Advocacy, Collaboration, and Intervention: A Model of Distance Special Education Support Services Amid COVID-19.
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the everyday lives of many individuals across the globe. The school closures across the majority of the United States have presented administrators, educators, and behavior analysts with the unprecedented task of deciding how best to teach and support our students, especially those accessing special education services. The current article describes the steps our program took, in light of school closures, to advocate for and ultimately create and implement a model that allows special education students to access the behavior-analytic educational supports they had received on campus (e.g., Board Certified Behavior Analyst and paraprofessional support) in a novel and remote manner. We share details regarding the advocacy and collaboration process, as well as the distance special education support model itself, in hopes that similar processes and models can be implemented across geographical locations to assist special education students in accessing their educational and behavioral supports in a meaningful way throughout current and future school closures.
Project description:By 15 April 2020, more than 1.5 billion students worldwide experienced school closures in an effort to slow the spread of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These interruptions in formal in-person educational experiences caused adverse consequences on school-age children's academic outcomes. Using a pre-existing database, we calculated changes in children's reading ability without formal education (i.e., the summer months). The resultant models predicted that the rate of reading ability gain in kindergarten children during COVID-19 school closures without formal in-person education will decrease 66% (2.46 vs. 7.17 points/100 days), compared to the business-as-usual scenario, resulting in a 31% less reading ability gain from 1 January 2020 to 1 September 2020. Additionally, the model predicted that kindergarten children who have books read to them daily would have 2.3 points less loss (42%) compared to those who do not, who are predicted to have a 5.6-point loss during the same time period. Even though reading books to children will not substitute the critical role of formal education in teaching children how to read, families, educators, and policy makers can promote this simple strategy to facilitate and maintain reading ability gain during school closures, which may be a common occurrence as nations see the public health benefits of physical distancing for the current and future pandemic outbreaks.
Project description:A dataset was constructed to examine Vietnamese student's learning habits during the time schools were suspended due to the novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), in response to a call for interdisciplinary research on the potential effects of the coronavirus pandemic (Elsevier, 2020). The questionnaires were spread over a network of educational communities on Facebook from February 7 to February 28, 2020. Using the snowball sampling method, researchers delivered the survey to teachers and parents to provide formal consent before they forwarded it to their students and children. In order to measure the influence of students' socioeconomic status and occupational aspirations on their learning habits during school closures, the survey included three major groups of questions: (1) Individual demographics, including family socioeconomic status, school type, and occupational aspirations; (2) Student's learning habits, including hours of learning before and during the period of school suspension, with and without other people's support; and (3) Students' perceptions of their self-learning during the school closures. There was a total of 920 clicks on the survey link, but only 460 responses accompanied by consent forms were received. Non-credible answers (e.g., year of birth after 2009, more than 20 hours of learning per day) were eliminated. The final dataset included 420 valid observations.
Project description:A dataset was constructed to examine Vietnamese student's learning habits during the time schools were suspended due to the novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), in response to a call for interdisciplinary research on the potential effects of the coronavirus pandemic (Elsevier, 2020). The questionnaires were spread over a network of educational communities on Facebook from February 7 to February 28, 2020. Using the snowball sampling method, researchers delivered the survey to teachers and parents to provide formal consent before they forwarded it to their students and children. In order to measure the influence of students’ socioeconomic status and occupational aspirations on their learning habits during school closures, the survey included three major groups of questions: (1) Individual demographics, including family socioeconomic status, school type, and occupational aspirations; (2) Student's learning habits, including hours of learning before and during the period of school suspension, with and without other people's support; and (3) Students’ perceptions of their self-learning during the school closures. There was a total of 920 clicks on the survey link, but only 460 responses accompanied by consent forms were received. Non-credible answers (e.g., year of birth after 2009, more than 20 hours of learning per day) were eliminated. The final dataset included 420 valid observations.
Project description:Objective: The objective of the study is to describe the extent to which students with ADHD received school-based intervention services and identify demographic, diagnostic, and impairment-related variables that are associated with service receipt in a large, nationally drawn sample. Method: Parent-reported data were obtained for 2,495 children with ADHD aged 4 to 17 years from the National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA). Results: The majority (69.3%) of students with ADHD currently receive one or more school services. Educational support (62.3%) was nearly twice as prevalent as classroom behavior management (32.0%). More than 3 times as many students with ADHD had an individualized education program (IEP; 42.9%) as a Section 504 plan (13.6%). Conclusion: At least one in five students with ADHD do not receive school services despite experiencing significant academic and social impairment, a gap that is particularly evident for adolescents and youth from non-English-speaking and/or lower income families.
Project description:The analysis of disciplined behaviors and academic performance in a school context has become one of the main concerns within the educational community. Physical Education is highlighted as a key subject to analyze students' behavior. Researchers and Physical Education teachers are interested on the motivational processes that predict positive student outcomes in order to support them. Thus, the main purpose was to determine a predictive model of disciplined behaviors and academic performance in Physical Education students. The Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory acted as the theoretical framework. A total of 919 Spanish secondary school students participated in the study. The studied variables were task-oriented motivational climate, basic psychological needs, autonomous motivation, disciplined behavior, and academic performance. Data collection included Spanish validated questionnaires. The Mplus statistical program was used to perform a structural equation model of prediction. It included antecedents (task-oriented climate), motivational processes (basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation), and consequences (disciplined behavior, Physical Education and overall students' performance). The results revealed that positive outcomes (discipline and academic performance in Physical Education) were positively predicted by autonomous motivation; autonomous motivation was positively predicted by basic psychological needs and these, in addition, by the task-oriented climate. The results highlighted the importance of the task-oriented motivational climate and the mediating role of the basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation in order to generate these positive student outcomes in Physical Education. This study could be a useful resource for teachers, since it offers the motivational variables that lead students to achieve disciplined behaviors and academic performance in Physical Education. Intervention programs based on the results of the present study could be applied in Physical Education classes in order to obtain better behavioral as well as cognitive positive student outcomes.
Project description:Medical Education departments oversee the process of medical education in medical schools and provide many educational services to support, evaluate and thus enhance the educational role of the medical school. Its roles revolve around research, teaching and providing educational support in areas of curriculum development and assessment. This paper provides a brief summary on the emergence of different medical education centers/units/departments around the world from a historical perspective. Special attention will be given to the process followed in establishing the Medical Education Department (MED) in King Abdul Aziz University (KAU). This paper also explores the roles that are currently played within the department with a reflection on documented roles of the medical education departments worldwide. Special emphasis will be given to explore the current challenges faced by KAU MED and proposed suggestions to improve these challenges will also be addressed.
Project description:The attitudes of teachers toward intellectual disability (ID) contribute to an effective school inclusion of students with ID, thereby enhancing their quality of life. The present study was aimed at investigating the attitude differences toward ID of mainstream and special-education teachers in Italy and the general and specific teachers' characteristics most related to these attitudes. An online version of the Attitudes toward Intellectual Disability (ATTID) questionnaire was filled by 307 mainstream teachers and 237 special-education teachers. The findings show that special-education teachers held more positive attitudes. Specific ATTID dimensions were positively affected for both types of teachers by previous training in special education/ID, perceived support, and promotion of positive attitudes toward ID, in addition to the quality of relationships with individuals with ID, while they were positively affected for special-education teachers by perceived efficacy of ID knowledge. No or very limited effects were observed for previous experience in teaching students with typical development or ID (even with severe/profound ID). Fostering resources to provide teachers with high-quality training, support, and resources and strategies to promote positive attitudes toward ID seems a relevant approach leading to favorable attitudes, thereby improving the quality of life of students with ID.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This cluster randomized trial (CRT) evaluated the efficacy of the Classroom Social, Communication, Emotional Regulation, and Transactional Support (SCERTS) Intervention (CSI) compared with usual school-based education with autism training modules (ATM). METHOD:Sixty schools with 197 students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 129 classrooms were randomly assigned to CSI or ATM. Mean student age was 6.79 years (SD 1.05) and 81.2% were male. CSI teachers were trained on the model and provided coaching throughout the school year to assist with implementation. A CRT, with students nested within general and special education classrooms nested within schools, was used to evaluate student outcomes. RESULTS:The CSI group showed significantly better outcomes than the ATM group on observed measures of classroom active engagement with respect to social interaction. The CSI group also had significantly better outcomes on measures of adaptive communication, social skills, and executive functioning with Cohen's d effect sizes ranging from 0.31 to 0.45. CONCLUSION:These findings support the preliminary efficacy of CSI, a classroom-based, teacher-implemented intervention for improving active engagement, adaptive communication, social skills, executive functioning, and problem behavior within a heterogeneous sample of students with ASD. This makes a significant contribution to the literature by demonstrating efficacy of a classroom-based teacher-implemented intervention with a heterogeneous group of students with ASD using both observed and reported measures. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Guidelines available to school administrators to support school closure decisions during influenza outbreaks are usually not evidence-based. Using empirical data on absentee rates of elementary school students in Japan, we developed a simple and practical algorithm for determining the optimal timing of school closures for control of influenza outbreaks.
Project description:Globally, significant progress has been made in primary school enrollment. However, there are millions of adolescents-including orphans in sub-Saharan Africa-who still experience barriers to remaining in school. We conducted a 4-year cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) (N = 835) in a high HIV prevalence area in western Kenya to test whether providing orphaned adolescents with a school support intervention improves their educational outcomes. The school support intervention consisted of directly paying tuition, exam fees, and uniform costs to primary and secondary schools for those students who remained enrolled. In addition, research staff monitored intervention participants' school attendance and helped to address barriers to staying in school. This school support intervention had significant positive impacts on educational outcomes for orphaned adolescents. Over the course of the study, school absence remained stable for intervention group participants but increased in frequency for control group participants. Intervention group participants were less likely to drop out of school compared to the control group. Furthermore, the intervention participants were more likely to make age-appropriate progression in grade, matriculate into secondary school, and achieve higher levels of education by the end of the study. The intervention also increased students' expectations of graduating from college in the future. However, we found no significant intervention impact on primary and secondary school test scores. Results from this cRCT suggest that directly covering school-related expenses for male and female orphaned adolescents in western Kenya can improve their educational outcomes.