Integrative Analysis of Three Novel Competing Endogenous RNA Biomarkers with a Prognostic Value in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has shown competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) play key roles in numerous cancers. Nevertheless, the ceRNA network that can predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to identify the prognostic value of key ceRNAs in lung tumorigenesis. Differentially expressed (DE) RNAs were identified between LUAD and adjacent normal samples by limma package in R using The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway function enrichment analysis was performed using the clusterProfiler package in R. Subsequently, the LUAD ceRNA network was established in three steps based on ceRNA hypothesis. Hub RNAs were identified using degree analysis methods based on Cytoscape plugin cytoHubba. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was implemented to calculate the risk score using the candidate ceRNAs and overall survival information. The survival differences between the high-risk and low-risk ceRNA groups were determined by the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test using survival and survminer package in R. A total of 2,989 mRNAs, 185 lncRNAs, and 153 miRNAs were identified. GO and KEGG pathway function enrichment analysis showed that DE mRNAs were mainly associated with "sister chromatid segregation," "regulation of angiogenesis," "cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)," "cell cycle," and "ECM-receptor interaction." LUAD-related ceRNA network was constructed, which comprised of 54 nodes and 78 edges. Top ten hub RNAs (hsa-miR-374a-5p, hsa-miR-374b-5p, hsa-miR-340-5p, hsa-miR-377-3p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-326, SNHG1, RALGPS2, and PITX2) were identified according to their degree. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that hsa-miR-21-5p and RALGPS2 had a significant prognostic value. Finally, we found that a high risk of three novel ceRNA interactions (SNHG1-hsa-miR-21-5p-RALGPS2, SNHG1-hsa-miR-326-RALGPS2, and SNHG1-hsa-miR-377-3p-RALGPS2) was positively associated with worse prognosis. Three novel ceRNAs (SNHG1-hsa-miR-21-5p-RALGPS2, SNHG1-hsa-miR-326-RALGPS2, and SNHG1-hsa-miR-377-3p-RALGPS2) might be potential biomarkers for the prognosis and treatment of LUAD.
Project description:Background:Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are a newly identified type of regulatory RNA. Accumulating evidence suggests that ceRNAs play an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer. Thus, ceRNA dysregulation may represent an important molecular mechanism underlying cancer progression and poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to identify ceRNAs that may serve as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods:We performed differential gene expression analysis on TCGA-LUAD datasets to identify differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs at different tumor stages. Based on the ceRNA hypothesis and considering the synergistic or feedback regulation of ceRNAs, a lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed. Functional analysis was performed using gene ontology term and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and KOBAS 2.0 software. Transcription factor (TF) analysis was carried out to identify direct targets of the TFs associated with LUAD prognosis. Identified DE genes were validated using gene expression omnibus (GEO) datasets. Results:Based on analysis of TCGA-LUAD datasets, we obtained 2,610 DE mRNAs, 915 lncRNAs, and 125 miRNAs that were common to different tumor stages (|log2(Fold change)| ? 1, false discovery rate < 0.01), respectively. Functional analysis showed that the aberrantly expressed mRNAs were closely related to tumor development. Survival analyses of the constructed ceRNA network modules demonstrated that five of them exhibit prognostic significance. The five ceRNA interaction modules contained one lncRNA (FENDRR), three mRNAs (EPAS1, FOXF1, and EDNRB), and four miRNAs (hsa-miR-148a, hsa-miR-195, hsa-miR-196b, and hsa-miR-301b). The aberrant expression of one lncRNA and three mRNAs was verified in the LUAD GEO dataset. Transcription factor analysis demonstrated that EPAS1 directly targeted 13 DE mRNAs. Conclusion:Our observations indicate that lncRNA-related ceRNAs and TFs play an important role in LUAD. The present study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying LUAD pathogenesis. Furthermore, our study facilitates the identification of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of LUAD and therapeutic targets for its treatment.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying the oncogenesis and progression of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are currently unclear. The discovery of competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks has provided a new direction for the treatment and prognosis of patients with LUAD. However, the mechanism of action of ceRNA in LUAD remains elusive. In the present study, differentially expressed mRNAs, microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs from the cancer genome atlas database were screened. CeRNAs for LUAD were then identified using online prediction software. Among the ceRNAs identified, family with sequence similarity 83 member A (FAM83A), miR-34c-5p, KCNQ1OT1 and FLJ26245 were observed to be significantly associated with the overall survival of patients with LUAD. Of note, FAM83A has potential significance in drug resistance, and may present a candidate biomarker for the prognosis and treatment of patients with LUAD.
Project description:Growing evidence has illustrated critical roles of competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network in human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to find promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Three novel unfavorable prognosis-associated genes (CELSR3, GPSM2, and CHEK1) was first identified. We also demonstrated that these genes were significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Next, 154 potential miRNAs of CELSR3, GPSM2, and CHEK1 were predicted. CHEK1-hsa-mir-195-5p/hsa-mir-497-5p and GPSM2-hsa-mir-122-5p axes were defined as two key pathways in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by combination of in silico analysis and experimental validation. Subsequently, lncRNAs binding to hsa-mir-195-5p, hsa-mir-497-5p, and hsa-mir-122-5p were predicted via starBase and miRNet databases. After performing expression analysis and survival analysis for these predicted lncRNAs, we showed that nine lncRNAs (SNHG1, SNHG12, LINC00511, HCG18, FGD5-AS1, CERS6-AS1, NUTM2A-AS1, SNHG16, and ASB16-AS1) were markedly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma and their upregulation indicated poor prognosis. Moreover, a similar mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA analysis for six "known" genes (CLEC3B, DNASE1L3, PTTG1, KIF2C, XPO5, and UBE2S) was performed. Subsequently, a comprehensive mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA triple ceRNA network linked to prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was established. Moreover, all RNAs in this network exhibited significantly diagnostic values for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In summary, the current study constructed a mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA ceRNA network associated with diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) has been demonstrated to participate in the deterioration of many types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of SNHG1-mediating functions in osteosarcoma (OS) have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, our results showed that SNHG1 was upregulated in OS tissues and cell lines, and high SNHG1 expression predicts poor overall survival of OS patients. Knockdown of SNHG1 inhibited cell growth and metastasis of OS in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that there was reciprocal repression between SNHG1 and miR-326 which act as a tumor suppressor in OS cells, and exhibiting a strong negative relationship between SNHG1 and miR-326 expression in OS tissues. Additionally, we identified that SNHG1 increased human nin one binding protein (NOB1), an oncogene, through sponging miR-326 as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA), finally prompting cell growth, migration and invasion in OS. Collectively, these findings not only uncovered that the SNHG1/miR-326/NOB1 signaling axis has a key role in OS progression but also suggested the potential application of SNHG1 and miR-326 as biomarkers in the OS diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Recent studies have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNA function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) that compete to bind to shared microRNA (miRNA) recognition elements (MREs) to perform specific biological functions during tumorigenesis. The tumor suppressor p53 is a master regulator of cancer-related biological processes by acting as a transcription factor to regulate target genes including miRNA and lncRNA. However, the mechanism in human hepatocellular carcinoma and whether p53-mediated RNA targets could form ceRNA network remain unclear. Here, we identified a series of differential expressed miRNAs, lncRNA and mRNA which were potentially regulated by p53 using RNA sequencing in HepG2. Genomic characteristics comparative analysis showed significant differences between mRNAs and lncRNAs. By integrating experimentally confirmed Ago2 and p53 binding sites, we constructed a highly reliable p53-mediated ceRNA network using hypergeometric test. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the ceRNA network highly enriched in the cancer or p53-associated signaling pathways. Finally, using betweenness centrality analysis, we identified five master miRNAs (hsa-miR-3620-5p, hsa-miR-3613-3p, hsa-miR-6881-3p, hsa-miR-6087 and hsa-miR-18a-3p) that regulated most of the target RNAs, suggesting these miRNAs play central roles in the whole p53-mediated ceRNAs network. Taken together, our results provide a new regulatory mechanism of p53 networks for future studies in cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Background:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Emerging evidence has revealed that risk factors and metastatic patterns differ greatly between colon and rectal cancers. However, the molecular mechanism underlying their pathogenic differences remains unclear. Therefore, we here aimed to identify non-coding RNA biomarkers based on lncRNA-associated ceRNA network (LceNET) to elucidate the carcinogenic heterogeneity between colon and rectal cancers. Methods:A global LceNET in human was constructed by employing experimental evidence-based miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-lncRNA interactions. Then, four context-specific ceRNA networks related to cancer initiation and metastasis were extracted by mapping differentially expressed lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs to the global LceNET. Notably, a novel network-based bioinformatics model was proposed and applied to identify lncRNA/miRNA biomarkers and critical ceRNA triplets for understanding the carcinogenic heterogeneity between colon and rectal cancers. Moreover, the identified biomarkers were further validated by their diagnostic/prognostic performance, expression pattern and correlation analysis. Results:Based on network modeling, lncRNA KCNQ1OT1 (AUC>0.85) and SNHG1 (AUC>0.94) were unveiled as common diagnostic biomarkers for the initiation and metastasis of colon and rectal cancers. qRT-PCR analysis uncovered that these lncRNAs had significantly higher expression level in CRC cell lines with high metastatic potential. In particular, KCNQ1OT1 and SNHG1 function in colon and rectal cancers via different ceRNA mechanisms. For example, KCNQ1OT1/miR-484/ANKRD36 axis was involved in the initiation of colon cancer, while KCNQ1OT1/miR-181a-5p/PCGF2 axis was implicated in the metastasis of rectal cancer; the SNHG1/miR-484/ORC6 axis played a role in colon cancer, while SNHG1/miR-423-5p/EZH2 and SNHG1/let-7b-5p/ATP6V1F axes participated in the initiation and metastasis of rectal cancer, respectively. In these ceRNA triplets, miR-484, miR-181a-5p, miR-423-5p and let-7b-5p were identified as miRNA biomarkers with excellent distinguishing ability between normal and tumor tissues, and ANKRD36, PCGF2, EZH2 and ATP6V1F were closely related to the prognosis of corresponding cancer. Conclusion:The landscape of lncRNA-associated ceRNA network not only facilitates the exploration of non-coding RNA biomarkers, but also provides deep insights into the oncogenetic heterogeneity between colon and rectal cancers, thereby contributing to the optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of CRC.
Project description:Background:Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is a malignant and lethal tumor in digestive system and distance metastasis lead to poor prognosis. The metastasis-specific ceRNAs (competitive endogenous RNAs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells might associate with tumor prognosis and distance metastasis. Nonetheless, few studies have concentrated on ceRNAs and Immune cells in COAD. Methods:The gene expression profile and clinical information of COAD were downloaded from TCGA and divided into two groups: primary tumors with or without distance metastasis. We applied comprehensive bioinformatics methods to analyze differential expression genes (DEGs) related to metastasis and establish the ceRNA networks. The Cox analysis and Lasso regression were utilized to screen the pivotal genes and prevent overfitting. Based on them, the prognosis prediction nomograms were established. The cell type identification by estimating relative subsets of RNA transcripts (CIBERSORT) algorithm was then applied to screen significant tumor immune-infiltrating cells associated with COAD metastasis and established another prognosis prediction model. Ultimately, co-expression analysis was applied to explore the relationship between key genes in ceRNA networks and significant immune cells. Multiple databases and preliminary clinical specimen validation were used to test the expressions of key biomarkers at the cellular and tissue levels. Results:We explored 1 significantly differentially expressed lncRNA, 1 significantly differentially expressed miRNA, 8 survival-related immune-infiltrating cells, 5 immune cells associated with distance metastasis. Besides, 3 pairs of important biomarkers associated with COAD metastasis were also identified: T cells follicular helper and hsa-miR-125b-5p (R = -0.200, P < 0.001), Macrophages M0 and hsa-miR-125b-5p (R = 0.170, P < 0.001) and Macrophages M0 and FAS (R = -0.370, P < 0.001). Multidimensional validation and preliminary clinical specimen validation also supported the results. Conclusion:In this research, we found some significant ceRNAs (FAS and hsa-miR-125b-5p) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (T cells follicular helper and Macrophages M0) might related to distance metastasis and prognosis of COAD. The nomograms could assist scientific and medical researchers in clinical management.
Project description:<b>Aim: </b>This study aimed to explore whether the dysregulation of lnc-small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) and miR-216b-5p correlated with chemoresistance and indicated poor prognosis of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).<br><br><b>Methods and results: </b>The expression of lnc-SNHG1 was upregulated, while miR-216b-5p showed low expression in patients with chemoresistant EOC compared with patients with chemosensitive EOC. The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the expression of miR-216b-5p and FIGO stage were independent prognostic factors for the overall survival (OS) of patients with serous EOC. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant association of the increased expression level of lnc-SNHG1 with shorter OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients with a low expression level of miR-216b-5p also had shorter OS and DFS. The biological functions were tested using CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay, and cell apoptosis. The knockdown of SNHG1 and the overexpression of miR-216b-5p stimulated paclitaxel sensitivity in A2780/Taxol cells through inhibiting cell growth and migration and promoting apoptosis. The inhibition of miR-216b-5p could rescue the effect of lnc-SNHG1 inhibition on the sensitivity of A2780/Taxol cells to paclitaxel. Luciferase reporter assay, RNA Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation Assay (RIP), and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) indicated that lnc-SNHG1 acted as a sponge of miR-216b-5p in A2780/Taxol cells.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>This study showed that the overexpression of lnc-SNHG1 and decreased expression level of miR-216b-5p correlated with the chemoresistance of patients with serous EOC and indicated shorter OS and DFS. Lnc-SNHG1 functioned as a ceRNA with miR-216b-5p, which was critical in modulating the paclitaxel sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells.
Project description:This study aimed to identify potential therapeutic targets in osteosarcoma (OS) through the network analysis of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMIs) and mRNAs (DEMs) were identified between OS cell lines and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from the data deposited under GSE70415 using limma package. Functional analysis of DEMs was performed using DAVID and clusterProfiler to identify significantly enriched Gene Ontology biological processes and KEGG pathways, respectively. The DEMI-DEM interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape. LncRNA-miRNA interactions were predicted using starBase database. The ceRNA regulatory network was constructed by integrating mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs, and functional enrichment analysis was performed for the genes involved. The analysis revealed a total of 326 DEMs and 54 DEMIs between OS cells and hMSCs. We identified several novel therapeutic targets involved in the progression and metastasis of OS, such as CBX7, RAD9A, SNHG7 and miR-34a-5p. The miRNA, miR-543 (target gene: CBX7) was found to be associated with the pathway Mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis. Using the ceRNA network, we established the following regulatory interactions: NEAT1/miR-543/CBX7, SNHG7/miR-34a-5p/RAD9A, and XIST/miR-34a-5p/RAD9A. CBX7, RAD9A, lncRNA SNHG7, miR-543, and miR-34a-5p may be explored as novel therapeutic targets for treatment of OS.
Project description:Background:A growing body of evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can act as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to bind to microRNAs (miRNAs), thereby affecting and regulating the expression of target genes. The lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network has been theorized to play an indispensable role in many types of tumors. However, the role of the lncRNA-related ceRNA regulatory network in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unclear. Methods:We downloaded the RNAseq and miRNAseq data of LUAD from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and identified differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs), differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), and differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) between LUAD and corresponding paracancerous tissues by using the edgeR package of R software. We constructed the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network by using Cytoscape (version 3.7.2) on the basis of the interaction generated from the miRcode, miRTarBase, miRDB, and TargetScan databases. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed with DAVID 6.8 bioinformatics resources and plotted by using the ggplot2 package in R. The effect of genes on LUAD prognosis was assessed by applying the survival package in R in accordance with the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results:In total, 1645 DElncRNAs, 117 DEmiRNAs, and 2729 DEmRNAs were identified in LUAD. The LUAD-specific ceRNA network was composed of 157 nodes and 378 edges (329 DElncRNA-DEmiRNA interactions and 49 DEmiRNA-DEmRNA interactions). GO and KEGG pathway annotations suggested that the LUAD-specific ceRNA network was related to tumor-related molecular functions and pathways. Seven lncRNAs (DISC1-IT1, SYNPR-AS1, H19, LINC00460, LINC00518, DSCR10, and STEAP2-AS1), one miRNA (hsa-mir-31), and 16 mRNAs (ATAD2, OSCAR, KIF23, E2F7, PFKP, MCM4, CEP55, CBX2, CCNE1, CLSPN, CCNB1, CDC25A, EZH2, CHEK1, SLC7A11, and PBK) were revealed to be significantly correlated with overall survival. Conclusion:In this study, we described the potential regulatory mechanism of the progression of LUAD. We proposed a new lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network that could help further explore the molecular mechanisms of LUAD.