Coronary computed tomography angiography and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography perfusion imaging for the assessment of coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT: Determining the anatomic severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) by means of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effect on perfusion using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) form the pillars of the non-invasive imaging assessment of CAD. This review will 1) focus on CCTA and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography MPI as stand-alone imaging modalities and their combined use for detecting CAD, 2) highlight some of the lessons learned from the PACIFIC trial (Comparison of Coronary CT Angiography, SPECT, PET, and Hybrid Imaging for Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease Determined by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) (NCT01521468)), and 3) discuss the use of [15O]H2O PET MPI in the clinical work-up of patients with a chronic coronary total occlusion (CTO).
Project description:Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. To date, diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected CAD has relied upon the use of physiologic non-invasive testing by stress electrocardiography, echocardiography, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and magnetic resonance imaging. Indeed, the importance of physiologic evaluation of CAD has been highlighted by large-scale randomized trials that demonstrate the propitious benefit of an integrated anatomic-physiologic evaluation method by performing lesion-specific ischemia assessment by fractional flow reserve (FFR)-widely considered the "gold" standard for ischemia assessment-at the time of invasive angiography. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has emerged as an attractive non-invasive test for anatomic illustration of the coronary arteries and atherosclerotic plaque. In a series of prospective multicenter trials, CCTA has been proven as having high diagnostic performance for stenosis detection as compared to invasive angiography. Nevertheless, CCTA evaluation of obstructive stenoses is prone to overestimation of severity and further, detection of stenoses by CCTA does not reliably determine the hemodynamic significance of the visualized lesions. Recently, a series of technological innovations have advanced the possibility of CCTA to enable physiologic evaluation of CAD, thereby creating the potential of this test to provide an integrated anatomic-physiologic assessment of CAD. These advances include rest-stress MPI by CCTA as well as the use of computational fluid dynamics to non-invasively calculate FFR from a typically acquired CCTA. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent data addressing these 2 physiologic methods of CAD evaluation by CCTA.
Project description:Acute rest single-photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) has high predictive value for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in emergency department patients. Prior studies have shown excellent agreement between rest/stress computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and SPECT-MPI, but the value of resting CTP (rCTP) in acute chest pain triage remains unclear. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of early rCTP, incremental value beyond obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD; ?50% stenosis), and compared early rCTP to late stress SPECT-MPI in patients with CAD presenting with suspicion of ACS to the emergency department.In this prespecified subanalysis of 183 patients (58.1±10.2 years; 33% women), we included patients with any CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) from Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computer-Assisted Tomography I. rCTP was assessed semiquantitatively, blinded to CAD interpretation. Overall, 31 had ACS and 48 had abnormal rCTP. Sensitivity and specificity of rCTP for ACS were 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-67%) and 78% (95% CI, 71%-85%), respectively. rCTP predicted ACS (adjusted odds ratio, 3.40 [95% CI, 1.37-8.42]; P=0.008) independently of obstructive CAD, and sensitivity for ACS increased from 77% (95% CI, 59%-90%) for obstructive CAD to 90% (95% CI, 74%-98%) with addition of rCTP (P=0.05). In a subgroup undergoing late rest/stress SPECT-MPI (n=81), CCTA/rCTP had noninferior discriminatory value to CCTA/SPECT-MPI (area under the curve, 0.88 versus 0.90; P=0.64) using a noninferiority margin of 10%.Early rCTP provides incremental value beyond obstructive CAD to detect ACS. CCTA/rCTP is noninferior to CCTA/SPECT-MPI to discriminate ACS and presents an attractive alternative to triage patients presenting with acute chest pain.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00990262.
Project description:Dual-energy CT (DECT) has potential to improve myocardial perfusion for physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Diagnostic performance of rest-stress DECT perfusion (DECTP) is unknown.DECIDE-Gold is a prospective multicenter study to evaluate the accuracy of DECT to detect hemodynamic (HD) significant CAD, as compared to fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard.Eligible participants are subjects with symptoms of CAD referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Participants will undergo DECTP, which will be performed by pharmacological stress, and participants will subsequently proceed to ICA and FFR. HD-significant CAD will be defined as FFR ? 0.80. In those undergoing myocardial stress imaging (MPI) by positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, ischemia will be graded by % ischemic myocardium. Blinded core laboratory interpretation will be performed for CCTA, DECTP, MPI, ICA, and FFR.Primary endpoint is accuracy of DECTP to detect ?1 HD-significant stenosis at the subject level when compared to FFR. Secondary and tertiary endpoints are accuracies of combinations of DECTP at the subject and vessel levels compared to FFR and MPI.DECIDE-Gold will determine the performance of DECTP for diagnosing ischemia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that, in the initial evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) would result in less downstream testing than coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). METHODS:In this international, randomized trial, mildly symptomatic patients with an intermediate likelihood of having CAD, and asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk of cardiac events, underwent either initial stress-rest MPI or CCTA. The primary outcome was downstream noninvasive or invasive testing at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included cumulative effective radiation dose (ERD) and costs at 12 months. RESULTS:We recruited 303 patients (151 MPI and 152 CTA) from 6 centers in 6 countries. The initial MPI was abnormal in 29% (41/143) and CCTA in 56% (79/141) of patients. Fewer patients undergoing initial stress-rest MPI had further downstream testing at 6 months (adjusted OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.91, P = 0.023). There was a small increase in the median cumulative ERD with MPI (9.6 vs. 8.8 mSv, P = 0.04), but no difference in costs between the two strategies at 12 months. CONCLUSION:In the management of patients with suspected CAD, a strategy of initial stress MPI is substantially less likely to require further downstream testing than initial testing with CCTA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov identification number NCT01368770.
Project description:Computed tomography (CT) can perform comprehensive cardiac imaging. We compared CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) with 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR).51 patients (63 (61-65) years, 80 % male) with known/suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent 320-multidetector CTCA followed by "snapshot" adenosine stress CTP. Of these 22 underwent PET and 47 ICA/FFR. Obstructive CAD was defined as CTCA stenosis >50 % and CTP hypoperfusion, ICA stenosis >70 % or FFR <0.80.PET hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) was lower in obstructive than non-obstructive territories defined by ICA/FFR (1.76 (1.32-2.20) vs 3.11 (2.44-3.79) mL/(g/min), P?<?0.001) and CTCA/CTP (1.76 (1.32-2.20) vs 3.12 (2.44-3.79) mL/(g/min), P?<?0.001). Baseline and hyperaemic CT attenuation density was lower in obstructive than non-obstructive territories (73 (71-76) vs 86 (84-88) HU, P?<?0.001 and 101 (96-106) vs 111 (107-114) HU, P?0.001). PET hyperaemic MBF corrected for rate pressure product correlated with CT attenuation density (r?=?0.579, P?<?0.001). There was excellent per-patient sensitivity (96 %), specificity (85 %), negative predictive value (90 %) and positive predictive value (94 %) for CTCA/CTP vs ICA/FFR.CT myocardial attenuation density correlates with 15O-water PET MBF. CTCA and CTP can accurately identify obstructive CAD.•CT myocardial perfusion can aid the assessment of suspected coronary artery disease. • CT attenuation density from "snapshot" imaging is a marker of myocardial perfusion. • CT myocardial attenuation density correlates with 15 O-water PET myocardial blood flow. • CT attenuation density is lower in obstructive territories defined by invasive angiography. • Diagnostic accuracy of CTCA+CTP is comparable to invasive angiography + fractional flow reserve.
Project description:AIMS:To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a multicentre study to evaluate the accuracy of integrated CTA-CTP for the identification of patients with flow-limiting CAD defined by ?50% stenosis by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with a corresponding perfusion deficit on stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/MPI). Sixteen centres enroled 381 patients who underwent combined CTA-CTP and SPECT/MPI prior to conventional coronary angiography. All four image modalities were analysed in blinded independent core laboratories. The prevalence of obstructive CAD defined by combined ICA-SPECT/MPI and ICA alone was 38 and 59%, respectively. The patient-based diagnostic accuracy defined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of integrated CTA-CTP for detecting or excluding flow-limiting CAD was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-0.91]. In patients without prior myocardial infarction, the AUC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94) and in patients without prior CAD the AUC for combined CTA-CTP was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.97). For the combination of a CTA stenosis ?50% stenosis and a CTP perfusion deficit, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predicative values (95% CI) were 80% (72-86), 74% (68-80), 65% (58-72), and 86% (80-90), respectively. For flow-limiting disease defined by ICA-SPECT/MPI, the accuracy of CTA was significantly increased by the addition of CTP at both the patient and vessel levels. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of CTA and perfusion correctly identifies patients with flow limiting CAD defined as ?50 stenosis by ICA causing a perfusion defect by SPECT/MPI.
Project description:Importance:At present, the choice of noninvasive testing for a diagnosis of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) is ambiguous, but nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is predominantly used for this purpose. However, to date, prospective head-to-head studies are lacking regarding the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging modalities. Furthermore, the combination of anatomical and functional assessments configuring a hybrid approach may yield improved accuracy. Objectives:To establish the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA, SPECT, and PET and explore the incremental value of hybrid imaging compared with fractional flow reserve. Design, Setting, and Participants:A prospective clinical study involving 208 patients with suspected CAD who underwent CCTA, technetium 99m/tetrofosmin-labeled SPECT, and [15O]H2O PET with examination of all coronary arteries by fractional flow reserve was performed from January 23, 2012, to October 25, 2014. Scans were interpreted by core laboratories on an intention-to-diagnose basis. Hybrid images were generated in case of abnormal noninvasive anatomical or functional test results. Main Outcomes and Measures:Hemodynamically significant stenosis in at least 1 coronary artery as indicated by a fractional flow reserve of 0.80 or less and relative diagnostic accuracy of SPECT, PET, and CCTA in detecting hemodynamically significant CAD. Results:Of the 208 patients in the study (76 women and 132 men; mean [SD] age, 58  years), 92 (44.2%) had significant CAD (fractional flow reserve ?0.80). Sensitivity was 90% (95% CI, 82%-95%) for CCTA, 57% (95% CI, 46%-67%) for SPECT, and 87% (95% CI, 78%-93%) for PET, whereas specificity was 60% (95% CI, 51%-69%) for CCTA, 94% (95% CI, 88%-98%) for SPECT, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-89%) for PET. Single-photon emission tomography was found to be noninferior to PET in terms of specificity (P?<?.001) but not in terms of sensitivity (P?>?.99) using the predefined absolute margin of 10%. Diagnostic accuracy was highest for PET (85%; 95% CI, 80%-90%) compared with that of CCTA (74%; 95% CI, 67%-79%; P?=?.003) and SPECT (77%; 95% CI, 71%-83%; P?=?.02). Diagnostic accuracy was not enhanced by either hybrid SPECT and CCTA (76%; 95% CI, 70%-82%; P?=?.75) or by PET and CCTA (84%; 95% CI, 79%-89%; P?=?.82), but resulted in an increase in specificity (P?=?.004) at the cost of a decrease in sensitivity (P?=?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:This controlled clinical head-to-head comparative study revealed PET to exhibit the highest accuracy for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, a combined anatomical and functional assessment does not add incremental diagnostic value but guides clinical decision-making in an unsalutary fashion.
Project description:Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8 countries worldwide. CT has the potential to assess both anatomy and physiology in a single imaging session. The co-primary aim of the CORE320 study is to define the per-patient diagnostic accuracy of the combination of coronary CTA and myocardial CTP to detect physiologically significant coronary artery disease compared with (1) the combination of conventional coronary angiography and SPECT-MPI and (2) conventional coronary angiography alone. If successful, the technology could revolutionize the management of patients with symptomatic CAD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Establishing the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in symptomatic patients allows appropriately allocating preventative measures. Single-photon emission computed tomography (CT)-acquired myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) is frequently used for the evaluation of CAD, but coronary CT angiography (CTA) has emerged as a valid alternative. METHODS AND RESULTS:We compared the accuracy of SPECT-MPI and CTA for the diagnosis of CAD in 391 symptomatic patients who were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter study after clinical referral for cardiac catheterization. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CTA and SPECT-MPI for identifying patients with CAD defined as the presence of ?1 coronary artery with ?50% lumen stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography. Sensitivity to identify patients with CAD was greater for CTA than SPECT-MPI (0.92 versus 0.62, respectively; P<0.001), resulting in greater overall accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.94] versus 0.69 [0.64-0.74]; P<0.001). Results were similar in patients without previous history of CAD (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.92 [0.89-0.96] versus 0.67 [0.61-0.73]; P<0.001) and also for the secondary end points of ?70% stenosis and multivessel disease, as well as subgroups, except for patients with a calcium score of ?400 and those with high-risk anatomy in whom the overall accuracy was similar because CTA's superior sensitivity was offset by lower specificity in these settings. Radiation doses were 3.9 mSv for CTA and 9.8 for SPECT-MPI (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CTA is more accurate than SPECT-MPI for the diagnosis of CAD as defined by conventional angiography and may be underused for this purpose in symptomatic patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00934037.
Project description:This study compared costs and clinical outcomes of invasive versus non-invasive diagnostic evaluations for patients with suspected in-stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention. We developed a decision model to compare 2 year diagnosis-related costs for patients who presented with suspected ISR and were evaluated by: (1) invasive coronary angiography (ICA); (2) non-invasive stress testing strategy of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with referral to ICA based on MPI; (3) coronary CT angiography-based testing strategy with referral to ICA based on CCTA. Costs were modeled from the payer's perspective using 2014 Medicare rates. 56 % of patients underwent follow-up diagnostic testing over 2 years. Compared to ICA, MPI (98.6 %) and CCTA (98.1 %) exhibited lower rates of correct diagnoses. Non-invasive strategies were associated with reduced referrals to ICA and costs compared to an ICA-based strategy, with diagnostic costs lower for CCTA than MPI. Overall 2-year costs were highest for ICA for both metallic as well as BVS stents ($1656 and $1656, respectively) when compared to MPI ($1444 and $1411) and CCTA. CCTA costs differed based upon stent size and type, and were highest for metallic stents >3.0 mm followed by metallic stents <3.0 mm, BVS < 3.0 mm and BVS > 3.0 mm ($1466 vs. $1242 vs. $855 vs. $490, respectively). MPI for suspected ISR results in lower costs and rates of complications than invasive strategies using ICA while maintaining high diagnostic performance. Depending upon stent size and type, CCTA results in lower costs than MPI.