Dietary habits and metabolic response improve in obese children whose mothers received an intervention to promote healthy eating: randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Lifestyles habits such as eating unhealthy foodscommence at home and are associated with the development of obesity and comorbidities such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and chronic degenerative diseases, which are the main causes of death in adults. The present study compared changes in dietary habits, behaviors and metabolic profiles of obese children whose mothers attended at the hospital to group sessions, with those who received the usual nutritional consultation. METHODS:Randomized clinical trial, 177 mother/obese child pairs participated, 90 in the intervention group and 87 in the control group. The intervention group attended six group education sessions to promote healthy eating, being this an alternative of change of habits in children with obesity. The control group received the usual nutritional consultation; both groups were followed up for 3 months. Frequency of food consumption, behaviors during feeding in the house and metabolic profile was evaluated. Mixed effect linear regression models were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the variables of interest, especially in HOMA-IR. RESULTS:The intervention group reduced the filling of their dishes (p?=?0.009), forcing the children to finish meals (p?=?0.003) and food substitution (p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is a chronic low-intensity state of inflammation with metabolic alterations that, when acquired during childhood, lead to severe illness in adults. Encouraging healthy eating habits and physical activity is the basis for preventing and treating obesity and its complications. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate how a comprehensive intervention promoting healthy eating habits and physical activities in schools affects children's metabolic biomarkers. METHODS:Of four Mexico City primary schools in this study, two groups of children that were recruited at their schools were assigned to a 12-month intervention group (IG) and the other two were assigned to control groups (CGs). The intervention had two components: (1) parents/schoolchildren attended in-person educational sessions promoting healthy eating and physical activity habits, and were provided printed information; and (2) parents were able to seek information through a website, and also received brief weekly mobile phone text messages. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were taken from both groups of children at baseline and again after 12 months. RESULTS:The study involved 187 children in the IG and 128 in the CG. Regardless of each child's nutritional status at the beginning of the study, the intervention improved metabolic parameters; the IG showed a negative effect on glucose concentrations (-1.83; CI 95% -3.06 to -0.60), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-2.59; CI 95% -5.12 to -0.06), insulin (-0.84; CI 95% -1.31 to -0.37), and homeostasis model to assess the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; -0.21; CI 95% -0.32 to -0.09) in comparison to the CG. HOMA-IR improved in children who had higher than baseline body mass index z-scores. CONCLUSIONS:Intervention through multiple components that promoted healthier eating and physical activity habits improved the metabolic parameters of the children in the study after one year, regardless of their nutritional status.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:We studied for the first time the long-term effects of a combined physical activity and dietary intervention on insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in a general population of predominantly normal-weight children. METHODS:We carried out a 2 year non-randomised controlled trial in a population sample of 504 children aged 6-9 years at baseline. The children were allocated to a combined physical activity and dietary intervention group (306 children at baseline, 261 children at 2-year follow-up) or a control group (198 children, 177 children) without blinding. We measured fasting insulin and fasting glucose, calculated HOMA-IR, assessed physical activity and sedentary time by combined heart rate and body movement monitoring, assessed dietary factors by a 4 day food record, used the Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI) as a measure of overall diet quality, and measured body fat percentage (BF%) and lean body mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The intervention effects on insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were analysed using the intention-to-treat principle and linear mixed-effects models after adjustment for sex, age at baseline, and pubertal status at baseline and 2 year follow-up. The measures of physical activity, sedentary time, diet and body composition at baseline and 2 year follow-up were entered one-by-one as covariates into the models to study whether changes in these variables might partly explain the observed intervention effects. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, fasting insulin increased 4.65 pmol/l less (absolute change +8.96 vs +13.61 pmol/l) and HOMA-IR increased 0.18 units less (+0.31 vs +0.49 units) over 2 years in the combined physical activity and dietary intervention group. The intervention effects on fasting insulin (regression coefficient ? for intervention effect -0.33 [95% CI -0.62, -0.04], p?=?0.026) and HOMA-IR (? for intervention effect -0.084 [95% CI -0.156, -0.012], p?=?0.023) were statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age at baseline, and pubertal status at baseline and 2 year follow-up. The intervention had no effect on fasting glucose, BF% or lean body mass. Changes in total physical activity energy expenditure, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, total sedentary time, the reported consumption of high-fat (?60%) vegetable oil-based spreads, and FCHEI, but not a change in BF% or lean body mass, partly explained the intervention effects on fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The combined physical activity and dietary intervention attenuated the increase in insulin resistance over 2 years in a general population of predominantly normal-weight children. This beneficial effect was partly mediated by changes in physical activity, sedentary time and diet but not changes in body composition. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803776 Graphical abstract.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are related to adverse outcomes in women and children. Lifestyle interventions during pregnancy showed positive effects on decreasing weight gain during pregnancy, but effects on offspring's health and wellbeing are unclear. We aimed to assess the effect of lifestyle intervention programmes on offspring mental health, temperament, eating habits and anthropometric and cardiovascular measures. METHODS:Ninety-six offspring of pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ?29 kg/m2 who were randomly assigned to 3 intervention groups during pregnancy (routine antenatal care, a brochure group or a prenatal session group) and 77 offspring of pregnant women with a normal BMI (between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2) were used as an additional control group in this analysis. When the children were between 3 and 7 years old, anthropometric and cardiovascular measurements were conducted and various questionnaires about offspring mental health, temperament and eating habits were filled out. RESULTS:Children of mothers who received a brochure-based lifestyle intervention programme showed significantly less surgency/extraversion compared to children of mothers who received routine antenatal care (contrast estimate = -0.36, SE = 0.15, p = 0.02, 95% CI [-6.66, -0.06]) and prenatal lifestyle intervention sessions (contrast estimate = -0.46, SE = 0.14, p < 0.01, 95% CI [-0.74, -0.18]) after adjusting for child's age, sex, offspring birth weight and mother's educational level. The lifestyle intervention could not be associated with any significant differences in offspring mental health, eating habits and anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics. Children of mothers with a normal BMI showed less emotional problems (F(1, 156) = 5.42, p = 0.02) and internalizing (F(1, 156) = 3.04, p = 0.08) and externalizing problems (F(1, 156) = 6.10, p = 0.02) when compared to children of mothers in the obese group. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION:The results suggest that a brochure-based lifestyle intervention programme can affect the offspring temperament. Future follow-up studies need to investigate how these temperament-related effects may influence obesity development later in life.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Body mass index (BMI) overweight/obesity thresholds in South Asian (SA) adults, at equivalent type-2 diabetes risk are lower than for white Europeans (WE). We aimed to define adjusted overweight/obesity thresholds for UK-SA children based on equivalent insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to WE children. METHODS:In 1138 WE and 1292 SA children aged 9.0-10.9 years, multi-level regression models quantified associations between BMI and HOMA-IR by ethnic group. HOMA-IR levels for WE children were calculated at established overweight/obesity thresholds (at 9.5 years and 10.5 years), based on UK90 BMI cut-offs. Quantified associations in SA children were then used to estimate adjusted SA weight-status thresholds at the calculated HOMA-IR levels. RESULTS:At 9.5 years, current WE BMI overweight and obesity thresholds were 19.2?kg/m2, 21.3?kg/m2 (boys) and 20.0?kg/m2, 22.5?kg/m2 (girls). At equivalent HOMA-IR, SA overweight and obesity thresholds were lower by 2.9?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5-3.3?kg/m2) and 3.2?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6?kg/m2) in boys and 3.0?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.6-3.4?kg/m2) and 3.3?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.8?kg/m2) in girls, respectively. At these lower thresholds, overweight/obesity prevalences in SA children were approximately doubled (boys: 61%, girls: 56%). Patterns at 10.5 years were similar. CONCLUSIONS:SA adjusted overweight/obesity thresholds based on equivalent IR were markedly lower than BMI thresholds for WE children, and defined more than half of SA children as overweight/obese.
Project description:Objective:Community-based, family-centered obesity prevention/treatment initiatives have been shown to be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) and improving healthy habits in children if implemented with high intensity and sufficient duration. Let's Go! 5-2-1-0 Program (5-2-1-0) was incorporated into family-centered, monthly physical activity classes and cooking classes over six months delivered by Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) staff. We hypothesized that implementation of this intervention would improve 5-2-1-0 knowledge attainment, increase healthy behavior (based on 5- 2-1-0 curriculum), and improve BMI and waist circumference measurements in children. Methods:Children attending YMCA summer camps in Rochester, MN, during 2016 were recruited via study packets mailed to their families. Height, weight, and waist circumference measurements as well as the results of the Modified Healthy Habits Survey and the 5-2-1-0 Knowledge Acquisition Survey were recorded for each participating child at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The intervention group received monthly healthy habit reminder emails, and was invited to monthly evening cooking and physical activity classes for 7 sessions over a 6-month period. Results:Fifteen families in the intervention group attended classes. Of those, 13 families regularly participated in (attended at least 5 out of 7) both the monthly physical activity and cooking classes. The children in the intervention group had a significant improvement in the number of Knowledge Acquisition Survey questions answered correctly (p<0.001), while there was no improvement in the control group. As compared to children in the control group, there was no significant change in BMI or waist circumference or healthy habits in the intervention group. Conclusion:Our study findings indicate that our intervention resulted in improved knowledge about healthy habits, but did not significantly impact healthy habits or BMI. Potential reasons for this were the small sample size and the attenuated length and/or intensity of the intervention.
Project description:In Lebanon, childhood obesity doubled during the past decade. Preventive measures should start early in life and Schools are considered an important environment to promote energy balance health behaviours. School-based programmes promoting healthy lifestyles are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent school-based intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity (and prevent obesity) with school children aged 9-11 years in Lebanon.The intervention was developed based on the constructs of the Social Cognitive Theory and adapted to the culture of Lebanese and Arab populations. It consisted of three components: class curriculum, family involvement and food service. Eight schools were purposively selected from two communities of different socioeconomic status (SES) in Beirut and, within each school type, were matched on SES, religious sect profile, and then randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. Anthropometric measurements and questionnaires on determinants of behavioural change, eating and physical activity habits were completed by the students in both groups at baseline and post intervention. Focus group interviews were conducted in intervention schools at the end of the study. Challenges encountered during the programme implementation were also identified, since Lebanon is considered a country with political unrest and no similar research projects were conducted in the area.Students in the intervention group reported purchasing and consuming less chips and sweetened drinks post-intervention compared with controls (86% & 88% less respectively p < 0.001). Knowledge and self-efficacy scores increased for the intervention (+2.8 & +1.7 points respectively p < 0.001) but not for the control group. There was no difference in physical activity and screen time habits and no changes in BMI between groups at post intervention. Interview data from focus groups showed that the programme was generally well accepted. Limitations for better outcomes include the length of the programme and the school environment."Health-E-PALS" intervention is a promising innovative, theory-based, culturally sensitive intervention to promote healthy eating habits and physical activity in Lebanese school children with a potential to be scaled up, replicated and sustained.
Project description:We have performed gene expression microarray analysis to profile transcriptomic signatures between insulin resistance high risk subjects and insulin resistance low risk subjects Overall design: Participants enrolled in this study were recruited in the overnight fasted state, then the collection and processing of glucose (fasting, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) and insulin from blood samples, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) , assessment of medical history, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, blood pressure and anthropometric and body composition measurements were conducted. During baseline visit, participants were asked to refrain from eating, drinking and oral hygiene procedures for at least 1-hour prior to saliva collection.5 ml of unstimulated whole saliva samples were consistently collected, stabilized and preserved, the sample supernatants were reserved at -80°C prior to assay. Based on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), using the formula [HOMA-IR= (fasting glucose*fasting insulin)/405], participants were divided into 2 groups: IR high risk group (HOMA-IR value ≥2.5) and IR low risk group (HOMA-IR value <2.5). Total RNA was extracted from saliva and subjected to gene expression microarray analysis using Affymetrix human genome 2.0 plus array
Project description:We have performed gene expression microarray analysis to profile transcriptomic signatures between insulin resistance high risk subjects and insulin resistance low risk subjects Participants enrolled in this study were recruited in the overnight fasted state, then the collection and processing of glucose (fasting, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) and insulin from blood samples, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) , assessment of medical history, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, blood pressure and anthropometric and body composition measurements were conducted. During baseline visit, participants were asked to refrain from eating, drinking and oral hygiene procedures for at least 1-hour prior to saliva collection.5 ml of unstimulated whole saliva samples were consistently collected, stabilized and preserved, the sample supernatants were reserved at -80°C prior to assay. Based on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), using the formula [HOMA-IR= (fasting glucose*fasting insulin)/405], participants were divided into 2 groups: IR high risk group (HOMA-IR value ≥2.5) and IR low risk group (HOMA-IR value <2.5). Total RNA was extracted from saliva and subjected to gene expression microarray analysis using Affymetrix human genome 2.0 plus array
Project description:Mothers who underwent bariatric surgery (BS) before pregnancy have worrisome eating habits, but little is known about the eating habits of their offspring. EFFECTOR is a cross-sectional, long-term follow-up study of 4-11-year-old children born from mothers that underwent bariatric surgery before pregnancy (n = 36), mothers with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) in a control group (n = 71), and mothers with a normal weight (NW) in a second control group (n = 35). Data on anthropometry and on eating habits obtained through a Food Frequency Questionnaire were collected prospectively. The children's body mass index (BMI) scores significantly correlated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was the highest in children of the BS group (38.9% vs. 15.5% for children of the OW/OB group and 5.7% for those of the NW group; p = 0.004). Meal-skipping behavior was comparable between the groups. There was no difference in fruit and vegetable consumption. The BS group consumed more low-calorie sweetened beverages compared to the NW group (p = 0.01) but less fruit juice compared to the NW and OW/OB groups (p = 0.01). Our results may indicate a sugar-avoiding behavior in children of the BS group, fitting dietary maternal habits in a strategy to prevent dumping syndrome. In conclusion, maternal pre-pregnancy bariatric surgery does not alter unhealthy eating behaviors and the risk of development of overweight during childhood in their children.
Project description:Childhood obesity is an increasing health care problem associated with insulin resistance and low-level systemic inflammation, which can ultimately lead to diabetes. Evidence for efficacy of therapeutic intervention programs on the early development of obesity associated sequelae is moderate. This paper investigates the effect of a multidisciplinary short-term intervention program on insulin resistance and metaflammation in childhood obesity. Two hundred and 36 overweight or obese children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 were included in a prospective 5 months intervention study, which included sports, psychotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Primary endpoints were the effects on body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), key secondary endpoints were the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin. At baseline, a substantial proportion of participants showed signs of insulin resistance (mean HOMA-IR 5.5 ± 3.4) despite not meeting the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, and low-level inflammation (mean CRP 3.9 mg/l ± 3.8 mg/l). One hundred and 95 participants (83%) completed the program resulting in a significant reduction in BMI-SDS, HOMA-IR, CRP, and leptin and a significant increase in adiponectin (mean change compared to baseline -0.14, -0.85, -1.0 mg/l, -2.8 ng/ml, and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively; p < 0.001 each). Effects on BMI-SDS, HOMA-IR, CRP, and adiponectin were largely independent whereas leptin was positively correlated with BMI-SDS and total fat mass before and after intervention (r = 0.56 and 0.61, p < 0.001 each). Short-term multidisciplinary intervention successfully improved body composition, insulin sensitivity, low-level systemic inflammation, and the adipokine profile in childhood obesity. Our findings highlight the immediate connection between obesity and the pathophysiology of its sequelae, and emphasize the importance of early intervention. Continued lifestyle modification is likely necessary to consolidate and augment the long-term effects.