Medication-related incidents at 19 hospitals: A retrospective register study using incident reports.
ABSTRACT: Aim:To examine (a) when medication incidents occur and which type is most frequent; (b) consequences for patients; (c) incident reporters' perceptions of causes; and (d) professional categories reporting the incidents. Design:A descriptive multicentre register study. Methods:This study included 775 medication incident reports from 19 Swedish hospitals during 2016-2017. From the 775 reports, 128 were chosen to establish the third aim. Incidents were classified and analysed statistically. Perceived causes of incidents were analysed using content analysis. Results:Incidents occurred as often in prescribing as in administering. Wrong dose was the most common error, followed by missed dose and lack of prescription. Most incidents did not harm the patients. Errors in administering reached the patients more often than errors in prescribing. The most frequently perceived causes were shortcomings in knowledge, skills and abilities, followed by workload. Most medication incidents were reported by nurses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This paper presents Part 1 of a two-part literature review examining medication safety in the Australian acute care setting. This review was undertaken for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to update a previous national report on medication safety conducted in 2002. This first part of the review examines the extent and causes of medication incidents and adverse drug events in acute care. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify Australian studies, published from 2002 to 2008, on the extent and causes of medication incidents and adverse drug events in acute care. RESULTS: Studies published since 2002 continue to suggest approximately 2%-3% of Australian hospital admissions are medication-related. Results of incident reporting from hospitals show that incidents associated with medication remain the second most common type of incident after falls. Omission or overdose of medication is the most frequent type of medication incident reported. Studies conducted on prescribing of renally excreted medications suggest that there are high rates of prescribing errors in patients requiring monitoring and medication dose adjustment. Research published since 2002 provides a much stronger Australian research base about the factors contributing to medication errors. Team, task, environmental, individual and patient factors have all been found to contribute to error. CONCLUSION: Medication-related hospital admissions remain a significant problem in the Australian healthcare system. It can be estimated that 190,000 medication-related hospital admissions occur per year in Australia, with estimated costs of $660 million. Medication incidents remain the second most common type of incident reported in Australian hospitals. A number of different systems factors contribute to the occurrence of medication errors in the Australian setting.
Project description:<h4>Problem</h4>The NHS is perceived to have a poor record of learning from incidents. Despite efforts of the Medical Devices Agency, which issues safety warnings, adverse incidents with medical devices continue to occur, some of which result in serious injury or death through device failures, user errors, and organisational problems.<h4>Design</h4>Introduction of feedback notes on a supportive investigation that seeks to determine latent factors, immediate triggers, causes, and positive actions taken by staff that minimised adverse consequences.<h4>Background and setting</h4>Medical physics department providing equipment management services in a major NHS teaching trust.<h4>Key measures for improvement</h4>Reduction in repetitions of adverse incidents and improved staff competency in using devices.<h4>Strategy for change</h4>A feedback note was developed to describe the incident and generic details of the equipment, summarise the investigation (focusing on latent causes and immediate triggers), and describe lessons to be learnt and positive actions by staff.<h4>Effects of change</h4>Feedback notes have been used in teaching sessions and given to ward link nurses. Despite being new, the positive supportive approach has encouraged an open reporting culture.<h4>Lessons learnt</h4>Adverse incidents are typically caused by alignment of different factors, but good practice can prevent errors becoming incidents. Careful analysis of incidents reveals both the multifactorial causes and the good practices that can help minimise repetitions.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines aim to improve intravenous (IV) fluid prescribing for children, but existing evidence about how and why fluid prescribing errors occur is limited. Studying this can lead to more effective implementation, through education and systems design.<h4>Aims</h4>Identify types of IV fluid prescribing errors reported in practiceAnalyse factors that contribute to errorsProvide guidance to educators and those responsible for designing systems.<h4>Methods</h4>Mixed methods observational study which analysed critical incident reports relating to IV fluid prescribing errors in children aged 0-16, occurring between 2011 and 2015 in UK secondary care. We quantified characteristics and types of errors, then qualitatively analysed narrative descriptions, identifying underlying contributing factors.<h4>Results</h4>In the 40 incidents analysed, principal types of errors were incorrect rate of fluids, inappropriate choice of solution, and incorrect completion of prescription charts. Prescribers had to negotiate complex patients, interactions with other practitioners and teams, and challenging work environments; errors resulted from these inter-related contributing factors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study highlights the diverse range and complex nature of IV fluid prescribing errors reported in practice. While these findings have the inherent limitations of critical incident reports, they point to areas of potential improvement in education and systems design. Practising prescribing in context, inducting doctors within the many specialties who contribute to care of children, and educating them in joint working with nurses and pharmacists could help reduce errors.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. METHODS: The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. RESULTS: From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. CONCLUSION: A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident.
Project description:PURPOSE: To learn from patient safety incidents (PSIs) following recent introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor medications (anti-VEGF) in ophthalmic care, as reported via a national incident reporting database. METHODS: Thematic retrospective review of anti-VEGF medications PSIs as reported via clinical incident reporting methods in NHS care in England and Wales from 2003 to 2010, ascertained from database mining at the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). RESULTS: In all, 166 relevant anti-VEGF incidents were reported. Reports have increased year on year from 2006. Incident severity as reported: 10 were reported as 'severe harm' and 23 as 'moderate harm'. The remainder were 'low' or 'no harm' events. The incident themes and/or causes found and by order of severity included: intra-ocular inflammation/endophthalmitis (n=16); treatment or follow-up delays (n=45); wrong medication (n=26); wrong eye/patient injection (n=17); missing records (n=12). Other problems included medication availability and refrigeration failures. We reflect on potential solutions for addressing the matters found. Systemic safety matters, stroke, subdural hemorrhage, and myocardial infarction (total n=3) followed anti-VEGF treatments. CONCLUSION: Although infrequent, anti-VEGF medication PSIs or errors do occur and are thus a threat to quality. This review also provides supporting evidence to existing concerns and challenges surrounding age-related macular degeneration service pressures and provision. Lessons for improvement of care from a national incident reporting database for a frequently undertaken and recently introduced ophthalmic procedure were found. Suggestions are proposed for improving quality by reducing such problems based on analysis of such reports. Endophthalmitis reports following intra-vitreal injections suggest rigorous infection control measures are required.
Project description:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:Aim of this study is to determine the setting, causes, and the harm of medication errors (ME) which are notified by Primary Health Care. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Setting: Primary Care Regional Health Service of Madrid. 2016. DESIGN:Descriptive and cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS:All ME (1,839) which were notified by Primary Care Centres by notification system of safety incidents between January 1st 2016 and November 17th 2016. MAIN MEASUREMENTS:Setting, real harm, potential harm, and cause of error. These items were classified by one researcher. Concordance was checked with another researcher. RESULTS:Just under half (47%) (95% CI: 44.8%-49.3%) of ME occurred in Primary Care Centre, 26.5% (95% CI: 24.5%-28.6%) of ME were patient medication errors, and 27.5% (95% CI: 24.1%-30.8%) of ME were potential severe harm errors. Prescribing errors were the cause of most ME in Primary Care Centre [27.4% (95% CI: 24.4%-30.4%)]. Communication between patients and doctors were the cause of most patient medication errors [66% (95% CI: 61.8%-70.2%)]. Patient mistakes and forgetfulness were also causes of patient medication errors. CONCLUSIONS:Half of all mediation errors hppened at Primary Care Center while one quarter of them were patient medication errors. One quarter of all ME were potential severe harm errors. The main causes were prescribing errors, failure of communication between patients and doctors, and patient mistakes and forgetfulness. Prescribing aid systems, communication improvements and patients aids should be implemented.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient safety in home healthcare is largely unexplored. No-harm incidents may give valuable information about risk areas and system failures as a source for proactive patient safety work. We hypothesized that it would be feasible to retrospectively identify no-harm incidents and thus aimed to explore the cumulative incidence, preventability, types, and potential contributing causes of no-harm incidents that affected adult patients admitted to home healthcare. METHODS:A structured retrospective record review using a trigger tool designed for home healthcare. A random sample of 600 home healthcare records from ten different organizations across Sweden was reviewed. RESULTS:In the study, 40,735?days were reviewed. In all, 313 no-harm incidents affected 177 (29.5%) patients; of these, 198 (63.2%) no-harm incidents, in 127 (21.2%) patients, were considered preventable. The most common no-harm incident types were "fall without harm," "deficiencies in medication management," and "moderate pain." The type "deficiencies in medication management" was deemed to have a preventability rate twice as high as those of "fall without harm" and "moderate pain." The most common potential contributing cause was "deficiencies in nursing care and treatment, i.e., delayed, erroneous, omitted or incomplete treatment or care." CONCLUSION:This study suggests that it is feasible to identify no-harm incidents and potential contributing causes such as omission of care using record review with a trigger tool adapted to the context. No-harm incidents and potential contributing causes are valuable sources of knowledge for improving patient safety, as they highlight system failures and indicate risks before an adverse event reach the patient.
Project description:Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent and represents a major challenge in primary care. Patients with multimorbidity are potentially more likely to experience safety incidents due to the complexity of their needs and frequency of their interactions with health services. However, rigorous syntheses of the link between patient safety incidents and multimorbidity are not available. This review examined the relationship between multimorbidity and patient safety incidents in primary care.We followed our published protocol (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007434). Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched up to May 2015. Study design and quality were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the associations between multimorbidity and two categories of patient safety outcomes: 'active patient safety incidents' (such as adverse drug events and medical complications) and 'precursors of safety incidents' (such as prescription errors, medication non-adherence, poor quality of care and diagnostic errors). Meta-analyses using random effects models were undertaken.Eighty six relevant comparisons from 75 studies were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that physical-mental multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for 'active patient safety incidents' (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.40 to 3.38) and 'precursors of safety incidents' (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.36 to 2.03). Physical multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for active safety incidents (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45 to 1.80) but was not associated with precursors of safety incidents (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.13). Statistical heterogeneity was high and the methodological quality of the studies was generally low.The association between multimorbidity and patient safety is complex, and varies by type of multimorbidity and type of safety incident. Our analyses suggest that multimorbidity involving mental health may be a key driver of safety incidents, which has important implication for the design and targeting of interventions to improve safety. High quality studies examining the mechanisms of patient safety incidents in patients with multimorbidity are needed, with the goal of promoting effective service delivery and ameliorating threats to safety in this group of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medical-incident reporting (MIR) ensures patient safety and delivery of quality of care by minimizing unintentional harm among health care providers. We explored medical-incident reporting practices, perceived barriers and motivating factors among health care providers at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on 158 health provider at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH), Western Uganda. Data was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS. The chi-square was used to determine factors associated with MIR at MRRH. RESULTS:The results showed that there was no formal incident reporting structure. However the medical-incidences identified were: medication errors (89.9%), diagnostic errors (71.5%), surgical errors (52.5%) and preventive error (47.7%). The motivating factors of MIR were: establishment of a good communication system, instituting corrective action on the reported incidents and reinforcing health workers knowledge on MIR (p-value 0.004); presence of effective organizational systems like: written guidelines, practices of open door policy, no blame approach, and team work were significantly associated with MIR (p-value 0.000). On the other hand, perceived barriers to MIR were: lack of knowledge on incidents and their reporting, non-existence of an incident reporting team and fear of being punished (p- value 0.669). CONCLUSION:Medical Incident Reporting at MRRH was sub-optimal. Therefore setting up an incident management team and conducting routine training MIR among health care workers will increase patient safety.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyze patient safety incidents associated with computer use to develop the basis for a classification of problems reported by health professionals.<h4>Design</h4>Incidents submitted to a voluntary incident reporting database across one Australian state were retrieved and a subset (25%) was analyzed to identify 'natural categories' for classification. Two coders independently classified the remaining incidents into one or more categories. Free text descriptions were analyzed to identify contributing factors. Where available medical specialty, time of day and consequences were examined.<h4>Measurements</h4>Descriptive statistics; inter-rater reliability.<h4>Results</h4>A search of 42,616 incidents from 2003 to 2005 yielded 123 computer related incidents. After removing duplicate and unrelated incidents, 99 incidents describing 117 problems remained. A classification with 32 types of computer use problems was developed. Problems were grouped into information input (31%), transfer (20%), output (20%) and general technical (24%). Overall, 55% of problems were machine related and 45% were attributed to human-computer interaction. Delays in initiating and completing clinical tasks were a major consequence of machine related problems (70%) whereas rework was a major consequence of human-computer interaction problems (78%). While 38% (n=26) of the incidents were reported to have a noticeable consequence but no harm, 34% (n=23) had no noticeable consequence.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Only 0.2% of all incidents reported were computer related. Further work is required to expand our classification using incident reports and other sources of information about healthcare IT problems. Evidence based user interface design must focus on the safe entry and retrieval of clinical information and support users in detecting and correcting errors and malfunctions.