Ultraviolet B irradiation enhances the secretion of exosomes by human primary melanocytes and changes their exosomal miRNA profile.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Melanocytes play a central role in skin homeostasis. In this study, we focus on the function of melanocyte releasing exosomes as well as exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) and investigate whether ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation exerts an impact on it. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Exosomes derived from human primary melanocytes were isolated through differential centrifugation and were identified in three ways, including transmission electron microscopy observation, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blot analysis. Melanocytes were irradiated with UVB for the indicated time, and then melanin production and exosome secretion were measured. The exosomal miRNA expression profile of melanocytes were obtained by miRNA sequencing and confirmed by real-time PCR. RESULTS:Exosomes derived from human primary melanocytes were verified. UVB irradiation induced melanin production and increased the exosome release by the melanocytes. In total, 15 miRNAs showed higher levels in UVB-irradiated melanocyte-derived exosomes compared with non-irradiated ones, and the top three upregulated exosomal miRNAs were miR-4488, miR-320d, and miR-7704 (fold change > 4.0). CONCLUSION:It is verified for the first time that UVB irradiation enhanced the secretion of exosomes by melanocytes and changed their exosomal miRNA profile. This findings open a new direction for investigating the communication between melanocytes and other skin cells, and the connection between UVB and skin malignant initiation.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to potentially damage human skin and accelerate the skin aging process. Upon UVB exposure, melanocytes execute skin protection by increasing melanin production. Senescent cells, including senescent melanocytes, are known to accumulate in aged skin and contribute to the age-associated decline of tissue function. However, melanocyte senescence is still insufficiently explored. Here we describe a new model to investigate mechanisms of UVB-induced senescence in melanocytes and its role in photoaging. Exposure to mild and repeated doses of UVB directly influenced melanocyte proliferation, morphology and ploidy. We confirmed UVB-induced senescence with increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase positivity and changed expression of several senescence markers, including p21, p53 and Lamin B1. UVB irradiation impaired proteasome and increased autophagic activity in melanocytes, while expanding intracellular melanin content. In addition, using a co-culture system, we could confirm that senescence-associated secretory phenotype components secreted by senescent fibroblasts modulated melanogenesis. In conclusion, our new model serves as an important tool to explore UVB-induced melanocyte senescence and its involvement in photoaging and skin pigmentation.
Project description:Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) increases melanogenesis and protects from UV-induced DNA damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is unknown. We have addressed this issue in a pilot study using human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes incubated with alpha-MSH and irradiated with UVB. Real-time touchdown PCR was used to quantify total and deleted mtDNA. The deletion detected encompassed the common deletion but was more sensitive to detection. There were 4.4 times more mtDNA copies in keratinocytes than in melanocytes. Irradiation alone did not affect copy numbers. Alpha-MSH slightly increased copy numbers in both cell types in the absence of UVB and caused a similar small decrease in copy number with dose in both cell types. Deleted copies were nearly twice as frequent in keratinocytes as in melanocytes. Alpha-MSH reduced the frequency of deleted copies by half in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes. UVB dose dependently led to an increase in the deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated melanocytes. UVB irradiation had little effect on deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated keratinocytes. In summary, alpha-MSH enhances mtDNA damage in melanocytes presumably by increased melanogenesis, while ?-MSH is protective in keratinocytes, the more so in the absence of irradiation.
Project description:cAMP as a second messenger stimulates expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) or the tyrosinase gene in UVB-induced skin pigmentation. Diphenylmethylene hydrazinecarbothioamide (QNT 3-80) inhibits ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-induced melanin production in B16 murine melanoma cells but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the amelioration of skin hyperpigmentation by QNT 3-80.We used melanocyte cultures with raised levels of cAMP and UVB-irradiated dorsal skin of guinea pigs for pigmentation assays. Immunoprecipitation, kemptide phosphorylation, fluorescence analysis and docking simulation were applied to elucidate a molecular mechanism of QNT 3-80.QNT 3-80 inhibited melanin production in melanocyte cultures with elevated levels of cAMP, including those from human foreskin. This compound also ameliorated hyperpigmentation in vivo in UVB-irradiated dorsal skin of guinea pigs. As a mechanism, QNT 3-80 directly antagonized cAMP binding to the regulatory subunit of PKA, nullified the dissociation and activation of inactive PKA holoenzyme in melanocytes and fitted into the cAMP-binding site on the crystal structure of human PKA under the most energetically favourable simulation. QNT 3-80 consequently inhibited cAMP- or UVB-induced phosphorylation (activation) of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein in vitro and in vivo, thus down-regulating expression of genes for MITF or tyrosinase in the melanogenic process.Our data suggested that QNT 3-80 could contribute significantly to the treatment of skin disorders with hyperpigmented patches with the cAMP-binding site of PKA as its molecular target.
Project description:DNA mutation-induced activation of RAS-BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling associated with intermittent or chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation cannot exclusively explain the excessive increase of malignant melanoma (MM) incidence since the 1950s. Malignant conversion of a melanocyte to an MM cell and metastatic MM is associated with a steady increase in microRNA-21 (miR-21). At the epigenetic level, miR-21 inhibits key tumor suppressors of the RAS-BRAF signaling pathway enhancing proliferation and MM progression. Increased MM cell levels of miR-21 either result from endogenous upregulation of melanocytic miR-21 expression or by uptake of miR-21-enriched exogenous exosomes. Based on epidemiological data and translational evidence, this review provides deeper insights into environmentally and metabolically induced exosomal miR-21 trafficking beyond UV-irradiation in melanomagenesis and MM progression. Sources of miR-21-enriched exosomes include UV-irradiated keratinocytes, adipocyte-derived exosomes in obesity, airway epithelium-derived exosomes generated by smoking and pollution, diet-related exosomes and inflammation-induced exosomes, which may synergistically increase the exosomal miR-21 burden of the melanocyte, the transformed MM cell and its tumor environment. Several therapeutic agents that suppress MM cell growth and proliferation attenuate miR-21 expression. These include miR-21 antagonists, metformin, kinase inhibitors, beta-blockers, vitamin D, and plant-derived bioactive compounds, which may represent new options for the prevention and treatment of MM.
Project description:Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is essential for melanocyte development and function and regulates anti-apoptotic Bcl2 expression. We hypothesized that cellular deficiency of Mitf can influence melanocyte survival in response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Primary melanocyte cultures were prepared from neonatal wild-type mice and congenic animals heterozygous for Mitf mutations Mitf (mi-vga9/+) and Mitf(Mi-wh/+) and exposed to UV irradiation. Wild-type melanocytes were more resistant to UV-induced apoptosis than melanocytes partially deficient in Mitf activity, as determined by relative levels of intracellular melanin and relative activation of Mitf target genes Tyr, Tyrp1, Dct, and Cdk2. Comparative experiments with wild-type cells and congenic albino melanocytes demonstrated that these differences are not due to differences in melanin content, implicating Mitf as a primary determinant of UV-dependent melanocyte survival. Mitf activity correlated directly with resistance to UV-induced apoptosis in melanocytes. Mitf was important not only for regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 following UV irradiation, but also the expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bad protein and activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Hence, Mitf is a multifaceted regulator of UV-induced apoptosis in melanocytes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Exosomes are small membranous vesicles secreted into body fluids by multiple cell types, including tumor cells, and in various disease conditions. Tumor exosomes contain intact and functional mRNAs, small RNAs (including miRNAs), and proteins that can alter the cellular environment to favor tumor growth. Molecular profiling may increase our understanding of the role of exosomes in melanoma progression and may lead to discovery of useful biomarkers.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In the present study, we used mRNA array profiling to identify thousands of exosomal mRNAs associated with melanoma progression and metastasis. Similarly, miRNA array profiling identified specific miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-31, -185, and -34b, involved in melanoma invasion. We also used proteomic analysis and discovered differentially expressed melanoma exosomal proteins, including HAPLN1, GRP78, syntenin-1, annexin A1, and annexin A2. Importantly, normal melanocytes acquired invasion ability through molecules transported in melanoma cell-derived exosomes.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our results indicate that melanoma-derived exosomes have unique gene expression signatures, miRNA and proteomics profiles compared to exosomes from normal melanocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-depth screening of the whole transcriptome/miRNome/proteome expression in melanoma exosomes. These results provide a starting point for future more in-depth studies of tumor-derived melanoma exosomes, which will aid our understanding of melanoma biogenesis and new drug-targets that may be translated into clinical applications, or as non-invasive biomarkers for melanoma.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin pigmentation, which relies on the intercellular crosstalk of melanin between melanocytes to keratinocytes. However, studying the separate effects of UVA and UVB irradiation reveals differences in cellular response. Herein, we show an immediate shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the plasma membrane when exposing human melanocytes to UVA, but not UVB. The EV-shedding is preceded by UVA-induced plasma membrane damage, which is rapidly repaired by Ca(2+)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis. Using co-cultures of melanocytes and keratinocytes, we show that EVs are preferably endocytosed by keratinocytes. Importantly, EV-formation is prevented by the inhibition of exocytosis and increased lysosomal pH but is not affected by actin and microtubule inhibitors. Melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes is equally stimulated by UVA and UVB and depends on a functional cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we show a novel cell response after UVA irradiation, resulting in transfer of lysosome-derived EVs from melanocytes to keratinocytes.
Project description:Epidermal keratinocytes are considered as the most important neighboring cells that modify melanogenesis. Our previous study used microarray to show that guanine deaminase (GDA) gene expression is highly increased in melasma lesions. Hence, we investigated the role of GDA in skin pigmentation. We examined GDA expression in post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) lesions, diagnosed as Riehl's melanosis. We further investigated the possible role of keratinocyte-derived GDA in melanogenesis by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence staining, small interfering RNA-based GDA knockdown, and adenovirus-mediated GDA overexpression. We found higher GDA positivity in the hyperpigmentary lesional epidermis than in the perilesional epidermis. Both UVB irradiation and stem cell factor (SCF) plus endothelin-1 (ET-1) were used, which are well-known melanogenic stimuli upregulating GDA expression in both keratinocyte culture alone and keratinocyte and melanocyte coculture. GDA knockdown downregulated melanin content, while GDA overexpression promoted melanogenesis in the coculture. When melanocytes were treated with UVB-exposed keratinocyte-conditioned media, the melanin content was increased. Also, GDA knockdown lowered SCF and ET-1 expression levels in keratinocytes. GDA in epidermal keratinocytes may promote melanogenesis by upregulating SCF and ET-1, suggesting its role in skin hyperpigmentary disorders.
Project description:Clinical studies have proven that ultraviolet B (UVB) based phototherapy can induce perifollicular and marginal repigmentation patterns in the skin of vitiligo patients. It is, however, difficult to conceive how melanocytes can easily exit from their tightly interconnected epidermal microenvironment to re?enter a different location in the skin to establish a new network with neighboring keratinocytes. While it is known that matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9) is involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in physiological or pathological processes, little is known about whether MMP9 affects melanocyte migration in vitiligo repigmentation. To investigate the effects of the p53? transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 1 (TRPM1)/microRNA (miR/miRNA)?211?MMP9 axis to regulate melanocyte migration following exposure to UVB, the expression profile of MMP9 in cultured human melanocytes transfected with or without the miR?211?mimic and p53?GFP lentiviral vector, respectively were determined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to examine p53, TRPM1 and MMP9 mRNA and protein levels in UVB?exposed and unexposed cells. The capacity of melanocytes to migrate on collagen IV substrate was estimated using a Transwell migration assay. Interestingly, the upregulation of p53 and MMP9 at the mRNA and protein levels was evident in melanocytes treated with single or repeat exposures to UVB, whereas levels of TRPM1 and miR?211 were significantly suppressed in UVB?exposed melanocytes compared with the UVB?unexposed control cells. These results indicate that the p53?TRPM1/miR?211?MMP9 axis is significantly activated in melanocytes exposed to UVB. Notably, the ability of melanocyte migration was altered by the overexpression of p53 using a lentiviral vector and by the upregulation of miR?211 using an miRNA mimic. That altered migration could be neutralized by co?treatment with GM6001 (a broad?spectrum MMP inhibitor). Overall, these results show that the MMP9?mediated migration of melanocytes is regulated by a novel mechanism driven by the p53?TRPM1/miR?211?MMP9 axis. Activation of the p53?TRPM1/miR?211?MMP9 axis potentially represents an attractive therapeutic target to improve repigmentation outcomes in vitiligo patients.