Combination therapy of vitamin C and thiamine for septic shock: a multi-centre, double-blinded randomized, controlled study.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To evaluate the effects of early combination therapy with intravenous vitamin C and thiamine on recovery from organ failure in patients with septic shock. METHODS:The ascorbic acid and thiamine effect in septic shock (ATESS) trial was a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted in four academic emergency departments, enrolling adult patients with septic shock from December 2018 through January 2020. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the treatment group [intravenous vitamin C (50 mg/kg, maximum single dose 3 g) and thiamine (200 mg) administration every 12 h for a total of 48 h] or the placebo group (identical volume of 0.9% saline with the same protocol). The primary outcome was ? Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (SOFA score at enrolment-SOFA score after 72 h). Eighteen secondary outcomes were predefined, including shock reversal and 28-day mortality. RESULTS:A total of 111 patients were enrolled, of which 53 were assigned to the treatment group and 58 were assigned to the placebo group. There was no significant difference in ?SOFA scores between the treatment group and the placebo group [3, interquartile range (IQR) - 1 to 5 vs. 3, IQR 0-4, respectively, p?=?0.96]. Predefined secondary outcomes were also not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION:In this study, vitamin C and thiamine administration in the early phase of septic shock did not improve organ function compared with placebo, despite improvements in vitamin C and thiamine levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Septic shock is a life-threatening condition with underlying circulatory and cellular/metabolic abnormalities. Vitamin C and thiamine are potential candidates for adjunctive therapy; they are expected to improve outcomes based on recent experimental and clinical research. The aim of the Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Effect in Septic Shock (ATESS) trial is to evaluate the effects of early combination therapy with intravenous vitamin C and thiamine on recovery from organ failure in patients with septic shock. METHODS:This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial in adult patients with septic shock recruited from six emergency departments in South Korea. Patients will be randomly allocated into the treatment or control group (1:1 ratio), and we will recruit 116 septic shock patients (58 per group). For the treatment group, vitamin C (50?mg/kg) and thiamine (200?mg) will be mixed in 50?ml of 0.9% saline and administered intravenously every 12?h for a total of 48?h. For the placebo group, an identical volume of 0.9% saline will be administered in the same manner. The primary outcome is the delta Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (?SOFA?=?initial SOFA at enrolment - follow-up SOFA after 72?h). DISCUSSION:This trial will provide valuable evidence about the effectiveness of vitamin C and thiamine therapy for septic shock. If effective, this therapy might improve survival and become one of the main therapeutic adjuncts for patients with septic shock. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03756220 . Registered on 5 December 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intravenous vitamin C and thiamine administration may be a potential adjuvant therapy for septic shock. We aimed to investigate the impact of early vitamin C and thiamine administration in septic shock patients. METHODS:This retrospective before-and-after cohort study used data extracted from the Korean Shock Society's prospective septic shock registry. We compared 28-day and in-hospital mortality rates between patients treated with intravenous vitamin C (3 g/12 h or 1.5 g/6 h) and thiamine (200 mg/12 h) <6 hours after shock recognition from July through December 2017 (n = 229) and control patients from October 2015 through June 2017 (n = 915) using propensity score matching. RESULTS:The 28-day (18.3% vs. 17.5%; P = 0.76) and in-hospital (16.6% vs. 18.3%; P = 0.55) mortality rates did not differ between treatment and control groups, nor did 28-day (18.5% vs. 17.5%; P = 0.84) and in-hospital (16.7% vs. 18.4%; P = 0.54) mortality rates after matching. In the subgroup analysis, treatment was associated with lower in-hospital mortality rates in patients with albumin <3.0 mg/dL or a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score >10. CONCLUSION:Early vitamin C and thiamine administration in patients with septic shock did not improve survival; however, administration could benefit conditions that are more severe, such as hypoalbuminemia or severe organ failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thiamine, an essential vitamin for aerobic metabolism and glutathione cycling, may decrease the effects of critical illnesses. The objective of this study was to determine whether intravenous thiamine administration can reduce vasopressor requirements in patients with septic shock. METHODS:This study was a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. We included adult patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor within 1-24?h after admission between March 2018 and January 2019 at a tertiary hospital in Thailand. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received 200?mg thiamine or those receiving a placebo every 12?h for 7?days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the number of vasopressor-free days over 7?days. The pre-defined sample size was 31 patients per group, and the study was terminated early due to difficult recruitment. RESULTS:Sixty-two patients were screened and 50 patients were finally enrolled in the study, 25 in each group. There was no difference in the primary outcome of vasopressor-free days within the 7-day period between the thiamine and placebo groups (mean: 4.9?days (1.9) vs. 4.0?days (2.7), p =?0.197, mean difference?-?0.9, 95% CI (-?2.9 to 0.5)). However, the reductions in lactate (p =?0.024) and in the vasopressor dependency index (p =?0.02) at 24?h were greater among subjects who received thiamine repletion vs. the placebo. No statistically significant difference was observed in SOFA scores within 7?days, vasopressor dependency index within 4?days and 7?days, or 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Thiamine was not associated to a significant reduction in vasopressor-free days over 7-days in comparison to placebo in patients with septic shock. Administration of thiamine could be associated with a reduction in vasopressor dependency index and lactate level within 24?h. The study is limited by early stopping and low sample size. TRIAL REGISTRATION:TCTR, TCTR20180310001. Registered 8 March 2018, http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th/index.php?tp=regtrials&menu=trialsearch&smenu=fulltext&task=search&task2=view1&id=3330 .
Project description:To determine if intravenous thiamine would reduce lactate in patients with septic shock.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Two US hospitals.Adult patients with septic shock and elevated (> 3 mmol/L) lactate between 2010 and 2014.Thiamine 200 mg or matching placebo twice daily for 7 days or until hospital discharge.The primary outcome was lactate levels 24 hours after the first study dose. Of 715 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 88 patients were enrolled and received study drug. There was no difference in the primary outcome of lactate levels at 24 hours after study start between the thiamine and placebo groups (median: 2.5 mmol/L [1.5, 3.4] vs. 2.6 mmol/L [1.6, 5.1], p = 0.40). There was no difference in secondary outcomes including time to shock reversal, severity of illness and mortality. 35% of the patients were thiamine deficient at baseline. In this predefined subgroup, those in the thiamine treatment group had statistically significantly lower lactate levels at 24 hours (median 2.1 mmol/L [1.4, 2.5] vs. 3.1 [1.9, 8.3], p = 0.03). There was a statistically significant decrease in mortality over time in those receiving thiamine in this subgroup (p = 0.047).Administration of thiamine did not improve lactate levels or other outcomes in the overall group of patients with septic shock and elevated lactate. In those with baseline thiamine deficiency, patients in the thiamine group had significantly lower lactate levels at 24 hours and a possible decrease in mortality over time.
Project description:Sepsis is a common cause of delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recently, vitamin C and thiamine administration has been gaining interest as a potential adjunct therapy for sepsis. We investigated the impact of early vitamin C and thiamine administration on ICU delirium-free days among critically ill patients in septic shock. We performed a single-center, retrospective study of patients who visited the emergency department (ED) from January 2017 to July 2018. We categorized patients into a treatment (received vitamin C and thiamine) and control group. We compared delirium-free days within 14 days after ICU admission using propensity score matching. Of 435 patients with septic shock, we assigned 89 propensity score-matched pairs to the treatment and control groups. The median delirium-free days did not differ between treatment (11, interquartile range [IQR] 5-14 days) and control (12, IQR 6-14 days) groups (p = 0.894). Secondary outcomes were not different between the two groups, including delirium incidence and 28-day mortality. These findings were consistent after subgroup analysis for patients who met the sepsis-3 definition of septic shock. Vitamin C and thiamine administration showed no association with ICU delirium-free days among patients in septic shock.
Project description:To evaluate the serum concentrations of vitamin D and their variations in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and in control subjects upon admission and after 7 days of hospitalization in the intensive care unit and to correlate these concentrations with the severity of organ dysfunction.This case-control, prospective, observational study involved patients aged > 18 years with severe sepsis or septic shock paired with a control group. Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured at inclusion (D0) and on the seventh day after inclusion (D7). Severe deficiency was defined as vitamin D levels < 10ng/ml, deficiency as levels between 10 and 20ng/ml, insufficiency as levels between 20 and 30ng/ml, and sufficiency as levels ≥ 30ng/mL. We considered a change to a higher ranking, together with a 50% increase in the absolute concentration, to represent an improvement.We included 51 patients (26 with septic shock and 25 controls). The prevalence of vitamin D concentration ≤ 30ng/ml was 98%. There was no correlation between the serum concentration of vitamin D at D0 and the SOFA score at D0 or D7 either in the general population or in the group with septic shock. Patients with improvement in vitamin D deficiency had an improved SOFA score at D7 (p = 0.013).In the population studied, patients with septic shock showed improvement in the serum concentrations of vitamin D on the seventh day compared with the controls. We also found a correlation between higher vitamin D concentrations and a greater decrease in the severity of organ dysfunction.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Septic shock is a common and highly morbid condition. To date, there is no specific therapy proven to attenuate organ injury in septic shock. Recent studies have suggested a role for the combination of ascorbic acid, corticosteroids and thiamine, although randomised data are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The Ascorbic Acid, Corticosteroids, and Thiamine in Sepsis trial is a multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial that aims to determine the impact of ascorbic acid, corticosteroids and thiamine versus placebo on organ injury and mortality in patients with septic shock. Patients are randomised to receive 1500 mg of ascorbic acid, 100 mg of thiamine and 50 mg of hydrocortisone parenterally versus matching placebo every 6 hours for 4 days. Clinical and laboratory data are collected at the time of study enrolment, at 24, 72 and 120 hours. The primary end-point for the trial is change in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score between enrolment and 72 hours. Additional key secondary outcomes include the incidence of renal failure and 30-day mortality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was approved by the international review board of each participating study site. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:The trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03389555). It was posted on 3 January 2018.
Project description:Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a water-soluble vitamin essential for human health. Thiamine deficiency is causal and/or contributory in a number of debilitating diseases including beri-beri, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, optic neuropathy, and others. While thiamine deficiency is relatively rare in developed nations as a result of dietary supplementation, thiamine deficiency is more common in nutritionally compromised populations. Thiamine pyrophosphate, a thiamine derivative, is essential to the citric acid cycle and thiamine deficiency can result in impaired aerobic respiration and cellular energy production. Thiamine also plays an important role in the pentose phosphate pathway and other key metabolic processes. Although thiamine deficiency is a known cause of lactic acidosis, it has been recently evaluated as a potential contributor to refractory lactic acidosis and organ injury in septic shock and other shock states. In this article, we review the epidemiology of thiamine deficiency in septic shock and the existing evidence base supporting thiamine supplementation. We conclude that specific sepsis phenotypes may stand to benefit the most from thiamine supplementation, and efforts might be made to identify and supplement these patients early in their hospital course.
Project description:Sepsis is characterized by metabolic disturbances, and previous data suggest a relative carnitine deficiency may contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Studies regarding safety and patient-centered efficacy of carnitine during septic shock are lacking.This was a double-blind randomized control trial of levocarnitine (L-carnitine) infusion vs normal saline for the treatment of vasopressor-dependent septic shock. Patients meeting consensus definition for septic shock with a cumulative vasopressor index ? 3 and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score ? 5 enrolled within 16 hours of the recognition of septic shock were eligible. The primary safety outcome was difference in serious adverse events (SAEs) per patient between groups. Efficacy outcomes included proportion of patients demonstrating a decrease in SOFA score of 2 or more points at 24 hours and short- and long-term survival.Of the 31 patients enrolled, 16 were in the L-carnitine and 15 were in the placebo arm. There was no difference in SAEs between placebo and intervention (2.1 vs 1.8 SAEs per patient, P = .44). There was no difference in the proportion of patients achieving a decrease in SOFA score of 2 or more points at 24 hours between placebo and treatment (53% vs 44%, P = .59). Mortality was significantly lower at 28 days in the L-carnitine group (4/16 vs 9/15, P = .048), with a nonsignificant improved survival at 1 year (P = .06).L-carnitine infusion appears safe in vasopressor-dependent septic shock. Preliminary efficacy data suggest potential benefit of L-carnitine treatment, and further testing is indicated.
Project description:Importance:It is unclear whether vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine are more effective than hydrocortisone alone in expediting resolution of septic shock. Objective:To determine whether the combination of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine, compared with hydrocortisone alone, improves the duration of time alive and free of vasopressor administration in patients with septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial conducted in 10 intensive care units in Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil that recruited 216 patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition of septic shock. The first patient was enrolled on May 8, 2018, and the last on July 9, 2019. The final date of follow-up was October 6, 2019. Interventions:Patients were randomized to the intervention group (n?=?109), consisting of intravenous vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 hours), hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 hours), and thiamine (200 mg every 12 hours), or to the control group (n?=?107), consisting of intravenous hydrocortisone (50 mg every 6 hours) alone until shock resolution or up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary trial outcome was duration of time alive and free of vasopressor administration up to day 7. Ten secondary outcomes were prespecified, including 90-day mortality. Results:Among 216 patients who were randomized, 211 provided consent and completed the primary outcome measurement (mean age, 61.7 years [SD, 15.0]; 133 men [63%]). Time alive and vasopressor free up to day 7 was 122.1 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 76.3-145.4 hours) in the intervention group and 124.6 hours (IQR, 82.1-147.0 hours) in the control group; the median of all paired differences was -0.6 hours (95% CI, -8.3 to 7.2 hours; P?=?.83). Of 10 prespecified secondary outcomes, 9 showed no statistically significant difference. Ninety-day mortality was 30/105 (28.6%) in the intervention group and 25/102 (24.5%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.69-2.00). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions and Relevance:In patients with septic shock, treatment with intravenous vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine, compared with intravenous hydrocortisone alone, did not significantly improve the duration of time alive and free of vasopressor administration over 7 days. The finding suggests that treatment with intravenous vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine does not lead to a more rapid resolution of septic shock compared with intravenous hydrocortisone alone. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03333278.