Effects of fermented feeds and ginseng polysaccharides on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition of Xuefeng black-bone chicken.
ABSTRACT: Fermented feeds contain abundant organic acids, amino acids, and small peptides, which improve the nutritional status as well as the morphology and microbiota composition of the intestine. Ginseng polysaccharides exhibit several biological activities and contribute to improving intestinal development. Here, Xuefeng black-bone chickens were fed a basal diet fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium, with or without ginseng polysaccharides. The 100% microbially fermented feed (Fe) and 100% microbially fermented feed and ginseng polysaccharide (FP) groups showed significantly increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum. In the 100% complete feed and ginseng polysaccharide (Po) group, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was significantly increased, crypt depth was reduced, and villus height remained unaffected. Next, we studied the intestinal microbial composition of 32 Xuefeng black-bone chickens. A total of 10 phyla and 442 genera were identified, among which Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Sutterella and Asteroleplasma abundance increased and decreased, respectively, in the FP and Po groups. Sutterella abundance was positively correlated to villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and negatively correlated to crypt depth, and Asteroleplasma abundance was positively correlated to crypt depth and negatively correlated to villus height to crypt depth ratio. At the species level, the FP group showed significantly increased Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum and decreased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance, and the Po group showed significantly increased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance. Moreover, bacterial abundance was closely related to the jejunum histomorphology. Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance was positively correlated with crypt depth and negatively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio. Mycoplasma_gallinarum abundance was positively correlated to villus height, and Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum abundance was positively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio and negatively correlated with crypt depth. Therefore, fermented feeds with ginseng polysaccharides may be used as effective alternatives to antibiotics for improving intestinal morphology and microbial composition.
Project description:This study was conducted to compare the effects of Eucommia ulmoides leaves (EL) in different forms (EL extract, fermented EL, and EL powder) with antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and the microbiota composition and diversity of weanling piglets. Compared to the control group, the antibiotics and EL extract significantly increased the average daily gain and decreased the feed: gain ratio as well as the diarrhea rate (P < 0.05). The EL extract significantly decreased the crypt depth and increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (P < 0.05), while the fermented EL group did the opposite (P < 0.05). The crypt depth in the antibiotics group was of similar value to the EL extract group, and was lower than the fermented EL and EL powder groups (P < 0.05). Compared to the control and antibiotics groups, the jejunul claudin-3 mRNA expression and the concentrations of total VFA, Chao 1, and ACE were significantly augmented in the EL extract group of piglets (P < 0.05). The EL extract groups also showed elevated Shannon (P < 0.05) and Simpson (P = 0.07) values relative to the control and antibiotics groups. At the phylum level, the EL extract group exhibited a reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes and an enhanced abundance of Firmicutes. At the genus level, the abundance of Prevotella was augmented in the EL extract group. Moreover, compared with the antibiotic group, the acetate concentration was enhanced in the EL extract and fermented EL groups. Overall, dietary supplementation with the EL extract, but not the fermented EL or EL powder, improved growth performance, jejunul morphology and function, as well as changed colonic microbial composition and diversity, which might be an alternative to confer protection against weanling stress in weanling piglets.
Project description:BACKGROUND The cortex of Magnolia officinalis has long been used as an element of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of anxiety, chronic bronchitis, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of its functional ingredients (magnolol and honokiol) in modifying the secretion and absorption homeostasis and protecting mucosal integrity in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced diarrhea mouse model. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study established a diarrhea mouse model infected by ETEC at a dosage of 0.02 ml/g live body weight (BW) in vivo. Magnolol or honokiol was followed by an intraperitoneal administration at dosages of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg BW according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement. The useful biomarkers for evaluating the integrity of intestinal tract and histologic injury were analyzed and morphological development (including villus height, crypt depth, and ratio of villus height to crypt depth) and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines were determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS The results showed that magnolol and honokiol (500 mg/kg BW) reduced the concentrations of NO, DAO, and DLA, and iNOS activity, and the mRNA expressions of the interferon gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), and inhibited intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis. Magnolol and honokiol (300 mg/kg BW) elongated the villus height and crypt depth and decreased the number of goblet cells and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. CONCLUSIONS The current results indicate that magnolol and honokiol enhance the intestinal anti-inflammatory capacities, elongate the villus height and crypt depth, and reduce goblet cell numbers to inhibit the intestinal epithelium apoptosis and effectively protect the intestinal mucosa. These results show that magnolol and honokiol protect the intestinal mucosal integrity and regulate gastrointestinal dysfunction.
Project description:Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function, which was possibly due to the decreasing apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and the improvement of intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a major issue in animal industries and antibiotic-free alternatives are needed to treat infectious diseases and improve performance of pigs. Plant extracts have been suggested as a potential solution. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (Aps) and ginseng polysaccharide (Gps) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune function, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and microfloral community in weaned piglets. A total of 180 weaned piglets were randomly divided into three treatment groups during a 28-days feeding experiment, including a basal diet (Con), basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Aps (Aps), and basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Gps (Gps). Results showed that both Aps and Gps increased body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate, and reduced the rate of diarrhea. Gps also decreased aspartate aminotransferase compared to the Con piglets after 14 days. No significant effects on alanine aminotransferase were observed. Both Aps and Gps piglets exhibited higher serum immunoglobulin M levels after 14 and 28 days, and also decreased jejunal crypt depth, increased jejunal villus length and villus height/crypt depth ratio, and increased expression of toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation primary response 88, nuclear factor-kappa B proteins in the jejunum. Aps and Gps piglets also had higher concentrations of acetic acid, isobutyric acid, and butyrate in their colon. Data of high-throughput sequencing revealed that Aps and Gps affected bacterial quantity and diversity in the colon. Species richness and evenness were higher in both Aps and Gps piglets than the control piglets. Aps and Gps piglets also had a higher relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Anaerostipes, and the Aps piglets had a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. amylovorus. Therefore, dietary supplementation with Aps and Gps could be beneficial for optimizing the performance of industry pigs and reducing dependence on antibiotics. Furthermore, Plant polysaccharides play a great role in promoting the sustainable development of animal husbandry.
Project description:Effects of a high proportion of concentrate in the diet on the ileal microbiota and metabolites in small ruminants are rarely reported. This study was designed to investigate the ileal microbiota and its relationship with host metabolic function in goats and aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involving in the ileal adaptation to a diet containing a high proportion of rice. Sixteen goats were equally divided into two groups and fed a diet with a normal concentrate proportion (NC, 55% concentrate) or a high-concentrate diet (HC, 90% concentrate). Results showed that the HC diet decreased bacterial diversity and elevated the abundance of five genera (Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Ruminococcus_gauvreauii_group, Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group and Ruminococcus 1), but reduced the number of Anaerotruncus. Microbial functional potentials indicated that the HC diet activated the pathways related to metabolism of carbohydrate, glycan, lipid and vitamins, but inhibited the pathways associated with cell motility and signal transduction. The activities of amylase and alkaline phosphatase were greater (p < 0.05) in the intestinal digesta of the HC-fed goats. However, there were no differences in the villus height, crypt depth and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the ileum between the two groups. These results indicate that the HC diet alters the bacterial community and pathways related to the metabolism of dietary nutrients and cell motility and signal transduction of bacteria in the ileum of goats.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gut health in poultry depends on the balance between the host, intestinal microbiota, intestinal microscopic features and diet. The effects of insect meal (a promising alternative protein source for poultry feed) on chicken gut morphology have recently been reported, but no data about intestinal microbiota and mucin composition modulation are available. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor (TM) meal inclusion on gut health of free-range chickens by intestinal microbiota, morphology and mucin composition characterization. RESULTS:One hundred forty female medium-growing hybrids were divided into 2 dietary treatments (control feed [C] and 7.5% TM inclusion, with 5 replicate pens/treatment and 14 birds/pen) and slaughtered at 97?days of age (2 birds/pen for a total of 10 chickens/diet). The gut microbiota assessment on cecal content samples by 16S rRNA amplicon based sequencing showed higher alpha (Shannon, P?<?0.05) and beta (Adonis and ANOSIM, P?<?0.001) diversity in birds fed TM diet than C. In comparison with C group, TM birds displayed significant increase and decrease, respectively, of the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, with higher Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratios (False Discovery Rate [FDR]?<?0.05). The relative abundance of Clostridium, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus and Sutterella genera was higher in TM chickens than C (FDR < 0.05). On the contrary, TM birds displayed significant decrease of the relative abundance of Bacteroides genus compared to the C group (FDR?<?0.05). Gut morphology evaluation by morphometric analysis on small intestine revealed similar villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio between C and TM birds. Characterization of gut mucin composition by periodic-acid Schiff, Alcian Blue pH?2.5 and high iron diamine staining on small and large intestine showed unaffected mucin staining intensity in TM chickens when compared to C group. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary TM meal inclusion may positively modulate the gut microbiota of the free-range chickens without influencing the intestinal morphology and mucin composition. Since the rapid growth of chickens directly depends on morphological and functional integrity of the digestive tract, the gut health assessment by a post mortem multidisciplinary approach appears to be fundamental.
Project description:This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 ?g/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET). Intestine samples were collected from pigs' offspring at birth and weaning. Maternal BPA exposure during pregnancy significantly reduced the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth, decreased the jejunum sucrase activity, down-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum peptide transporter 1 (Pept1) and DNA methyl transferase 3a (DNMT3a), and decreased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05). Maternal MET supplementation significantly raised the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, improved the jejunum lactase activity, up-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1, lactase (LCT), DNMT1, DNMT3a, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and increased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05). However, the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth was higher in BPA + MET treatment compared with CON and BPA treatment (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no difference in the jejunum sucrase activity, the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1 and DNMT3a, and the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 between CON and BPA + MET treatment. These results indicated that maternal exposure to BPA during gestation might suppress offspring's intestinal digestion and absorption function, whereas supplementation of MET could counteract these damages, which might be associated with DNA methylation.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lactose (LA) and a prototype Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product (FP) on growth performance, diet digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and intestinal function of weaned pigs. Twenty-eight newly weaned pigs [approximately 21 d of age; initial body weight (BW) = 5.20 ± 0.15 kg] were housed in metabolism crates and assigned to one of four treatments (n = seven pigs per treatment) corresponding to a 2 × 2 factorial design: with (LA+; 15% inclusion) or without (LA-) LA and with (FP+) or without (FP-) the prototype FP (1 g of FP per kilogram of diet; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA). Feed and water were provided ad libitum. At day 5, pigs were orally given lactulose and mannitol to assess small intestinal permeability. Fecal samples were collected on days 5-9 to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and N. Total urine output and fecal samples were collected on days 10-13 to determine N retention. On day 15, all pigs were euthanized to collect intestinal lumen and tissue samples. Data were analyzed for the main effects of LA and FP and their interaction using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Lactose improved average daily feed intake (ADFI; P = 0.017), the ATTD of DM (P = 0.014), the ATTD of GE (P = 0.028), and N retention (P = 0.043) and tended to increase the butyric acid concentration in the colon (P = 0.062). The FP tended to increase the digestibility of N (P = 0.090). Neither LA nor the FP affected intestinal barrier function or inflammation markers. The interaction between LA and FP affected intestinal morphology: in the jejunum, pigs fed LA+FP- had increased villus height compared with those fed LA+FP+ and LA-FP-, whereas LA+FP+ was intermediate (interaction P = 0.034). At the terminal ileum, pigs fed LA-FP+ and LA+FP- had increased villus height and villus: crypt compared with those fed LA-FP-, whereas LA+FP+ was intermediate (interaction P = 0.007 and P = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, the addition of LA brings important nutritional attributes to nursery diets by improving feed intake, digestibility of DM and GE, and the N retention of weaned pigs; however, the functional capacity of LA to improve markers of intestinal function is limited. On the other hand, the FP showed only a mild increase in the digestibility of N but a limited capacity to improve markers of intestinal function.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has revealed the dysbiosis of gut/fecal microbiota induced by heat stress (HS) in mammals and poultry. However, the effects of HS on microbiota communities in different intestinal segments of Cherry-Valley ducks (a widely used meat-type breed) and their potential associations with growth performances, fat deposition, intestinal morphology, and antioxidant capacity have not been well evaluated yet. In this study, room temperature (RT) of 25°C was considered as control, and RT at 32°C for 8 h per day was set as the HS treatment. After 3 weeks, the intestinal contents of jejunum, ileum, and cecum were harvested to investigate the microbiota composition variations by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. And the weight gain, adipose indices, intestinal morphology, and a certain number of serum biochemical parameters were also measured and analyzed. The results showed the microbial species at different levels differentially enriched in duck jejunum and cecum under HS, while no significant data were observed in ileum. HS also caused the intestinal morphological changes (villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth) and the reductions of growth speed (daily gain), levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol, and antioxidant activity (higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lower total antioxidant). The higher abdominal fat content and serum glucose level were also observed in HS ducks. The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that in jejunum the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were associated with average daily gain, feed/gain, serum TG and MDA levels, and villus height/crypt depth (P < 0.05). The phylum Firmicutes and genus Acinetobacter were significantly associated with fat deposition and serum glucose level (P < 0.05). The genus Lactobacillus was positively associated with serum total antioxidant (P < 0.05), while some other microbial species were found negatively associated, including order Pseudomonadales, genera Acinetobacter, and unidentified_Mitochondria. However, no significant correlations were observed in cecum. These findings imply the potential roles of duck gut microbiota in the intestinal injuries, fat deposition, and reductions of growth speed and antioxidant capacity caused by HS, although the molecular mechanisms requires further investigation.
Project description:Celiac disease (CeD) provides an opportunity to study autoimmunity and the transition in immune cells as dietary gluten induces small intestinal lesions.Seventy-three celiac disease patients on a long-term, gluten-free diet ingested a known amount of gluten daily for 6 weeks. A peripheral blood sample and intestinal biopsy specimens were taken before and 6 weeks after initiating the gluten challenge. Biopsy results were reported on a continuous numeric scale that measured the villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratio to quantify gluten-induced intestinal injury. Pooled B and T cells were isolated from whole blood, and RNA was analyzed by DNA microarray looking for changes in peripheral B- and T-cell gene expression that correlated with changes in villus height to crypt depth, as patients maintained a relatively healthy intestinal mucosa or deteriorated in the face of a gluten challenge.Gluten-dependent intestinal damage from baseline to 6 weeks varied widely across all patients, ranging from no change to extensive damage. Genes differentially expressed in B cells correlated strongly with the extent of intestinal damage. A relative increase in B-cell gene expression correlated with a lack of sensitivity to gluten whereas their relative decrease correlated with gluten-induced mucosal injury. A core B-cell gene module, representing a subset of B-cell genes analyzed, accounted for the correlation with intestinal injury.Genes comprising the core B-cell module showed a net increase in expression from baseline to 6 weeks in patients with little to no intestinal damage, suggesting that these individuals may have mounted a B-cell immune response to maintain mucosal homeostasis and circumvent inflammation. DNA microarray data were deposited at the GEO repository (accession number: GSE87629; available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/).