The efficacy of perioperative gabapentin for the treatment of postoperative pain following total knee and hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) influence patients' rehabilitation and life quality. Although gabapentin has been widely used for analgesia, its efficacy is still controversial in TKA and THA. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of gabapentin following TKA and THA. METHOD:Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and ClinicalTrials.gov were comprehensively retrieved for randomized controlled trials from their inception to June 2019. A total of 7 studies, which compared the administration of gabapentin with that of placebo for the treatment of postoperative pain, were included in our meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULT:There was no difference in pain score at 24 (P = 0.87), 48 (P = 0.15), and 72 (P = 0.85) h associated with the use of gabapentin. Likewise, no difference in accumulative morphine consumption at 48?h following TKA or THA was found between gabapentin and placebo (DM = - 8.14, 95% CI - 18.55 to 2.28, P = 0.13). The incidence of opioid-related adverse effects, including nausea, pruritus, sedation, and dizziness, is no difference between gabapentin and placebo group. However, subgroup analysis indicated that gabapentin could reduce the incidence of pruritus after TKA (RR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION:Based on our meta-analysis, gabapentin did not decrease postoperative pain, cumulative morphine consumption, and the incidence of adverse effects after TKA and THA. There was not enough evidence to support the administrations of gabapentin for postoperative pain after TKA and THA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gabapentinoid drugs, which include gabapentin and pregabalin, play an established role in the management of neuropathic pain. However, whether preoperative administration of gabapentinoids has a beneficial role in controlling acute pain after spinal surgery is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of the preoperative use of gabapentinoids (gabapentin and pregabalin) for the treatment of acute postoperative pain following spinal surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>In March 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google databases. RCTs comparing gabapentinoids (gabapentin and pregabalin) with placebo in patients undergoing spine surgery were retrieved. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score with rest or mobilization at 6, 12, 24, and 48?hours and cumulative morphine consumption at 24 and 48?hours. The secondary outcomes were complications of nausea, vomiting, sedation, dizziness, headache, urine retention, pruritus, and visual disturbances. After tests for publication bias and heterogeneity among studies were performed, data were aggregated for random-effects models when necessary.<h4>Results</h4>Sixteen clinical studies (gabapentin group n?=?8 and pregabalin group n?=?8) were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. Gabapentinoids were associated with reduced pain scores at 6, 12, 24, and 48?hours. Similarly, gabapentinoids were associated with a reduction in cumulative morphine consumption at 24 and 48?hours. Furthermore, gabapentinoids can significantly reduce the occurrence of nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of sedation, dizziness, headache, visual disturbances, somnolence, or urine retention.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Preoperative use of gabapentinoids was able to reduce postoperative pain, total morphine consumption, and morphine-related complications following spine surgery. Further studies should determine the optimal dose and whether pregabalin is superior to gabapentin in controlling acute pain after spine surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The primary goal of this study was to determine whether administration of intrathecal morphine reduces postoperative pain. The secondary goal was to determine the effect of intrathecal morphine upon circulating levels of the weakly analgesic endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related lipids palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). METHODS:Forty two total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients were enrolled in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study. The intervention consisted of intrathecal morphine (200 ?g) or placebo administered at the time of the spinal anesthesia. Postoperative pain was measured during the first 4 h after surgery while serum levels of AEA, 2-AG, PEA, OEA, and cortisol were measured at baseline and 4 h after surgery. RESULTS:Administration of intrathecal morphine reduced postoperative pain 4 h after TKA surgery compared to placebo (p?=?0.005) and reduced postoperative systemic opioid consumption (p?=?0.001). At baseline, intrathecal morphine led to a significant reduction in AEA, 2-AG, and OEA levels but did not affect PEA or cortisol levels. In patients administered intrathecal placebo, 2-AG levels were elevated 4 h after surgery; whereas patients receiving intrathecal morphine showed reductions in AEA, PEA, and OEA when compared to placebo. At 4 h after TKA surgery cortisol levels were significantly elevated in the placebo group and reduced in those receiving morphine. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that intrathecal morphine reduces postoperative pain in TKA patients. Furthermore, activation of central opioid receptors negatively modulates the endocannabinoid tone, suggesting that potent analgesics may reduce the stimulus for production of peripheral endocannabinoids. This study is the first to document the existence of rapid communication between the central opioid and peripheral endocannabinoid systems in humans. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was registered retrospectively. TRIAL REGISTRY:NCT02620631 . Study to Examine Pain Relief With Supplemental Intrathecal Morphine in TKA Patients, NCT02620631 , 12/03/2015.
Project description:Few studies have assessed postoperative trends in opioid cessation and predictors of persistent opioid use after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Preoperatively, 574 TKA and THA patients completed validated, self-report measures of pain, functioning, and mood and were longitudinally assessed for 6 months after surgery. Among patients who were opioid naive the day of surgery, 8.2% of TKA and 4.3% of THA patients were using opioids at 6 months. In comparison, 53.3% of TKA and 34.7% of THA patients who reported opioid use the day of surgery continued to use opioids at 6 months. Patients taking >60 mg oral morphine equivalents preoperatively had an 80% likelihood of persistent use postoperatively. Day of surgery predictors for 6-month opioid use by opioid-naive patients included greater overall body pain (P = 0.002), greater affected joint pain (knee/hip) (P = 0.034), and greater catastrophizing (P = 0.010). For both opioid-naive and opioid users on the day of surgery, decreases in overall body pain from baseline to 6 months were associated with decreased odds of being on opioids at 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.72, P = 0.050; aOR = 0.62, P = 0.001); however, change in affected joint pain (knee/hip) was not predictive of opioid use (aOR = 0.99, P = 0.939; aOR = 1.00, P = 0.963). In conclusion, many patients taking opioids before surgery continue to use opioids after arthroplasty and some opioid-naive patients remained on opioids; however, persistent opioid use was not associated with change in joint pain. Given the growing concerns about chronic opioid use, the reasons for persistent opioid use and perioperative prescribing of opioids deserve further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The local injection of multimodal cocktail is currently commonly used in the treatment of postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is still inconclusive whether the morphine added to the intraoperative injection mixture could make some difference. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of additional morphine injection on postoperative analgesia in TKA, and provide some useful information on morphine usage in clinical practice. METHODS:The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were systematically searched. Of 623 records identified, 8 RCTs involving 1093 knees were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis according to criteria included. RESULTS:Meta-analysis showed that the use of local morphine injection was not associated with significant pain relief within 48?hours postoperatively at rest and on motion (P?>?.05, all). The use of morphine reduced postoperative total systemic opioids consumption (P?<?.05). This study found no significant differences in other outcomes including knee flexion range of motion (ROM) (P?>?.05), extension ROM (P?>?.05), The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores (P?>?.05), Post-operative nausea and vomiting occurrence (P?>?.05) regardless of the presence of morphine or not in the injections. CONCLUSION:Additional morphine added to multimodal cocktail did not decrease the postoperative pain scores significantly based on our outcomes, but it reduced the systemic postoperative opioids consumption in total knee arthroplasty.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen in multimodal pain management in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen versus placebo in TKA.<h4>Methods</h4>Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) concerning related topics were retrieved from PubMed (1996-June 2018), Embase (1980-June 2018), and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL June 2018). Any studies comparing intravenous acetaminophen with a placebo were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results were collected and analyzed by Stata 12.0. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the general characteristics of the patients.<h4>Results</h4>In total, the patients from six studies met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis results indicated that compared with a control group, intravenous acetaminophen was associated with reductions in total morphine consumption and visual analogue scale (VAS) score at postoperative day (POD) 3. However, there was no significant difference in morphine consumption at POD 1 or in VAS at POD 1 or POD 2. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Based on our results, intravenous acetaminophen in multimodal management has shown better efficacy in pain relief at POD 3 and has morphine-sparing effects. High-quality studies with more patients are needed in the future.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the efficacy of a transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP) (50 ?g/hour) applied 10-12 hours before surgery versus placebo for postoperative pain control of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). MATERIALS AND METHODS:We enrolled 40 patients undergoing elective TKA under spinal anesthesia using isobaric or hyperbaric bupivacaine. Subjects were randomized to receive a TFP (Duragesic(®) 50 ?g/hour) or placebo patch applied with a self-adhesive to the anterior chest wall 10-12 hours before spinal anesthesia. Every patient was given patient-controlled morphine for postoperative pain control. Patients were evaluated every 4 hours until 48 hours. RESULTS:Morphine consumption at 24 and 48 hours in the TFP group versus the placebo group was 15.40±12.65 and 24.90±20.11 mg versus 33.60±19.06 and 57.80±12.65 mg (P?0.001). Numeric rating scale scores at rest and during movement over 48 hours were lower in the TFP group. Ambulation and nausea/vomiting scores were statistically greater, but not clinically significant in the TFP group. Sedation scores were low and not statistically significantly different between groups. There was no severe respiratory depression. CONCLUSION:TFP (50 ?g/hour) applied 10-12 hours before surgery can effectively and safely decrease morphine consumption and pain scores during the first 48 hours after TKA surgery.
Project description:Opioid analgesics have been a standard modality for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) but are also associated with increased risk of nausea, pruritus, vomiting, respiratory depression, prolonged ileus, and cognitive dysfunction. There is still a need for a method of anesthesia that can deliver effective long-term postoperative pain relief without incurring the high cost and health burden of opioids and nerve blocks.(1) Is liposomal bupivacaine-based periarticular injection (PAI) more effective than morphine-based spinal anesthesia or ropivacaine-based PAI in controlling postoperative pain after TKA? (2) Do patients treated with liposomal bupivacaine-based PAI experience fewer opioid-related adverse events compared with patients treated with morphine-based spinal anesthesia or ropivacaine-based PAI in controlling postoperative pain after TKA?This multicenter, blind trial randomized 119 patients undergoing TKA with spinal anesthesia to receive spinal anesthesia plus periarticular injection with liposomal bupivacaine (40 patients), spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine plus intrathecal morphine (41 patients) but no liposomal bupivacaine injection, or spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine (38 patients) and no liposomal bupivacaine injection. The two groups that did not receive periarticular liposomal bupivacaine did receive periarticular injection with ropivacaine, and all three groups had ketorolac (30 mg) plus epinephrine (1:1000) in the periarticular injections. Patients in all three groups received identical perioperative multimodal analgesic and antiemetic drugs. All patients were analyzed in the group to which they were randomized and no patients were lost to followup. The primary study endpoints were visual analog score (VAS) for pain and narcotic use during postoperative day 1. Secondary endpoints included side effects associated with narcotic administration during the hospital stay.Mean VAS pain in the liposomal bupivacaine PAI group was lower than that for the ropivacaine PAI group at 6 hours (1.8 ± 2.1 versus 3.3 ± 2.3, p = 0.005, mean difference: 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-2.5) and 12 hours (1.5 ± 2.0 versus 3.3 ± 2.4, p < 0.001, mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI, 0.8-2.8) after surgery. The morphine spinal group had lower pain compared with the liposomal bupivacaine PAI group at 6 hours (0.9 ± 1.8 versus 1.8 ± 2.1, p = 0.035, mean difference: 1.0, 95% CI, 0.1-1.8), but there was no difference at 12 hours (0.8 ± 1.5 versus 1.5 ± 2.0, p = 0.086, mean difference: 0.7, 95% CI, -0.1 to 1.5). The magnitude of the differences at 6 and 12 hours are near the lower end of minimal clinically important differences reported in the literature, and thus the improvement shown in this study may only represent a small clinical improvement. Both the liposomal bupivacaine group (13% [five of 40]) and the ropivacaine group (5% [two of 38]) had fewer incidents of itching (pruritus) than the spinal morphine group (38% [15 of 41]) (p = 0.001).This prospective multicenter three-arm blind randomized controlled trial showed potentially improved pain control at 6 and 12 hours in the liposomal bupivacaine and intrathecal morphine groups compared with the ropivacaine group at the cost of much higher incidences of pruritus (itching) in the intrathecal morphine group. Based on these results, we prefer the use of PAI with liposomal bupivacaine as an alternative to spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine as a result of similar postoperative pain control and the potential for reducing adverse events.Level I, therapeutic study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors are currently used in clinical practice. COX-2 inhibitors have good anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic effects, and gastrointestinal safety. However, the analgesic effects and adverse reactions of COX-2 after total knee/hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA) are not fully known. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors in postoperative pain management in patients receiving TKA/THA. METHODS:Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from medical literature databases. Risk ratios (RR) Std mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to analyze the primary and safety endpoints. RESULTS:In total, 18 articles (23 trial comparisons) were retrieved comprising 3104 patients. Among them, 1910 patients (61.5%) were randomized to the experimental group whereas 1194 patients (38.5%) were randomized to the control group. The primary endpoints were the patients' VAS score at rest or on ambulation (within 3?days). We found that VAS score in patients that received selective COX-2 inhibitor was significantly lower compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis shows that selective COX-2 inhibitor therapy is effective, safe, and reliable in relieving postoperative pain of THA/TKA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In an effort to combat the opioid epidemic, state legislation was passed to limit postoperative narcotic prescribing. The purpose of this study was to assess if the legislation had an impact on patients' perception of pain management after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesized that patients would not perceive their pain management experience to be impacted.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective survey study was performed on all consenting patients undergoing primary THA or TKA at a large academic center from July 2019 to February 2020. Patients taking opioids preoperatively were excluded. Surveys given preoperatively and at 2 weeks postoperatively assessed patients' concerns surrounding postoperative pain control and their perception of the impact of a newly implemented legislation. Descriptive analysis and Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Ninety-three patients met inclusion criteria and consented. Seventy-nine (29 THA and 50 TKA) completed both surveys. Preoperatively, 9.2% of patients were concerned that the legislation would impact their pain management, despite 43.0% having pain concerns. Postoperatively, 87.0% of patients felt that the legislation had no or mild effect on pain control. Although 36.7% of patients reported moderate to severe postoperative pain, 15.2% of patients reported being dissatisfied with pain control. There was no statistical correlation between preoperative pain concern and feelings that the legislation impacted pain.<h4>Conclusions</h4>After primary THA and TKA, our data suggest that patients' perception of their pain management was not impacted by the legislation. Prescribers should be reassured that the decreased allowable opioids does not hinder the patients' perception of their pain management experience.
Project description:The local infiltration analgesia (LIA) technique has been widely used to reduce opioid requirements and to improve postoperative mobilization following total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the evidence for the efficacy of LIA in THA is not yet clear. We determined whether single-shot LIA in addition to a multimodal analgesic regimen would reduce acute postoperative pain and opioid requirements after THA.116 patients undergoing primary THA under spinal anesthesia were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All patients received oral opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia: etoricoxib, acetaminophen, and glucocorticoid. The patients were randomized to receive either 150 mL ropivacaine (2 mg/mL) and 0.5 mL epinephrine (1 mg/mL) or 150 mL 0.9% saline. Rescue analgesic consisted of morphine and oxycodone as needed. The primary endpoint was pain during mobilization in the recovery unit. Secondary endpoints were pain during mobilization on the day after surgery and total postoperative opioid requirements on the first postoperative day.The levels of pain during mobilization-both in the recovery unit and on the day after surgery-and consumption of opioids on the first postoperative day were similar in the 2 groups.LIA did not provide any extra analgesic effect after THA over and above that from the multimodal analgesic regimen used in this study.