Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Triggers CXCL13 Release and B-Cell Recruitment After Allogenic Kidney Transplantation.
ABSTRACT: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is linked with inflammation in kidney transplantation (ktx). The chemokine CXCL13, also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant, mediates recruitment of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues and has recently been identified as a biomarker for acute kidney allograft rejection. The goal of this study was to explore whether IRI contributes to the up-regulation of CXCL13 levels in ktx. It is demonstrated that systemic levels of CXCL13 were increased in mouse models of uni- and bilateral renal IRI, which correlated with the duration of IRI. Moreover, in unilateral renal IRI CXCL13 expression in ischemic kidneys was up-regulated. Immunohistochemical studies revealed infiltration of CD22+ B-cells and, single-cell RNA sequencing analysis a higher number of cells expressing the CXCL13 receptor CXCR5, in ischemic kidneys 7 days post IRI, respectively. The potential relevance of these findings was also evaluated in a mouse model of ktx. Increased levels of serum CXCL13 correlated with the lengths of cold ischemia times and were further enhanced in allogenic compared to isogenic kidney transplants. Taken together, these findings indicate that IRI is associated with increased systemic levels of CXCL13 in renal IRI and ktx.
Project description:The presence of B-cell clusters in allogenic T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) of kidney allografts is linked to more severe disease entities. In this study we characterized B-cell infiltrates in patients with TCMR and examined the role of serum CXCL-13 in these patients and experimentally. CXCL-13 serum levels were analyzed in 73 kidney allograft recipients at the time of allograft biopsy. In addition, four patients were evaluated for CXCL13 levels during the first week after transplantation. ELISA was done to measure CXCL-13 serum levels. For further mechanistic understanding, a translational allogenic kidney transplant (ktx) mouse model for TCMR was studied in BalbC recipients of fully mismatched transplants with C57BL/6 donor kidneys. CXCL-13 serum levels were measured longitudinally, CD20 and CD3 composition and CXCL13 mRNA in tissue were examined by flow cytometry and kidneys were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. We found significantly higher serum levels of the B-cell chemoattractant CXCL13 in patients with TCMR compared to controls and patients with borderline TCMR. Moreover, in patients with acute rejection within the first week after ktx, a >5-fold CXCL13 increase was measured and correlated with B-cell infiltrates in the biopsies. In line with the clinical findings, TCMR in mice correlated with increased systemic serum-CXCL13 levels. Moreover, renal allografts had significantly higher CXCL13 mRNA expression than isogenic controls and showed interstitial CD20+ B-cell clusters and CD3+ cell infiltrates accumulating in the vicinity of renal vessels. CXCL13 blood levels correlate with B-cell involvement in TCMR and might help to identify patients at risk of a more severe clinical course of rejection.
Project description:Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx). In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV), might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20-50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days) was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI) was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg) twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells.
Project description:The contribution of p53 to kidney dysfunction, inflammation, and tubular cell death, hallmark features of ischemic renal injury (IRI), remains undefined. Here, we studied the role of proximal tubule cell (PTC)-specific p53 activation on the short- and long-term consequences of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. After IRI, mice with PTC-specific deletion of p53 (p53 knockout [KO]) had diminished whole-kidney expression levels of p53 and its target genes, improved renal function, which was shown by decreased plasma levels of creatinine and BUN, and attenuated renal histologic damage, oxidative stress, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages compared with wild-type mice. Notably, necrotic cell death was attenuated in p53 KO ischemic kidneys as well as oxidant-injured p53-deficient primary PTCs and pifithrin-?-treated PTC lines. Reduced oxidative stress and diminished expression of PARP1 and Bax in p53 KO ischemic kidneys may account for the decreased necrosis. Apoptosis and expression of proapoptotic p53 targets, including Bid and Siva, were also significantly reduced, and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase was attenuated in p53 KO ischemic kidneys. Furthermore, IRI-induced activation of TGF-? and the long-term development of inflammation and interstitial fibrosis were significantly reduced in p53 KO mice. In conclusion, specific deletion of p53 in the PTC protects kidneys from functional and histologic deterioration after IRI by decreasing necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation and modulates the long-term sequelae of IRI by preventing interstitial fibrogenesis.
Project description:Introduction: Although prone to a higher degree of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), the use of extended criteria donor (ECD) organs has become reality in transplantation. We therefore postulated that peri-operative perfusion of renal transplants with anti-human T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) ameliorates IRI and results in improved graft function. Methods: We performed a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 50 kidneys (KTx). Prior to implantation organs were perfused and incubated with ATLG (AP) (n = 24 kidney). Control organs (CP) were perfused with saline only (n = 26 kidney). Primary endpoint was defined as graft function reflected by serum creatinine at day 7 post transplantation (post-tx). Results: AP-KTx recipients illustrated significantly better graft function at day 7 post-tx as reflected by lower creatinine levels, whereas no treatment effect was observed after 12 months surveillance. During the early hospitalization phase, 16 of the 26 CP-KTx patients required dialysis during the first 7 days post-tx, whereas only 10 of the 24 AP-KTx patients underwent dialysis. No treatment-specific differences were detected for various lymphocytes subsets in the peripheral blood of patients. Additionally, mRNA analysis of 0-h biopsies post incubation with ATLG revealed no changes of intragraft inflammatory expression patterns between AP and CP organs. Conclusion: We here present the first clinical study on peri-operative organ perfusion with ATLG illustrating improved graft function in the early period post kidney transplantation. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03377283.
Project description:Although T cells have been shown to play a direct role in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that studying the transcriptional responses in kidney-infiltrating T cells would help elucidate novel therapeutic targets for kidney IRI. Unilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 min was performed in male C57BL/6 mice, and CD3(+) T cells were isolated from the kidney and purified. Transcriptional activities of T cell were measured by array-based PCR compared between ischemic kidneys and contralateral nonischemic kidneys. Among total of 89 genes analyzed, 24, 22, 24, and 37 genes were significantly changed at 6 h, day 3, day 10, and day 28 after IRI. Genes associated with cytokines, chemokines, and costimulatory molecules were upregulated. Pathway analysis identified CC motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) as a candidate pathophysiological pathway. CCR5 upregulation was validated at the protein level, and CCR5 blockade improved renal function after kidney IRI. Using discovery techniques to identify transcriptional responses in purified kidney-infiltrating cells enabled the elucidation of novel mechanisms and therapeutic targets for IRI.
Project description:Acute kidney injury, often caused by an ischemic insult, is associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality, and increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The factors affecting the renal response to injury following ischemia and reperfusion remain to be clarified. We found that the Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1), commonly used as a stem cell marker, is heavily expressed in renal tubules of the adult mouse kidney. We evaluated its potential role in the kidney using Sca-1 knockout mice submitted to acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), as well as cultured renal proximal tubular cells in which Sca-1 was stably silenced with shRNA. IRI induced more severe injury in Sca-1 null kidneys, as assessed by increased expression of Kim-1 and Ngal, rise in serum creatinine, abnormal pathology, and increased apoptosis of tubular epithelium, and persistent significant renal injury at day 7 post IRI, when recovery of renal function in control animals was nearly complete. Serum creatinine, Kim-1 and Ngal were slightly but significantly elevated even in uninjured Sca-1-/- kidneys. Sca-1 constitutively bound both TGF? receptors I and II in cultured normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Its genetic loss or silencing lead to constitutive TGF? receptor-mediated activation of canonical Smad signaling even in the absence of ligand and to KIM-1 expression in the silenced cells. These studies demonstrate that by normally repressing TGF?-mediated canonical Smad signaling, Sca-1 plays an important in renal epithelial cell homeostasis and in recovery of renal function following ischemic acute kidney injury.
Project description:To characterize ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6) and CD1-mice by longitudinal functional MRI-measurement of edema formation (T2-mapping) and inflammation (diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)). IRI was induced with unilateral right renal pedicle clamping for 35min. 7T-MRI was performed 1 and 14 days after surgery. DWI (7 b-values) and multiecho TSE sequences (7 TE) were acquired. Parameters were quantified in relation to the contralateral kidney on day 1 (d1). Renal MCP-1 and IL-6-levels were measured by qPCR and serum-CXCL13 by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry for fibronectin and collagen-4 was performed. T2-increase on d1 was higher in the renal cortex (127 ± 5% vs. 94 ± 6%, <i>p</i> < 0.01) and the outer stripe of the outer medulla (141 ± 9% vs. 111 ± 9%, <i>p</i> < 0.05) in CD1, indicating tissue edema. Medullary diffusivity was more restricted in CD1 than B6 (d1: 73 ± 3% vs. 90 ± 2%, <i>p</i> < 0.01 and d14: 77 ± 5% vs. 98 ± 3%, <i>p</i> < 0.01). Renal MCP-1 and IL-6-expression as well as systemic CXCL13-release were pronounced in CD1 on d1 after IRI. Renal fibrosis was detected in CD1 on d14. T2-increase and ADC-reduction on d1 correlated with kidney volume loss on d14 (r = 0.7, <i>p</i> < 0.05; r = 0.6, <i>p</i> < 0.05) and could serve as predictive markers. T2-mapping and DWI evidenced higher susceptibility to ischemic AKI in CD1 compared to B6.
Project description:Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) favours apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and neurons. Its role in renal I/R is unknown. We investigated the impact of pharmacological preactivation of the CaSR on kidney structure and function in a murine model of bilateral renal 30-min ischemia and 48-hour reperfusion, and in a 6-year cohort of kidney transplant recipients (KTR). C57BL/6J mice were administered daily with CaSR agonist, R-568, or with vehicle for 48 hours. Evaluation of serum urea and creatinine levels, renal histology and urine metabolome by nuclear magnetic resonance showed that R-568 was not nephrotoxic per se. Following I/R, serum urea and creatinine levels increased higher in R-568-treated animals than in controls. Jablonski's score was significantly greater in R-568-treated kidneys, which showed a higher rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis in comparison to controls. Next, we retrospectively identified 36 patients (10.7% of our cohort) who were treated by CaSR agonist, cinacalcet, at the time of kidney transplantation (KTx). After matching these to 61 KTR upon type of donor, cold ischemic time, residual diuresis, and donor age, we observed that delayed graft function, i.e. need for dialysis in the first week after KTx, occurred in 42 and 23% of cinacalcet-treated and control groups, respectively (p?0.05). These data suggest that pharmacological preactivation of the CaSR before renal I/R exacerbates kidney injury.
Project description:CXCL13 is a key B cell chemoattractant and marker of disease activity in patients with SLE; however, the mechanism of its induction has not been identified yet. Here, we have shown that the proteoglycan biglycan triggers CXCL13 expression via TLR2/4 in macrophages and dendritic cells. In vivo, levels of biglycan were markedly elevated in the plasma and kidneys of human SLE patients and lupus-prone (MRL/lpr) mice. Overexpression of soluble biglycan in MRL/lpr mice raised plasma and renal levels of CXCL13 and caused accumulation of B cells with an enhanced B1/B cell ratio in the kidney, worsening of organ damage, and albuminuria. Importantly, biglycan also triggered CXCL13 expression and B cell infiltration in the healthy kidney. Conversely, biglycan deficiency improved systemic and renal outcome in lupus-prone mice, with lower levels of autoantibodies, less enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes, and reduction in renal damage and albuminuria. This correlated with a marked decline in circulating and renal CXCL13 and a reduction in the number of B cells in the kidney. Collectively, our results describe what we believe to be a novel mechanism for the regulation of CXCL13 by biglycan, a host-derived ligand for TLR2/4. Blocking biglycan-TLR2/4 interactions might be a promising strategy for the management of SLE and other B cell-mediated inflammatory disease entities.
Project description:Fibroblasts are present in every organ. While the role fibroblasts in chronic diseases such as fibrosis or tumor expression has been extensively explored, little is known about their physiological role. The kidney possesses a unique capacity to recover from even severe acute injury. We study molecular mechanisms of this intrinsic repair capacity in the mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR). In this model, the renal artery and vein are clamped for 45 min, leading to acute kidney injury. The kidney spontaneously recovers from such IR injury within 14 days. IR kidney injury is associated with a transient accumulation of fibroblasts in the diseased tissue. We hypothesized that fibroblasts aid the repair of acute IR injury in the kidney. To elucidate how FSP1+ fibroblasts may contribute to the repair of kidney injury, we undertook a global unbiased approach to compare gene expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from kidneys post-IRI and from control kidneys by FACS sorting. To investigate the role fibroblasts may play in the repair of kidney inhury, we performed ischemia reperfusion injury surgery on transgenic mice in which the FSP-1 promoter drives EGFP expression. Kidney injury peaks at day 3 post-IRI, followed by spontaneous regeration that restores nearly perfect kidney architecture and health by day 10. Fibroblasts are thought to possibly play a role in this process, as they are normally rare in the healthy kidney, acute kidney injury is associated with a transient accumulation of interstitial fibroblasts, but whether they may help repair the acute kidney injury or in fact could contribute to the damage is not known. To compare the gene expression profiles of normal fibroblasts and those from post-ischemic kidneys, we sacrificed control FSP1-GFP mice and the FSP1-GFP mice three days post-IRI. We generated single-cell suspensions from both the post-IRI and control kidneys, and then isolated FSP1-GFP+ cells by FACS sorting that, when cultured on plastic, displayed typical fibroblast morphology. Total RNA was immediately extracted from the sorted cells and amplified to produce enough for a array. We biotinylated five of the samples from post-ischemic kidneys and three of the control (non-ischemic) kidneys and used Affymetrix 3' Arrays to examine differences in gene expression profiles between the two groups that may she some light on what role, if any, fibroblasts play in the spontaneous healing of the kidney after acute kidney injury. We performed ischemia reperfusion surgery in FSP1-GFP mice, and at day 3, we sacrificed the mice, isolated FSP1-GFP positive cells from both IR and normal control kidneys by FACS sorting, extracted total RNA from the isolated FSP1-GFP cells and used Affymetrix Mouse Expression Array 430 2.0 microarrays to perform gene expression profiling of the samples. All told, we performed the FACS Sorting, RNA extration, and hybridization with 5 ischemic kidneys and 3 normal kidneys. Fibroblasts, acute kidney injury, repair, comparative gene expression profiling, microarrays, FACS sorting, role in healing