Management of retinitis pigmentosa by Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells: prospective analysis of 1-year results.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The aim of the study was to investigate annual structural and functional results, and their correlation with inheritance pattern of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients who were treated with Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective, sequential, open-label phase-3 clinical study was conducted at Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, between April 2019 and May 2020. The study included 34 eyes from 32 retinitis pigmentosa patients of various genotypes who were enrolled in the stem cells clinical trial. The patients were followed for 12?months after the WJ-MSCs transplantation into subtenon space and evaluated with consecutive examinations. Genetic mutations were investigated using a retinitis pigmentosa panel sequencing method consisting of 90 genes. All patients underwent a complete routine ophthalmic examination with best corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography angiography, visual field, and full-field electroretinography. Quantitative data obtained from baseline (T0), 6th month (T1), and 12th month (T2) examinations were compared. RESULTS:According to timepoints at T0, T1, and T2: The mean outer retinal thickness was 100.3??m, 119.1??m, and 118.0??m, respectively (p?=?0.01; T0??T1, T2). According to inheritance pattern, BCVA, FPDI, ERG amplitude, and implicit time data improved significantly in autosomal dominant (AD) and in autosomal recessive (AR) RP at 1?year follow-up (pAD?=?0.01, pAR?=?0.01; pAD?=?pAR?>?pX-linked). No ocular or systemic adverse events related to the surgical methods and/or WJ-MSCs were observed during the 1?year follow-up period. CONCLUSION:Subtenon transplantation of WJ-MSCs was found to be effective and safe in the treatment of RP during the first year, similar to the sixth month's results. In autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance of RP, regardless of the genetic mutations, subtenon administration of WJ-MSCs can be considered an effective and safe option without any adverse effect for slowing or stopping the disease progression. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04224207 . Registered 8 January 2020.
Project description:Time-restricted eating (TRE) can facilitate weight loss, yet its effect on eating patterns remains unknown. Twenty adults with BMI ? 25 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week randomized trial, examining the effect of an 8-h, time-restricted eating intervention on dietary patterns. Oral intake was documented using a smartphone. Dietary patterns, assessed as frequency of eating occasions (EOs) and types of meals/snacks and beverages, were compared between baseline (T0), early-intervention (T1), and end-intervention (T2). At T1 and T2, both groups had less EOs compared to T0, with greater reduction seen in the TRE group (-28%) than the non-TRE group (-12%) at T2 (p = 0.01 vs. non-TRE). Comparing T1 to T0, the TRE group documented less incomplete meals (-32.5%: p = 0.02), high quality snacks (-23.6%: p = 0.03), and low quality snacks (-36.6%: p = 0.004). Comparing T2 to T0, the TRE group documented less incomplete meals (-33.9%: p = 0.03), high quality snacks (-28.1%: p < 0.001) and low quality snacks (-51.2%: p < 0.001). Caffeinated beverage intake was reduced in the TRE group at T1 (-20.2%) and T2 (-28.8%) vs. T0, but remained unaltered in the non-TRE group. By using a smartphone application to document dietary intake, TRE significantly reduced the number of EOs, snacks, and caffeinated beverages, relative to baseline and relative to the non-TRE.
Project description:Breast cancer (BC) treatment includes mostly chemotherapy (CT), which can cause side effects like nausea, taste changes, early satiety, slow gastric emptying and xerostomia. In this way, the individual's relationship with food may change during the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy on perceptions related to food intake of women with BC. Fifty-five women with BC were followed, and data were collected at three periods during first-line CT: beginning (T0), intermediate (T1) and end (T2). A visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 to 10 cm) for hunger, appetite for various food categories and meal enjoyment was investigated. The frequency and intensity of side effects were evaluated using a 4 cm scale. The results showed a higher prevalence of taste changes in T1 (p = 0.044) and more nausea in T1 and T2 (p = 0.018). Furthermore, the intensity of nausea was higher in T2 (p = 0.01) than in the other periods. We observed moderate hunger in T0, T1 and T2 (p = 0.113), but the overall appetite increased between T0 and T2 (p = 0.003). Meal enjoyment was reduced from T0 to T1and returned back to the initial value in T2 (p = 0.021). The appetite for salty (p = 0.004) and spicy (p = 0.03) foods was increased in T1. There was an increase of body weight (p = 0.008), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.009) and waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.03) during CT. CT changes food hedonism, increasing the overall appetite and the appetite for salty and spicy foods. Moreover, we observed the negative impact of CT on meal enjoyment and an increase in side effects and anthropometric parameters.
Project description:Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome.Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device. Once stabilized, patients were transferred to our Neurorehabilitation unit for an individualized treatment. Outcome measures (Glasgow Coma Scale, Coma Recovery Scale revised -CRSr-, Disability Rating Scale-DRS- and Levels of Cognitive Functioning) were assessed on the third day from the injury (T0), at ICU discharge (T1) and at Rehab discharge (T2). Between- and within-group comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively.Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study without adverse events (15 in the verticalization group and 16 in the conventional physiotherapy). Early verticalization started 12.4±7.3 (mean±SD) days after ABI. The length of stay in ICU was longer for the verticalization group (38.8 ± 15.7 vs 25.1 ± 11.2 days, p = 0.01), while the total length of stay (ICU+Neurorehabilitation) was not significantly different (153.2 ± 59.6 vs 134.0 ± 61.0 days, p = 0.41). All outcome measures significantly improved in both groups after the overall period (T2 vs T0, p<0.001 all), as well as after ICU stay (T1 vs T0, p<0.004 all) and after Neurorehabilitation (T2 vs T1, p<0.004 all). The improvement was significantly better in the experimental group for CRSr (T2-T0 p = 0.033, T1-T0 p = 0.006) and (borderline) for DRS (T2-T0 p = 0.040, T1-T0 p = 0.058).A stepping verticalization protocol, started since the acute stages, improves the short-term and long-term functional and neurological outcome of ABI patients.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02828371.
Project description:Tannin, an antinutritional component of plant proteins was fed to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 8. 18 ± 0.81 g) for 8 weeks to investigate their tolerance levels. Semi-purified diets (T0, T1, T2, and T3) with varying levels of hydrolysable tannin (0, 0.75, 1.25, and 1.75% respectively) were used. No significant difference was obtained in weight gain, while feed conversion ratio of T0 was significantly lower than T2. Muscle protein content of T0 and T3 were significantly higher than T2, while lipid content of T0 was significantly higher than other groups. Muscle and hepatic glycogen in T0 were significantly lower than other groups. Muscle saturated fatty acids in T3 were significantly higher than T0, and lowest in T1 and T2, while the poly-unsaturated fatty acids in T1 and T2 were higher than T0 and lowest in T3. Significant increases were obtained in trypsin and amylase activities as tannin levels increased, the lipase activity of T0 and T1 was significantly higher than T2 and T3. Activities of hepatic alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased with increasing tannin level. The total protein in serum of T2 was significantly higher than T0 and T1 and lowest in T3, whereas globulin of T2 was significantly higher than T0 and T3 and lowest in T1, while albumin of T1 was significantly higher than other groups. Urea nitrogen of T0 was significantly higher than other groups, triglyceride and total cholesterol significantly increased with tannin level and decreased in T3, significant decreases were obtained in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in T3. mRNA expression of intestinal TOR was significantly upregulated as dietary tannin increased. In hepatopancreas, the expression of glucokinase in T1 was significantly higher than T2, and lowest in T0 and T3, pyruvate kinase in T2 was significantly higher than T0 and T1 and lowest T3. The expression of lipoprotein lipase upregulated as tannin level and downregulated in T3, and fatty acid synthase downregulated as tannin level. In conclusion, grass carp could tolerate 1.75% dietary tannin without influencing growth. However, 1.25% tannin impaired digestion and metabolism of protein, decreased the deposition of lipid and promoted utilization of carbohydrate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The early effects of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include decreased physical function, bone mineral density (BMD/g/cm2 ), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). We assessed the capacity of a physical therapy and motivation-based intervention, beginning after diagnosis and continuing through the end of treatment, to positively modify these factors. PROCEDURE:A 2.5-year randomized controlled trial of 73 patients aged 4-18.99 years within 10 days of ALL diagnosis assessed BMD at baseline (T0 ) and end of therapy (T3 ), strength, range of motion, endurance, motor skills, and HRQL at baseline (T0 ), 8 (T1 ), 15 (T2 ), and 135 (T3 ) weeks. RESULTS:There were no significant changes between groups (intervention, n = 33; usual care, n = 40) in BMD (P = 0.059) at T3 or physical function and HRQL at T0 -T3 . While BMD declined in both the intervention (T0 = -0.21, T3 = -0.55) and usual care (T0 = -0.62, T3 = -0.78) groups, rates of decline did not differ between groups (P = 0.56). Univariate analysis (n = 73) showed associations of higher T3 bone density with body mass index T1 (P = 0.01), T2 (P = <0.0001), T3 (P = 0.01), T3 ankle flexibility/strength (P = 0.001), and T2 parent (P = 0.02)/T0 child (P = 0.03) perceptions of less bodily pain. CONCLUSIONS:The intervention delivered during treatment was not successful in modifying BMD, physical function, or HRQL. Physical activity, at the level and intensity required to modify these factors, may not be feasible during early treatment owing to the child's responses to the disease and treatment. Future studies will consider intervention implementation during late maintenance therapy, extending into survivorship.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of this study is to determine if umbilical cord Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells implanted in sub-tenon space have beneficial effects on visual functions in retinitis pigmentosa patients by reactivating the degenerated photoreceptors in dormant phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective, open-label, phase-3 clinical trial was conducted between April of 2019 and October of 2019 at Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology. 32 RP patients (34 eyes) were included in the study. The patients were followed for 6?months after the Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cell administration, and evaluated with consecutive examinations. All patients underwent a complete routine ophthalmic examination, and best corrected visual acuity, optical coherens tomography angiography, visual field, multifocal and full-field electroretinography were performed. The quantitative results were obtained from a comparison of the pre-injection and final examination (6th month) values. RESULTS:The mean best corrected visual acuity was 70.5 letters prior to Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cell application and 80.6 letters at the 6th month (p?=?0.01). The mean visual field median deviation value was 27.3?dB before the treatment and 24.7?dB at the 6th month (p?=?0.01). The mean outer retinal thickness was 100.3??m before the treatment and 119.1??m at 6th month (p?=?0.01). In the multifocal electroretinography results, P1 amplitudes improved in ring1 from 24.8 to 39.8 nv/deg2 (p?=?0.01), in ring2 from 6.8 to 13.6 nv/deg2 (p?=?0.01), and in ring3 from 3.1 to 5.7 nv/deg2 (p?=?0.02). P1 implicit times improved in ring1 from 44.2 to 32.4?ms (p?=?0.01), in ring2 from 45.2 to 33.2?ms (p?=?0.02), and in ring3 from 41.9 to 32.4?ms (p?=?0.01). The mean amplitude improved in 16 Tds from 2.4 to 5.0 nv/deg2 (p?=?0.01) and in 32 Tds from 2.4 to 4.8 nv/deg2 (p?=?0.01) in the full-field flicker electroretinography results. Full field flicker electroretinography mean implicit time also improved in 16 Tds from 43.3 to 37.9?ms (p?=?0.01). No ocular or systemic adverse events related to the two types of surgical methods and/or Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells itself were observed during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION:RP is a genetic disorder that can result in blindness with outer retinal degeneration. Regardless of the type of genetic mutation, sub-tenon Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cell administration appears to be an effective and safe option. There are no serious adverse events or ophthalmic / systemic side effects for 6?months follow-up. Although the long-term adverse effects are still unknown, as an extraocular approach, subtenon implantation of the stem cells seems to be a reasonable way to avoid the devastating side effects of intravitreal/submacular injection. Further studies that include long-term follow-up are needed to determine the duration of efficacy and the frequency of application. TRIAL REGISTRATION:SHGM56733164. Redistered 28 January 2019 https://shgm.saglik.gov.tr/organ-ve-doku-nakli-koordinatorlugu/56733164/203 E.507.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: This prospective study evaluated the density of the midpalatal and transverse sutures as assessed by low-dose CT before rapid maxillary expansion (T0), at the end of active expansion (T1) and after a retention period of 6 months (T2). METHODS: The study sample comprised 17 pre-pubertal subjects (mean age 11.2 years) with constricted maxillary arches. Total amount of expansion was 7 mm in all subjects. Multislice low-dose CT scans were taken at T0, T1 and T2. On the axial CT scanned images six regions of interest (ROIs) were placed along the midpalatal and transverse sutures and two in maxillary and palatal bony areas. Density was measured in Hounsfield units. Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman analysis of variance with post hoc tests were used (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The three ROIs in the midpalatal suture showed a significant decrease in density from T0 to T1, a significant increase from T1 to T2 and a lack of statistically significant differences from T0 to T2. Both ROIs located in the transverse suture showed a significant decrease in density from T0 to T1, followed by a non-significant increase in density from T1 to T2. CONCLUSIONS: At the end of the active phase of expansion a significant reduction in density along the midpalatal and transverse sutures was observed in all subjects. The sutural density of the midpalatal suture at T2 indicated reorganization of the midpalatal suture while the density along the transverse suture increased without reaching the pre-treatment values, possibly due to different morphology between midpalatal and transverse sutures.
Project description:Cognitive and physical activity treatments (CT and PT) are two non-pharmacological approaches frequently used in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aim of this study was to compare CT and PT in these diseases. Eighty-seven patients were randomly assigned to CT (n=30), PT (n=27) or control group (CTRL; n=30) for 6 months. The global cognitive function was measured by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Specific neuropsychological tests explored attention, memory, executive functions, behavioral disorders. Cardiovascular risk factors (CVD) were collected. All measures were performed before (T0), after treatments (T1), and at three-months follow-up (T2). MMSE did not change from T0 to T1 and T2 in patients assigned to PT and CT, while CTRL patients showed a decline MCI: -11.8%, AD: -16.2%). Between group differences (MCI vs AD) were not found at T1 and T2. Significant worsening was found for CTRL in MCI (T0- T1: P=.039; T0-T2: P<.001) and AD (T0-T1: P<.001; T0-T2: P<.001), and amelioration was found for CT in AD (T0-T2: P<.001). Attention, executive functions and behavioral disorders were unaffected by either PT or CT. Memory was increased in patients with MCI assigned to PT (+6.9%) and CT (+8.5%).. CVD were ameliorated in the PT group. CTRL patients of both groups, revealed significant decline in all functions and no between groups differences were detected. PT appear to ameliorate CVD. Although between groups differences were not found, results suggest a major retention in MCI compared with AD, suggesting that the latter might benefit better of constant rather than periodic treatments. This study confirms the positive effects of CT and PT in mitigating the cognitive decline in MCI and AD patients, and it is the first to demonstrate their similar effectiveness on maintaining cognitive function.
Project description:Peatland testate amoebae (TA) are well-established bioindicators for depth to water table (DWT), but effects of hydrological changes on TA communities have never been tested experimentally. We tested this in a field experiment by placing Sphagnum carpets (15 cm diameter) collected in hummock, lawn and pool microsites (origin) at three local conditions (dry, moist and wet) using trenches dug in a peatland. One series of samples was seeded with microorganism extract from all microsites. TA community were analysed at T0: 8-2008, T1: 5-2009 and T2: 8-2009. We analysed the data using conditional inference trees, principal response curves (PRC) and DWT inferred from TA communities using a transfer function used for paleoecological reconstruction. Density declined from T0 to T1 and then increased sharply by T2. Species richness, Simpson diversity and Simpson evenness were lower at T2 than at T0 and T1. Seeded communities had higher species richness in pool samples at T0. Pool samples tended to have higher density, lower species richness, Simpson diversity and Simpson Evenness than hummock and/or lawn samples until T1. In the PRC, the effect of origin was significant at T0 and T1, but the effect faded away by T2. Seeding effect was strongest at T1 and lowest vanished by T2. Local condition effect was strong but not in line with the wetness gradient at T1 but started to reflect it by T2. Likewise, TA-inferred DWT started to match the experimental conditions by T2, but more so in hummock and lawn samples than in pool samples. This study confirmed that TA responds to hydrological changes over a 1-year period. However, sensitivity of TA to hydrological fluctuations, and thus the accuracy of inferred DWT changes, was habitat specific, pool TA communities being least responsive to environmental changes. Lawns and hummocks may be thus better suited than pools for paleoecological reconstructions. This, however, contrasts with the higher prediction error and species' tolerance for DWT with increasing dryness observed in transfer function models.
Project description:Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can be induced by transient occlusion of blood flow to a limb with a blood pressure cuff and exerts multiorgan protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in the intestinal tract leads to intestinal barrier dysfunction and can result in multiple organ failure. Here we used an intestinal cell line (CaCo-2) to evaluate the effects of RIPC-conditioned patient sera on hypoxia-induced cell damage in vitro and to identify serum factors that mediate RIPC effects. Patient sera (n = 10) derived before RIPC (T0), directly after RIPC (T1) and 1 h after RIPC (T2) were added to the culture medium at the onset of hypoxia until 48 h after hypoxia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, caspase-3/7 assays, silver staining, gelatin zymography and Western blotting were performed. Hypoxia led to morphological signs of cell damage and increased the release of LDH in cultures containing sera T0 (P < 0.01) and T1 (P < 0.05), but not sera T2, which reduced the hypoxia-mediated LDH release compared with sera T0 (P < 0.05). Gelatin zymography revealed a significant reduction of activities of the matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the protective sera T2 compared with the nonprotective sera T0 (MMP-2: P < 0.01; MMP-9: P < 0.05). Addition of human recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9 to MMP-deficient culture media increased the sensitivity of CaCo-2 cells to hypoxia-induced cell damage (P < 0.05), but did not result in a reduced phosphorylation of prosurvival kinases p42/44 and protein kinase B (Akt) or increased activity of caspase-3/7. Our results suggest MMP-2 and MMP-9 as currently unknown humoral factors that may be involved in RIPC-mediated cytoprotection in the intestine.