Curative resection of an aldosteronoma causing primary aldosteronism in the second trimester of pregnancy.
ABSTRACT: Summary:A 29-year-old primigravida woman with a known history of primary aldosteronism due to a right aldosteronoma presented with uncontrolled hypertension at 5 weeks of estimated gestation of a spontaneous pregnancy. Her hypertension was inadequately controlled with pharmacotherapy which lead to the consideration of surgical management for her primary aldosteronism. She underwent curative right unilateral adrenalectomy at 19 weeks of estimated gestational age. The procedure was uncomplicated, and her blood pressure normalized post-operatively. She did, however, have a preterm delivery by cesarean section due to intrauterine growth retardation with good neonatal outcome. She is normotensive to date. Learning points:Primary aldosteronism is the most common etiology of secondary hypertension with an estimated prevalence of 5-10% in the hypertensive population. It is important to recognize the subtypes of primary aldosteronism given that certain forms can be treated surgically. Hypertension in pregnancy is associated with significantly higher maternal and fetal complications. Data regarding the treatment of primary aldosteronism in pregnancy are limited. Adrenalectomy can be considered during the second trimester of pregnancy if medical therapy fails to adequately control hypertension from primary aldosteronism.
Project description:The present study reported a case of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease complicated with primary aldosteronism in a 49-year-old woman. The patient was referred for refractory hypertension. Laboratory examinations revealed low potassium and renin levels. Computed tomography indicated a right adrenal tumor and multiple renal cysts. Adrenal vein sampling revealed a high aldosterone level on the side of the tumor. The patient was diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease complicated by primary aldosteronism and adrenalectomy was performed. Over the following 7 months, the estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased from 76 to 48 ml/min/1.73 m2, which was attributed to glomerular hyperfiltration correction induced by hyperaldosteronism remission, indicating kidney dysfunction. Clinicians must therefore monitor for the unmasking of kidney dysfunction following adrenalectomy in such cases.
Project description:Surgically correctable forms of primary aldosteronism are characterized by unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion and renin suppression, associated with varying degrees of hypertension and hypokalemia. Unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (also known as Conn's adenoma and aldosteronoma), primary unilateral adrenal hyperplasia and rare cases of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. In these forms, unilateral adrenalectomy can cure aldosterone excess and hypokalemia, but not necessarily hypertension. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism in the general population is not known. Its prevalence in referred hypertensive populations is estimated to be between 6 and 13%, of which 1.5 to 5% have an aldosterone-producing adenoma or primary unilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Taking into account referral biases, the prevalence of surgically correctable primary aldosteronism is probably less than 1.5% in the hypertensive population and less than 0.3% in the general adult population. Surgically correctable primary aldosteronism is sought in patients with hypokalemic, severe or resistant forms of hypertension. Recent recommendations suggest screening for primary aldosteronism using the aldosterone to renin ratio. Patients with a raised ratio then undergo confirmatory suppression tests. The differential diagnosis of hypokalemic hypertension with low renin includes mineralocorticoid excess, with the mineralocorticoid being cortisol or 11-deoxycorticosterone, apparent mineralocorticoid excess, pseudo-hypermineralocorticoidism in Liddle syndrome or exposure to glycyrrhizic acid. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography is performed for all patients. If surgery is considered, taking into consideration the clinical context and the desire of the patient, adrenal vein sampling is performed to detect whether or not aldosterone hypersecretion is unilateral. Laparoscopic surgery for unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is associated with a morbidity of about 8%, with most complications being minor. It generally results in the normalization of aldosterone secretion and kalemia, and in a large decrease in blood pressure, but normotension without treatment is only achieved in half of all cases. Normotension following adrenalectomy is more frequent in young patients with recent hypertension than in patients with long-standing hypertension or a family history of hypertension.
Project description:Lifelong therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) or surgical adrenalectomy are the recommended treatments for primary aldosteronism (PA). Whether these treatments mitigate the risk for kidney disease remains unknown. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with PA treated with MRAs (N=400) or surgical adrenalectomy (N=120) and age- and estimated glomerular filtration rate-matched patients with essential hypertension (N=15?474) to determine risk for chronic kidney disease and longitudinal estimated glomerular filtration rate decline. Despite similar blood pressures, patients with PA treated with MRAs had a higher risk for incident chronic kidney disease compared with essential hypertension patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.99). Correspondingly, the adjusted annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater in PA patients treated with MRAs compared with essential hypertension patients (-1.6; 95% confidence interval, -1.4 to -1.8 versus -0.9; 95% confidence interval, -0.9 to -1.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2/y; P<0.001). In contrast, patients with unilateral PA treated with surgical adrenalectomy had no significant difference in risk for incident chronic kidney disease or in an annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with essential hypertension patients. Among PA patients with diabetes mellitus treated with MRAs, there was a higher risk for incident albuminuria compared with essential hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.96). MRA therapy in PA is associated with higher risk for developing chronic kidney disease when compared with essential hypertension, and surgical adrenalectomy may mitigate this risk. When possible, curative surgical adrenalectomy may be superior to lifelong MRA therapy in preventing kidney disease in PA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Co-existing Cushing's syndrome and primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, secreting cortisol and aldosterone, respectively, have rarely been reported. Precise diagnosis and management of this disorder constitute a challenge to clinicians due to its atypical clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. CASE PRESENTATION:We here report a Chinese male patient with co-existing Cushing's syndrome and primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, who complained of intermittent muscle weakness for over 3 years. Computed tomography scans revealed bilateral adrenal masses. Undetectable ACTH and unsuppressed cortisol levels by dexamethasone suggested ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. Elevated aldosterone to renin ratio and unsuppressed plasma aldosterone concentration after saline infusion test suggested primary aldosteronism. Adrenal venous sampling adjusted by plasma epinephrine revealed hypersecretion of cortisol from the left adrenal mass and of aldosterone from the right one. A sequential bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. The cortisol level was normalized after partial left adrenalectomy and the aldosterone level was normalized after subsequent partial right adrenalectomy. Histopathological evaluation of the resected surgical specimens, including immunohistochemical staining for steroidogenic enzymes, revealed a left cortisol-producing adenoma and a right aldosterone-producing adenoma. The patient's symptoms and laboratory findings resolved after sequential adrenalectomy without any pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Adrenal venous sampling is essential in diagnosing bilateral functional adrenocortical adenomas prior to surgery. Proper interpretation of the laboratory findings is particularly important in these patients. Immunohistochemistry may be a valuable tool to identify aldosterone/cortisol-producing lesions and to validate the clinical diagnosis.
Project description:Background:In primary aldosteronism (PA), kidney function impairment could be concealed by relative hyperfiltration and emerge after adrenalectomy. We hypothesized transtubular gradient potassium gradient (TTKG), a kidney aldosterone bioactivity indicator, could correlate to end organ damage and forecast kidney function impairment after adrenalectomy. Methods:In the present prospective study, we enrolled lateralized PA patients who underwent adrenalectomy and were followed up 12?months after operation in the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation (TAIPAI) registry from 2010 to 2018. The clinical outcome was kidney function impairment, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?ml/min/1.73?m2 at 12?months after adrenalectomy. End organ damage is determined by microalbuminuria and left ventricular mass. Results:In total, 323 patients [mean, 50.8?±?10.9?years old; female 178 (55.1%)] were enrolled. Comparing pre-operation and post-operation data, systolic blood pressure, serum aldosterone, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio and eGFR decreased. TTKG???4.9 correlated with pre-operative urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >50?mg/g [odds ratio (OR)?=?2.42; p?=?0.034] and left ventricular mass (B?=?20.10; p?=?0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that TTKG???4.9 could predict concealed chronic kidney disease (OR?=?5.42; p?=?0.011) and clinical success (OR?=?2.90, p?=?0.017) at 12?months after adrenalectomy. Conclusions:TTKG could predict concealed kidney function impairment and cure of hypertension in PA patients after adrenalectomy. TTKG more than 4.9 as an adverse surrogate of aldosterone and hypokalaemia correlated with pre-operative end organ damage in terms of high proteinuria and cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Primary aldosteronism is one of the leading causes of secondary hypertension, causing significant morbidity and mortality. A number of genetic defects have recently been identified in primary aldosteronism, whereas we identified mutations in ARMC5, a tumor-suppressor gene, in cortisol-producing primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.We investigated a cohort of 56 patients who were referred to the National Institutes of Health for evaluation of primary aldosteronism for ARMC5 defects.Patients underwent step-wise diagnosis, with measurement of serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity followed by imaging, saline suppression and/or oral salt loading tests, plus adrenal venous sampling. Cortisol secretion was also evaluated; unilateral or bilateral adrenalectomy was performed, if indicated. DNA, protein, and transfection studies in H295R cells were conducted by standard methods.We identified 12 germline ARMC5 genetic alterations in 20 unrelated and two related individuals in our cohort (39.3%). ARMC5 sequence changes in 6 patients (10.7%) were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. All affected patients carrying a variant predicted to be damaging were African Americans (P = .0023).Germline ARMC5 variants may be associated with primary aldosteronism. Additional cohorts of patients with primary aldosteronism and metabolic syndrome, particularly African Americans, should be screened for ARMC5 sequence variants because these may underlie part of the known increased predisposition of African Americans to low renin hypertension.
Project description:Patients with primary aldosteronism have greater cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than patients with primary hypertension and a comparable cardiovascular risk profile. Herein we present the case of a patient who developed multiple end-organ damage due to unrecognized and uncontrolled hypertension caused by an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Clinical and radiological evaluation revealed hypertensive encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, retinopathy and nephropathy which required hemodialysis. Blood pressure control before surgery was difficult due to renal impairment that precluded the administration of anti-aldosterone drugs. Primary aldosteronism was cured by laparoscopic adrenalectomy and all antihypertensive drugs were suspended. A remarkable aspect of this case is the discordant results at screening test for primary aldosteronism: even though aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most reliable method to identify possible cases of primary aldosteronism it can be misleading especially in case of multiple comorbidities and concomitant antihypertensive treatment. Furthermore, anti-aldosterone drugs are worrisome to use when renal damage is advanced but can be reconsidered when hemodialysis begins.
Project description:Importance:In addition to biochemical cure, clinical benefits after surgery for primary aldosteronism depend on the magnitude of decrease in blood pressure (BP) and use of antihypertensive medications with a subsequent decreased risk of cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular morbidity and drug-induced adverse effects. Objective:To evaluate the change in BP and use of antihypertensive medications within an international cohort of patients who recently underwent surgery for primary aldosteronism. Design, Setting, and Participants:A cohort study was conducted across 16 referral medical centers in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism between January 2010 and December 2016 were included. Data analysis was performed from August 2017 to June 2018. Unilateral disease was confirmed using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or adrenal venous sampling. Patients with missing or incomplete preoperative or follow-up data regarding BP or corresponding number of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures:Clinical success was defined based on postoperative BP and number of antihypertensive medications. Cure was defined as normotension without antihypertensive medications, and clear improvement as normotension with lower or equal use of antihypertensive medications. In patients with preoperative normotensivity, improvement was defined as postoperative normotension with lower antihypertensive use. All other patients were stratified as no clear success because the benefits of surgery were less obvious, mainly owing to postoperative, persistent hypertension. Clinical outcomes were assessed at follow-up closest to 6 months after surgery. Results:On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 435 patients (84.6%) from a cohort of 514 patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy were eligible. Of these patients, 186 (42.3%) were women; mean (SD) age at the time of surgery was 50.7 (11.4) years. Cure was achieved in 118 patients (27.1%), clear improvement in 135 (31.0%), and no clear success in 182 (41.8%). In the subgroup classified as no clear success, 166 patients (91.2%) had postoperative hypertension. However, within this subgroup, the mean (SD) systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly by 9 (22) mm Hg (P?<?.001) and 3 (15) mm Hg (P?=?.04), respectively. Also, the number of antihypertensive medications used decreased from 3 (range, 0-7) to 2 (range, 0-6) (P?<?.001). Moreover, in 75 of 182 patients (41.2%) within this subgroup, the decrease in systolic BP was 10 mm Hg or greater. Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, for most patients, adrenalectomy was associated with a postoperative normotensive state and reduction of antihypertensive medications. Furthermore, a significant proportion of patients with postoperative, persistent hypertension may benefit from adrenalectomy given the observed clinically relevant and significant reduction of BP and antihypertensive medications.
Project description:There exists a great knowledge gap in terms of long-term effects of various surgical and pharmacological treatments on outcomes among primary aldosteronism (PA) patients. Using a validated algorithm, we extracted longitudinal data for all PA patients diagnosed in 1997-2010 and treated in the Taiwan National Health Insurance. We identified 3362 PA patients for whom the mean length of follow-up was 5.75 years. PA has higher major cardiovascular events (MACE) than essential hypertension (23.3% vs 19.3%, p?=?0.015). Results from the Cox model suggest a strong effect of adrenalectomy on lowering mortality (HR?=?0.23 with residual hypertension and 0.21 with resolved hypertension). While the need for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) after diagnosis suggests that a defined daily dose (DDD) of MRA between 12.5 and 50?mg may alleviate risk of death in a U-shape pattern. A specificity test identified patients who has aldosterone producing adenoma (HR?=?0.50, p?=?0.005) also confirmed adrenalectomy attenuated all-cause mortality. Adrenalectomy decreases long-term all-cause mortality independently from PA cure from hypertension. Prescription corresponding to a DDD between 12.5 and 50?mg may decrease mortality for patients needing MRA. It calls for more attention on early diagnosis, early treatment and prescription of appropriate dosage of MRA for PA patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adrenal aldosterone excess is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. However, adverse metabolic risk in primary aldosteronism extends beyond hypertension, with increased rates of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis, which cannot be easily explained by aldosterone excess. METHODS:We performed mass spectrometry-based analysis of a 24-hour urine steroid metabolome in 174 newly diagnosed patients with primary aldosteronism (103 unilateral adenomas, 71 bilateral adrenal hyperplasias) in comparison to 162 healthy controls, 56 patients with endocrine inactive adrenal adenoma, 104 patients with mild subclinical, and 47 with clinically overt adrenal cortisol excess. We also analyzed the expression of cortisol-producing CYP11B1 and aldosterone-producing CYP11B2 enzymes in adenoma tissue from 57 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma, employing immunohistochemistry with digital image analysis. RESULTS:Primary aldosteronism patients had significantly increased cortisol and total glucocorticoid metabolite excretion (all P < 0.001), only exceeded by glucocorticoid output in patients with clinically overt adrenal Cushing syndrome. Several surrogate parameters of metabolic risk correlated significantly with glucocorticoid but not mineralocorticoid output. Intratumoral CYP11B1 expression was significantly associated with the corresponding in vivo glucocorticoid excretion. Unilateral adrenalectomy resolved both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid excess. Postoperative evidence of adrenal insufficiency was found in 13 (29%) of 45 consecutively tested patients. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that glucocorticoid cosecretion is frequently found in primary aldosteronism and contributes to associated metabolic risk. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy alone may not be sufficient to counteract adverse metabolic risk in medically treated patients with primary aldosteronism. FUNDING:Medical Research Council UK, Wellcome Trust, European Commission.