Chromosomal Abnormalities in Allium cepa Induced by Treated Textile Effluents: Spatial and Temporal Variations
ABSTRACT: Appropriate effluent treatment processes are expected to significantly reduce the toxicity of effluents before they are released to the natural environment. The present study was aimed to assess the spatial and temporal variations of the physical and chemical water quality parameters of a natural water body receiving treated textile effluents and to assess the chromosomal abnormalities induced by the treated textile effluents. Four sampling sites (A: effluent discharge point; B: 100?m downstream from site A along the tributary; C: 200?m downstream from site A along the tributary; D: 100?m upstream from site A along the tributary) were selected associated to a tributary that received treated textile effluent. The physical and chemical water quality parameters were measured in the composite water samples collected from the study sites, and Allium cepa bioassay was conducted using aged tap water as the control. Sampling was conducted in both rainy and dry seasons. The conductivity, TDS, COD, and colour intensity of the water samples collected from the study sites were significantly higher during the dry season compared to those in the rainy season. Allium cepa root meristematic cells exposed to water samples from sites A, B, and C showed a significantly high interphase and prophase indices compared to those exposed to aged tap water and upstream site during both rainy and dry seasons. The mitotic index of the root tip cells of Allium cepa bulbs exposed to the water samples collected from the effluent discharge point (site A) and from the 100?m downstream site from site A (site B) was significantly lower than that of the other sites in both rainy and dry seasons. However, the mitotic index of the root tip cells of Allium cepa bulbs exposed to the water samples from the upstream site was not significantly different from that of the control treatment during both sampling seasons. The bioassay indicated that the mitotic index and phase index of the root meristematic cells of Allium cepa can be affected by the treated textile effluents released to the water body and the occurrence of C metaphase, chromosomal adherence, bridges, disturbed anaphase, vagrant chromosomes, and chromosomal breaks indicated that the treated textile effluent receiving tributary can possibly contain genotoxic and mutagenic compounds which can induce chromosomal abnormalities.
Project description:Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma, have also been used for textile effluents treatment. The main aim of the present study was to requalify a Brazilian Trichoderma culture collection of 51 Trichoderma strains, isolated from different sources in Brazil and preserved in the oldest Latin-American Fungal Service Culture Collection, The Micoteca URM WDCM 804 (Recife, Brazil). Fungal isolates were re-identified through a polyphasic approach including macro- and micro-morphology and molecular biology, and screened for their capability to decolourise real effluents collected directly from storage tanks of a textile manufacture. Trichoderma atroviride URM 4950 presented the best performance on the dye decolourisation in real textile effluent and can be considered in a scale-up process at industrial level. Overall, the potential of Trichoderma strains in decolourising real textile dye present in textile effluent and the production of the oxidative enzymes Lac, LiP and MnP was demonstrated. Fungal strains are available in the collection e-catalogue to be further explored from the biotechnological point of view.
Project description:In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A), followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1)) with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.
Project description:Twenty-one fungal strains were isolated from dye-contaminated soil; out of them, two fungal strains A2 and G2-1 showed the highest decolorization capacity for real textile effluent and were, hence, identified as <i>Aspergillus flavus</i> and <i>Fusarium oxysporium</i> based on morphological and molecular methods. The highest decolorization percentage of 78.12 ± 2.1% was attained in the biotreatment with fungal consortium followed by <i>A. flavus</i> and <i>F. oxysporium</i> separately with removal percentages of 54.68 ± 1.2% and 52.41 ± 1.0%, respectively. Additionally, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of the treated effluent showed that a maximum peak (<i>λ</i><sub>max</sub>) of 415 nm was reduced as compared with the control. The indicators of wastewater treatment efficacy, namely total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, conductivity, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand with removal percentages of 78.2, 78.4, 58.2, 78.1, and 77.6%, respectively, demonstrated a considerable decrease in values due to fungal consortium treatment. The reduction in peak and mass area along with the appearance of new peaks in GC-MS confirms a successful biodegradation process. The toxicity of treated textile effluents on the seed germination of <i>Vicia faba</i> was decreased as compared with the control. The shoot length after irrigation with effluents treated by the fungal consortium was 15.12 ± 1.01 cm as compared with that treated by tap-water, which was 17.8 ± 0.7 cm. Finally, we recommended the decrease of excessive uses of synthetic dyes and utilized biological approaches for the treatment of real textile effluents to reuse in irrigation of uneaten plants especially with water scarcity worldwide.
Project description:Textile industry is one of the anthropogenic activities that consume a large amount of water and pollute water bodies. It uses a massive amount of dyes, which is one of the main constituents of polluting textile effluent. In the present research, biodegradation of Acid Blue 113 dye, a commonly used textile di-azo dye, has been studied exploiting <i>Pseudomonas stutzeri</i>, strain AK6. The dye (300 ppm) was decolorized up to 86.2% within 96 h. The metabolites of Acid Blue 113 obtained after biodegradation were identified by various analytical techniques viz. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Genome analysis of isolate AK6 using IMG/M (Integrated Microbial Genomes and Microbiomes) system supported the role of azoreductase and laccase for the decolorization and degradation of azo dye. The ability of <i>P. stutzeri</i> AK6 to tolerate high amount of dye makes it a potential candidate for bioremediation and pre-processing to remove dyes from textile effluents.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Effluents produced in the textile industries are important sources of water pollution due to the presence of toxic dyes, auxiliary chemicals, organic substances etc. Recycling of such industrial wastewater is one major aspect of sustainable water management; hence present study is focused on an eco-friendly process development for reclamation of higher loading textile wastewater.<h4>Method</h4>Industrial effluent samples with varying loading were collected from textile processing units located in and around Kolkata city. Vegetable waste collected from local market was utilized to prepare an efficient biochar for elimination of the recalcitrant dyes. Prior to adsorption, ceramic ultrafiltration (UF) process was used for reduction of the organic loading and other suspended and dissolved components.<h4>Results</h4>A remarkably high BET surface area of 1216 m<sup>2</sup>g<sup>-1</sup> and enhanced pore volume of 1.139 cm<sup>3</sup>g<sup>-1</sup> was observed for biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was about 300 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>. The combined process facilitated >99% removal of dyes and 77-80% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the various samples of effluent. The treated effluent was found suitable to discharge or reuse in other purposes. About 95% of dye recovery was achieved during biochar regeneration with acetone solution. The dye loaded spent biochar was composted with dry leaves and garden soil as bulking agent. Prepared compost could achieve the recommended parameters with high nutritional value after 45 days.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The overall study showed potential of the proposed process towards treatment of toxic dye loaded textile effluent in an environment friendly and sustainable approach.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Staining is an important histological process; however, the use of non-toxic and environmentally friendly products is generally required. We explored the staining quality of two natural plants, <i>Allium cepa</i> skin and <i>Sorghum bicolor</i> seed extract on the cytoplasm.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Distilled water at 37 °C and 1% acid-ethanol were respectively used to extract the dyes from <i>Allium cepa</i> skin and <i>Sorghum bicolor seed</i>.<h4>Result</h4>The application of these two dyes on rodent tissue showed an excellent cytoplasmic histomorphology.<h4>Conclusion</h4><i>Allium cepa</i> skin and <i>Sorghum bicolor</i> seed extracts are good cytoplasmic dyes when used as counterstain for haematoxylin.
Project description:The ever-increasing production and processing of textiles will lead to greater risks of releasing pollutants into the environment. Textile wastewater treatment plants (TWTPs) effluent are an important source of persistent toxic pollutants in receiving water bodies. The effects of specific pollutants on organisms are usually studied under laboratory conditions, and therefore, comprehensive results are not obtained regarding the chronic combined effects of pollutants under aquatic environmental conditions. Thus, this study aimed to determine the combined effects of TWTP effluents on the growth performance, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and intestinal microbiota of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure to TWTP effluents significantly inhibited growth, exacerbated the condition factor, and increased the mortality of adult zebrafish. Moreover, markedly decreases were observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, MDA, SOD, and T-AOC, mostly in the intestine and muscle tissues of zebrafish after 1 and 4 months of exposure. In addition, the results demonstrated that TWTP effluent exposure affected the intestinal microbial community composition and decreased community diversity. Slight changes were found in the relative abundance of probiotic Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Lactococcus in zebrafish guts after chronic TWTP effluent exposure. The chronic toxic effects of slight increases in opportunistic pathogens, such as Mycoplasma, Stenotrophomonas, and Vibrio, deserve further attention. Our results reveal that TWTP effluent exposure poses potential health risks to aquatic organisms through growth inhibition, oxidative stress impairment of the intestine and muscles, and intestinal microbial community alterations.
Project description:Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents.
Project description:The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds.
Project description:Industrial effluent containing textile dyes is regarded as a major environmental concern in the present world. Crystal Violet is one of the vital textile dyes of the triphenylmethane group; it is widely used in textile industry and known for its mutagenic and mitotic poisoning nature. Bioremediation, especially through bacteria, is becoming an emerging and important sector in effluent treatment. This study aimed to isolate and identify Crystal Violet degrading bacteria from industrial effluents with potential use in bioremediation. The decolorizing activity of the bacteria was measured using a photo electric colorimeter after aerobic incubation in different time intervals of the isolates. Environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and inoculum size were optimized using mineral salt medium containing different concentration of Crystal Violet dye. Complete decolorizing efficiency was observed in a mineral salt medium containing up to 150 mg/l of Crystal Violet dye by 10% (v/v) inoculums of Enterobacter sp. CV-S1 tested under 72 h of shaking incubation at temperature 35 °C and pH 6.5. Newly identified bacteria Enterobacter sp. CV-S1, confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, was found as a potential bioremediation biocatalyst in the aerobic degradation/de-colorization of Crystal Violet dye. The efficiency of degrading triphenylmethane dye by this isolate, minus the supply of extra carbon or nitrogen sources in the media, highlights the significance of larger-scale treatment of textile effluent.