Semiconducting SN2 monolayer with three-dimensional auxetic properties: a global minimum with tetracoordinated sulfurs.
ABSTRACT: Designing new two-dimensional (2D) materials, exploring their unique properties and diverse potential applications are of paramount importance to condensed matter physics and materials science. In this work, we predicted a novel 2D SN2 monolayer (S-SN2) by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations. In the S-SN2 monolayer, each S atom is tetracoordinated with four N atoms, and each N atom bridges two S atoms, thus forming a tri-sublayer structure with square lattice. The monolayer exhibits good stability, as demonstrated by the moderate cohesive energy, all positive phonon modes, and the structural integrity maintained through 10 ps molecular dynamics simulations up to 1000 K. It is an indirect-bandgap semiconductor with high hole mobility, and the bandgap can be tuned by changing the thickness and external strains (the indirect-bandgap to direct-bandgap transition occurs when the biaxial tensile strain reaches 4%). Significantly, it has large Young's modulus and three-dimensional auxetic properties (both in-plane and out-of-plane negative Poisson's ratios). Therefore, the S-SN2 monolayer holds great potential applications in electronics, photoelectronics and mechanics.
Project description:Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 ?m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their structure and orientation were characterized from atomic scale to micrometer scale. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.
Project description:By means of extensive ab initio calculations, a new two-dimensional (2D) atomic material tin selenide monolayer (coined as tinselenidene) is predicted to be a semiconductor with an indirect gap (~1.45?eV) and a high hole mobility (of order 10000?cm(2)V(-1)S(-1)), and will bear an indirect-direct gap transition under a rather low strain (<0.5?GPa). Tinselenidene has a very small Young's modulus (20-40?GPa) and an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (<3?Wm(-1)K(-1) at 300?K), making it probably the most flexible and most heat-insulating material in known 2D atomic materials. In addition, tinseleniden has a large negative Poisson's ratio of -0.17, thus could act as a 2D auxetic material. With these intriguing properties, tinselenidene could have wide potential applications in thermoelectrics, nanomechanics and optoelectronics.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W, X = S, Se, Te) attracts enormous research interests in recent years. Its 2H phase possesses an indirect to direct bandgap transition in 2D limit, and thus shows great application potentials in optoelectronic devices. The 1T' crystalline phase transition can drive the monolayer MX2 to be a 2D topological insulator. Here we realized the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of both the 1T' and 2H phase monolayer WSe2 on bilayer graphene (BLG) substrate. The crystalline structures of these two phases were characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy. The monolayer 1T'-WSe2 was found to be metastable, and can transform into 2H phase under post-annealing procedure. The phase transition temperature of 1T'-WSe2 grown on BLG is lower than that of 1T' phase grown on 2H-WSe2 layers. This thermo-driven crystalline phase transition makes the monolayer WSe2 to be an ideal platform for the controlling of topological phase transitions in 2D materials family.
Project description:Quantum confinement effects in lower-dimensional derivatives of the ABX3 (A = monocation, X = halide) single perovskites afford striking optical and electronic changes, enabling applications ranging from solar absorbers to phosphors and light-emitting diodes. Halide double perovskites form a larger materials family, known since the late 1800s, but lower-dimensional derivatives remain rare and prior work has revealed a minimal effect of quantum confinement on their optical properties. Here, we synthesize three new lower-dimensional derivatives of the 3D double perovskite Cs2AgTlBr6: 2D derivatives with mono- (1-Tl) and bi-layer thick (2-Tl) inorganic sheets and a quasi-1D derivative (1'-Tl). Single-crystal ellipsometry studies of these materials show the first clear demonstration that dimensional reduction can significantly alter the optical properties of 2D halide double perovskites. This large quantum confinement effect is attributed to the substantial electronic delocalization of the parent 3D Ag-Tl perovskite. Calculations track the evolution of the electronic bands with dimensional reduction and the accompanying structural distortions and show a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition as the 3D perovskite lattice is thinned to a monolayer in 1-Tl. This bandgap transition at the monolayer limit is also evident in the calculations for 1-In, an isostructural, isoelectronic analogue to 1-Tl in which In3+ replaces Tl3+, underscoring the orbital basis for the direct/indirect nature of the bandgap. Thus, in complement to the massive compositional diversity of halide double perovskites, dimensional reduction may be used as a systematic route for harnessing electronic confinement effects and obtaining new electronic structures.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), most notably, MoS2 and WS2, have attracted significant attention due to their sizable and direct bandgap characteristics. Although several interesting MoS2 and WS2-based optoelectronic devices have been reported, their processability and reproducibility are limited since their electrical properties are strongly dependent of the number of layers, strain and sample sizes. It is highly desirable to have a robust direct bandgap TMD, which is insensitive to those factors. In this work, using density functional theory, we explore the effects of layer number, strain and ribbon width on the electronic properties of ReS2, a new member in the TMD family. The calculation results reveal that for monolayer ReS2, the nature (direct versus indirect) and magnitude of its bandgap are insensitive to strain. Importantly, the predicted bandgap and also charge carrier mobilities are nearly independent of the number of layers. In addition, the direct bandgap of ReS2 nanoribbons is only weakly dependent on their width. These robust characteristics strongly suggest that ReS2 has great potential for applications in optoelectronic nanodevices.
Project description:2D material with tunable direct bandgap in the intermediate region (i.e., ?2-3 eV) is key to the achievement of high efficiency in visible-light optical devices. Herein, a simulation evidence of structure transition of monolayer ZnSe from the experimental pseudohexagonal structure to the tetragonal structure (t-ZnSe) under lateral pressure is shown, suggesting a possible fabrication route to achieve the t-ZnSe monolayer. The as-produced t-ZnSe monolayer exhibits highly tunable bandgap under the biaxial strains, allowing strain engineering of t-ZnSe's bandgap over a wide range of 2-3 eV. Importantly, even under the biaxial strain up to 7%, the t-ZnSe monolayer still keeps its direct-gap property in the desirable range of 2.40-3.17 eV (corresponding to wavelength of green light to ultraviolet). The wide-range tunability of direct bandgap appears to be a unique property of the t-ZnSe monolayer, suggesting its potential application as a light-emitting 2D material in red-green-blue light emission diodes or as complementary light-absorption material in the blue-yellow region for multijunction solar cells. The straddling of the band edge of the t-ZnSe monolayer over the redox potential of water splitting reaction also points to its plausible application for visible-light-driven water splitting.
Project description:Monolayer MoS2 is a promising material for optoelectronics applications owing to its direct bandgap, enhanced Coulomb interaction, strong spin-orbit coupling, unique valley pseudospin degree of freedom, etc. It can also be implemented for novel spintronics and valleytronics devices at atomic scale. The band structure of monolayer MoS2 is well known to have a direct gap at K (K') point, whereas the second lowest conduction band minimum is located at ? point, which may interact with the valence band maximum at K point, to make an indirect optical bandgap transition. We experimentally demonstrate the direct-to-indirect bandgap transition by measuring the photoluminescence spectra of monolayer MoS2 under hydrostatic pressure at room temperature. With increasing pressure, the direct transition shifts at a rate of 49.4 meV/GPa, whereas the indirect transition shifts at a rate of -15.3 meV/GPa. We experimentally extract the critical transition point at the pressure of 1.9 GPa, in agreement with first-principles calculations. Combining our experimental observation with first-principles calculations, we confirm that this transition is caused by the K-? crossover in the conduction band.
Project description:Diorganocuprate(I) reagents derived from lithiated heterocycles and CuCN react with enantioenriched secondary propagryl bromides to give the corresponding propargylated heterocycles. While propargyl electrophiles typically undergo SN2' displacement, this transformation represents the first example of the reaction of hard carbanions with propargyl eletrophiles in an SN2 fashion and occurs with excellent levels of stereoinversion. The new method was applied to the formal synthesis of (+)-frondosin B.
Project description:Strain engineering is a promising method to manipulate the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, with weak van der Waals interaction, severe slippage between 2D material and substrate could dominate the bending or stretching processes, leading to inefficiency strain transfer. To overcome this limitation, we report a simple strain engineering method by encapsulating the monolayer 2D material in the flexible PVA substrate through spin-coating approach. The strong interaction force between spin-coated PVA and 2D material ensures the mechanical strain can be effectively transferred with negligible slippage or decoupling. By applying uniaxial strain to monolayer MoS2, we observe a higher bandgap modulation up to ~300?meV and a highest modulation rate of ~136?meV/%, which is approximate two times improvement compared to previous results achieved. Moreover, this simple strategy could be well extended to other 2D materials such as WS2 or WSe2, leading to enhanced bandgap modulation.
Project description:The possibility of tailoring physical properties by changing the number of layers in van der Waals crystals is one of the driving forces behind the emergence of two-dimensional materials. One example is bulk MoS2, which changes from an indirect gap semiconductor to a direct bandgap semiconductor in the monolayer form. Here, we show a much bigger tuning range with a complete switching from a metal to a semiconductor in atomically thin PtSe2 as its thickness is reduced. Crystals with a thickness of ~13?nm show metallic behavior with a contact resistance as low as 70??·µm. As they are thinned down to 2.5?nm and below, we observe semiconducting behavior. In such thin crystals, we demonstrate ambipolar transport with a bandgap smaller than 2.2?eV and an on/off ratio of ~105. Our results demonstrate that PtSe2 possesses an unusual behavior among 2D materials, enabling novel applications in nano and optoelectronics.