causing Nrf2 protein stabilization and nuclear translocation, which led to transcription and expression of antioxidant response element-dependent genes (HO1, NQO1 and GCLC). In T-HESC cells and primary murine endometrial cells, GRh3 potently attenuated OGDR-induced reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial depolarization, as well as cell viability reduction and necrosis. Activation of Nrf2 is required for GRh3-induced anti-OGDR actions in endometrial cells. Nrf2 inhibition, by Nrf2 shRNA, knockout (through CRISPR-Cas9-editing) or S40T mutation, abolished GRh3-induced endometrial cell protection against OGDR. Additionally, forced activation of Nrf2, by Keap1 knockout, mimicked and nullified GRh3-induced anti-OGDR actions in T-HESC cells. Together, we conclude that GRh3 protects endometrial cells from OGDR via activation of Nrf2 signaling.
Project description:Ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. In acute ischemic stroke, the rapid recanalization of occluded cranial vessels is the primary therapeutic aim. However, experimental data (obtained using mostly the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model) indicates that progressive stroke can still develop despite successful recanalization, a process termed "reperfusion injury." Mounting experimental evidence suggests that platelets and T cells contribute to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and ischemic stroke is increasingly considered a thrombo-inflammatory disease. The interaction of von Willebrand factor and its receptor on the platelet surface, glycoprotein Ib, as well as many activatory platelet receptors and platelet degranulation contribute to secondary infarct growth in this setting. In contrast, interference with GPIIb/IIIa-dependent platelet aggregation and thrombus formation does not improve the outcome of acute brain ischemia but dramatically increases the susceptibility to intracranial hemorrhage. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms and the potential translational impact of platelet contributions to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Restoration of blood flow following ischemic stroke can be achieved by means of thrombolysis or mechanical recanalization. However, for some patients, reperfusion may exacerbate the injury initially caused by ischemia, producing a so-called "cerebral reperfusion injury". Multiple pathological processes are involved in this injury, including leukocyte infiltration, platelet and complement activation, postischemic hyperperfusion, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. METHODS/RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide extensive information on this process of injury, and may have a role in the future in stratifying patients' risk for reperfusion injury following recanalization. Moreover, different MRI modalities can be used to investigate the various mechanisms of reperfusion injury. Antileukocyte antibodies, brain cooling and conditioned blood reperfusion are potential therapeutic strategies for lessening or eliminating reperfusion injury, and interventionalists may play a role in the future in using some of these therapies in combination with thrombolysis or embolectomy. The present review summarizes the mechanisms of reperfusion injury and focuses on the way each of those mechanisms can be evaluated by different MRI modalities. The potential therapeutic strategies are also discussed.
Project description:Hyperacute changes in cerebral blood flow during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion are important determinants of injury. Cerebral blood flow is regulated by neurovascular coupling, and disruption of neurovascular coupling contributes to brain plasticity and repair problems. However, it is unknown how neurovascular coupling is affected hyperacutely during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion. We have developed a remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the rat, which enables multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling immediately prior to, during and immediately following reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were subjected to remote middle cerebral artery occlusion, where a long filament was advanced intraluminally through a guide cannula in the common carotid artery. Transcallosal stimulation evoked increases in blood flow, tissue oxygenation and neuronal activity, which were diminished by middle cerebral artery occlusion and partially restored during reperfusion. These evoked responses were not affected by administration of the thrombolytic alteplase at clinically used doses. Evoked cerebral blood flow responses were fully restored at 24?h post-middle cerebral artery occlusion indicating that neurovascular dysfunction was not sustained. These data show for the first time that the rat remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model coupled with transcallosal stimulation provides a novel method for continuous assessment of hyperacute neurovascular coupling changes during ischaemia and reperfusion, and offers unique insight into hyperacute ischaemic pathophysiology.
Project description:Ischemic stroke accounts for nearly 80% of stroke cases. Recanalization with thrombolysis is a currently crucial therapeutic strategy for re-building blood supply, but the thrombolytic therapy often companies with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, which are mediated by free radicals. As an important component of free radicals, reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), play important roles in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ischemia-reperfusion results in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in ischemic brain, which trigger numerous molecular cascades and lead to disruption of the blood brain barrier and exacerbate brain damage. There are few therapeutic strategies available for saving ischemic brains and preventing the subsequent brain damage. Recent evidence suggests that RNS could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress regarding the roles of RNS in the process of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury and discussed the potentials of drug development that target NO and ONOO(-) to treat ischemic stroke. We conclude that modulation for RNS level could be an important therapeutic strategy for preventing cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion causes exacerbated neuronal damage involving excessive autophagy and neuronal loss. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of icariside II, one of main active ingredients of Herba Epimedii on this loss and whether this is related to its PDE 5 inhibitory action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in the rat by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion over 2 hr, followed by reperfusion with icariside II, 3-methylamphetamine or rapamycin. The effect of icariside II was determined measuring behaviour changes and the size of the infarction. The expressions of PDE 5, autophagy-related proteins and the level of phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were determined. Cultured primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation in the presence and absence of icariside II. A surface plasmon resonance assay and molecular docking were used to explore the interactions of icariside II with PDE 5 or GSK-3?. KEY RESULTS:Icariside II not only protected against induced ischaemic reperfusion injury in rats but also attenuated such injury in primary cortical neurons. The neuroprotective effects of icariside II on such injury were attributed to interfering with the PKG/GSK-3?/autophagy axis by directly bounding to PDE 5 and GSK-3?. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:These findings indicate that icariside II attenuates cerebral I/R-induced injury via interfering with PKG/GSK-3?/autophagy axis. This study raises the possibility that icariside II and other PDE 5 inhibitors maybe effective in the treatment ischaemia stroke.
Project description:Reperfusion exceeded time window may induce ischemia/reperfusion injury, increase hemorrhagic transformation, and deteriorate neurological outcomes in ischemic stroke models. However, the increasing clinical evidences supported that reperfusion even within 6-24?h may salvage ischemic tissue and improve neurological outcomes in selected large vessel occlusion patients, without inducing serious ischemia/reperfusion injury and hemorrhagic transformation. The underlying molecular mechanisms are less clear. In present study, we demonstrated that delayed recanalization at 3?days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) decreased infarct volumes and improved neurobehavioral deficits in rats, with no increasing animal mortality and intracerebral hemorrhage. Meanwhile, we observed that endogenous neuroprotective agent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) significantly increased in serum after MCAO, but which did not synchronously increase in penumbra due to permanent MCAO. Recanalization dramatically increased the endogenous FGF21 expression on neurons in penumbra after MCAO. We confirmed that FGF21 activated the FGFR1/PI3K/Caspase-3 signaling pathway, which attenuated neuronal apoptosis in penumbra. Conversely, knockdown of FGFR1 via FGFR1 siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of FGF21, and in part abrogated beneficial effects of recanalization on neurological outcomes. These findings suggested that delayed recanalization at 3?days after MCAO improved neurological outcomes in rats via increasing endogenous FGF21 expression and activating FGFR1/PI3K/Caspase-3 pathway to attenuate neuronal apoptosis in penumbra. Delayed recanalization at 3?days after ischemic stroke onset may be a promising treatment strategy in selected patients.
Project description:AIMS:Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) and the signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are known to be key regulators of a variety of important biological processes, such as neovascularization. Nitric oxide (NO) is also known to play a role in vasoactive properties, whether Sphk1/S1P signaling is able to alter angiogenesis in the context of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and whether such activity is linked with NO production, however, remains uncertain. METHODS:We used immunofluorescence to detect the expression of Sphk1 and NOS in cerebral epithelial cells (EC) after IR or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGDR). Western blotting was used to detect the Sphk1 and NOS protein levels in brain tissues or HBMECs. Adenovirus transfection was used to inhibit Sphk1 and NOS. An NO kit was used to detect NO contents in brain tissues and epithelial cells. Tube formation assays were conducted to measure angiogenesis. RESULTS:We determined that EC used in a model of cerebral IRI expressed Sphk1, and that inhibiting this expression led to decreased expression of two isoforms of NO synthase (eNOS and iNOS), as well as to decrease neovascularization density and NO production following injury. In HBMECs, knocking down Sphk1 markedly reduced NO production owing to reduced eNOS activity, and inhibiting eNOS directly similarly decreased NO production in a manner which could be reversed via exogenously treating cells with S1P. We further found that knocking down Sphk1 reduced HBMEC eNOS expression, in addition to decreasing the adhesion, migration, and tube formation abilities of these cells under OGDR conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Based on these results, we therefore postulate that Sphk1/S1P signaling is able to mediate angiogenesis following cerebral IRI via the regulation of eNOS activity and NO production. As such, targeting these pathways may potentially represent a novel means of improving patient prognosis in those suffering from cerebral IRI.
Project description:Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-re-oxygenation (OGDR) stimulation to the human endometrial cells mimics ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cyclophilin D (CypD)-dependent programmed necrosis pathway mediates OGDR-induced cytotoxicity to human endometrial cells. We here identified a novel CypD-targeting miRNA, microRNA-1203 (miR-1203). In T-HESC and primary human endometrial cells, ectopic overexpression of miR-1203, using a lentiviral construct, potently downregulated the CypD 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) activity and its expression. Both were however upregulated in endometrial cells with forced miR-1203 inhibition by its anti-sense sequence. Functional studies demonstrated that ectopic miR-1203 overexpression in endometrial cells alleviated OGDR-induced programmed necrosis, inhibiting mitochondrial CypD-p53-adenine nucleotide translocator 1 association, mitochondrial depolarization, reactive oxygen species production, and medium lactate dehydrogenase release. Contrarily OGDR-induced programmed necrosis and cytotoxicity were intensified with forced miR-1203 inhibition in endometrial cells. Significantly, ectopic miR-1203 overexpression or inhibition failed to change OGDR-induced cytotoxicity in CypD-knockout T-HESC cells. Furthermore, ectopic miR-1203 overexpression was unable to protect T-HESC endometrial cells from OGDR when CypD was restored by an UTR-depleted CypD construct. Collectively, these results show that miR-1203 targets and silences CypD to protect human endometrial cells from OGDR.
Project description:Emerging studies have shown that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) TUG1 (taurine-up-regulated gene 1) plays critical roles in multiple biological processes. However, the expression and function of lncRNA TUG1 in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury have not been reported yet. In this study, we found that LncRNA TUG1 expression was significantly up-regulated in cultured MA-C cells exposed to OGD/R injury, while similar results were also observed in MCAO model. Mechanistically, knockdown of TUG1 decreased lactate dehydrogenase levels and the ratio of apoptotic cells and promoted cell survival in vitro. Moreover, knockdown of TUG1 decreased AQP4 (encoding aquaporin 4) expression to attenuate OGD/R injury. TUG1 could interact directly with miR-145, and down-regulation of miR-145 could efficiently reverse the function of TUG1 siRNA on AQP4 expression. Finally, the TUG1 shRNA reduced the infarction area and cell apoptosis in I/R mouse brains in vivo. In summary, our results suggested that lncRNA TUG1 may function as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-145 to induce cell damage, possibly providing a new therapeutic target in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury.