Exploiting the Semidestructive Nature of Gas Cluster Ion Beam Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Simultaneous Localization and Confident Lipid Annotations.
ABSTRACT: Lipids have been recognized as key players in cell signaling and disease. Information on their location and distribution within a biological system, under varying conditions, is necessary to understand the contributions of different lipid species to an altered phenotype. Imaging mass spectrometry techniques, such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), are capable of revealing global lipid distributions in tissues in an untargeted fashion. However, to confidently identify the species present in a sample, orthogonal analyses like tandem MS (MS/MS) are often required. This can be accomplished by bulk sample analysis with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS, which can provide confident lipid identifications, at the expense of losing location-specific information. Here, using planarian flatworms as a model system, we demonstrate that imaging gas cluster ion beam (GCIB)-ToF-SIMS has the unique capability to simultaneously detect, identify, and image lipid species with subcellular resolution in tissue sections. The parallel detection of both, intact lipids and their respective fragments, allows for unique identification of some species without the need of performing an additional orthogonal MS/MS analysis. This was accomplished by correlating intact lipid and associated fragment SIMS images. The lipid assignments, respective fragment identities, and locations gathered from ToF-SIMS data were confirmed via LC-MS/MS on lipid extracts and ultrahigh mass resolution MALDI-MS imaging. Together, these data show that the semidestructive nature of ToF-SIMS can be utilized advantageously to enable both confident molecular annotations and to determine the locations of species within a biological sample.
Project description:We have investigated the capability of nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (NP-LDI MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MS, and gas cluster ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB SIMS) to provide maximum information available in lipid analysis and imaging of mouse brain tissue. The use of Au nanoparticles deposited as a matrix for NP-LDI MS is compared to MALDI and SIMS analysis of mouse brain tissue and allows selective detection and imaging of groups of lipid molecular ion species localizing in the white matter differently from those observed using conventional MALDI with improved imaging potential. We demonstrate that high-energy (40 keV) GCIB SIMS can act as a semi-soft ionization method to extend the useful mass range of SIMS imaging to analyze and image intact lipids in biological samples, closing the gap between conventional SIMS and MALDI techniques. The GCIB SIMS allowed the detection of more intact lipid compounds in the mouse brain compared to MALDI with regular organic matrices. The 40 keV GCIB SIMS also produced peaks observed in the NP-LDI analysis, and these peaks were strongly enhanced in intensity by exposure of the sample to trifluororacetic acid (TFA) vapor prior to analysis. These MS techniques for imaging of different types of lipids create a potential overlap and cross point that can enhance the information for imaging lipids in biological tissue sections. Graphical abstract Schematic of mass spectral imaging of a mouse brain tissue using GCIB-SIMS and MALDI techniques.
Project description:RATIONALE:Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool for mapping the surface of a sample. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (AP-MALDI) offer complementary capabilities. Here, we present a workflow to apply both techniques to a single tissue section and combine the resulting data for the example of human colon cancer tissue. METHODS:Following cryo-sectioning, images were acquired using the high spatial resolution (1 ?m pixel size) provided by TOF-SIMS. The same section was then coated with a para-nitroaniline matrix and images were acquired using AP-MALDI coupled to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capabilities. Datasets provided by both mass spectrometers were converted into the open and vendor-independent imzML file format and processed with the open-source software MSiReader. RESULTS:The TOF-SIMS and AP-MALDI mass spectra show strong signals of fatty acids, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. We showed a high correlation between the fatty acid ions detected with TOF-SIMS in negative ion mode and the phosphatidylcholine ions detected with AP-MALDI in positive ion mode using a similar setting for visualization. Histological staining on the same section allowed the identification of the anatomical structures and their correlation with the ion images. CONCLUSIONS:This multimodal approach using two MSI platforms shows an excellent complementarity for the localization and identification of lipids. The spatial resolution of both systems is at or close to cellular dimensions, and thus spatial correlation can only be obtained if the same tissue section is analyzed sequentially. Data processing based on imzML allows a real correlation of the imaging datasets provided by these two technologies and opens the way for a more complete molecular view of the anatomical structures of biological tissues.
Project description:The mobilization of nutrient reserves into the ovaries of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes after sugar-feeding plays a vital role in the female's reproductive maturation. In the present work, three-dimensional secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging (3D-SIMS) was used to generate ultrahigh spatial resolution (~1 ?m) chemical maps and study the composition and spatial distribution of lipids at the single ovarian follicle level (~100 ?m in size). 3D-Mass Spectrometry Imaging (3D-MSI) allowed the identification of cellular types in the follicle (oocyte, nurse and follicular cells) using endogenous markers, and revealed that most of the triacyglycerides (TGs) were compartmentalized in the oocyte region. By comparing follicles from water-fed and sugar-fed females (n=2), 3D-MSI-Time of Flight-SIMS showed that TGs were more abundant in ovarian follicles of sugar-fed females; despite relative sample reproducibility per feeding condition, more biological replicates will better support the trends observed. While the current 3D-MSI-TOF-SIMS does not permit MS/MS analysis of the lipid species, complementary LC-MS/MS analysis of the ovarian follicles aided tentative lipid assignments of the SIMS data. The combination of these MS approaches is giving us a first glimpse of the distribution of functionally relevant ovarian lipid molecules at the cellular level. These new tools can be used to investigate the roles of different lipids on follicle fitness and overall mosquito reproductive output.
Project description:Lipids are abundant biomolecules performing central roles to maintain proper functioning of cells and biological bodies. Due to their highly complex composition, it is critical to obtain information of lipid structures in order to identify particular lipids which are relevant for a biological process or metabolic pathway under study. Among currently available molecular identification techniques, MS/MS in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging has been of high interest in the bioanalytical community as it allows visualization of intact molecules in biological samples as well as elucidation of their chemical structures. However, there have been few applications using SIMS and MS/MS owing to instrumental challenges for this capability. We performed MS and MS/MS imaging to study the lipid structures of Drosophila brain using the J105 and 40-keV Ar<sub>4000</sub><sup>+</sup> gas cluster ion source, with the novelty being the use of MS/MS SIMS analysis of intact lipids in the fly brain. Glycerophospholipids were identified by MS/MS profiling. MS/MS was also used to characterize diglyceride fragment ions and to identify them as triacylglyceride fragments. Moreover, MS/MS imaging offers a unique possibility for detailed elucidation of biomolecular distribution with high accuracy based on the ion images of its fragments. This is particularly useful in the presence of interferences which disturb the interpretation of biomolecular localization. Graphical abstract MS/MS was performed during time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of Drosophila melongaster (fruit fly) to elucidate the structure and origin of different chemical species in the brain including a range of different phospholipid classes (PC, PI, PE) and di- and triacylglycerides (DAG & TAG) species where reference MS/MS spectra provided a potential means of discriminating between the isobaric [M-OH]<sup>+</sup> ion of DAGs and the [M-RCO]<sup>+</sup> ion of TAGs.
Project description:This work assesses the potential of new water cluster-based ion beams for improving the capabilities of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for in situ lipidomics. The effect of water clusters was compared to carbon dioxide clusters, along with the effect of using pure water clusters compared to mixed water and carbon dioxide clusters. A signal increase was found when using pure water clusters. However, when analyzing cells, a more substantial signal increase was found in positive ion mode when the water clusters also contained carbon dioxide, suggesting that additional reactions are in play. The effects of using a water primary ion beam on a more complex sample were investigated by analyzing brain tissue from an Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse model. The results indicate that the ToF-SIMS results are approaching those from MALDI as ToF-SIMS was able to image lyso-phosphocholine (LPC) lipids, a lipid class that for a long time has eluded detection during SIMS analyses. Gangliosides, sulfatides, and cholesterol were also imaged.
Project description:The environmental toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been causatively linked to neurodegenerative disease pathology. In a rat model, neonatal BMAA exposure resulted in selective uptake in the hippocampal formation and caused learning and memory impairments in adult animals. Moreover, high dose neonatal BMAA exposure resulted in formation of protein inclusions in the CA1 region of the adult hippocampus. However the mechanism underlying BMAA induced neuropathology remains elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful method for spatial interrogation of biochemical distribution in biological tissue with high chemical specificity. The aim of this study was to therefore characterize the lipid microenvironment of BMAA-induced hippocampal lesions in adult rats using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS imaging). Multimodal imaging was carried out by ToF-SIMS scans of the hippocampal formation followed by whole tissue scans using MALDI imaging. Multivariate analysis was performed on the SIMS data in order to delineate the spatial biochemistry surrounding the lesions. The data show lesion-specific localization of phosphatidylcholine fragments, suggesting neuroinflammatory glial cell activation. Complementary MALDI imaging data showed increased levels of phosphoethanolamines colocalizing with the proteopathic lesions pointing to macroautophagic mechanisms associated with neurotoxin-induced protein accumulation. Multimodal IMS by means of ToF-SIMS and MALDI mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful technique for neurotoxicological research.
Project description:High resolution imaging mass spectrometry could become a valuable tool for cell and developmental biology, but both, high spatial and mass spectral resolution are needed to enable this. In this report, we employed Bi3 bombardment time-of-flight (Bi3 ToF-SIMS) and C60 bombardment Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60 FTICR-SIMS) to image Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation streams. Nearly 300 lipid species were identified from the aggregation streams. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging (FTICR-SIMS) enabled the generation of multiple molecular ion maps at the nominal mass level and provided good coverage for fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and sterol lipids. The comparison of Bi3 ToF-SIMS and C60 FTICR-SIMS suggested that while the first provides fast, high spatial resolution molecular ion images, the chemical complexity of biological samples warrants the use of high resolution analyzers for accurate ion identification.
Project description:Matrix-enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) has overcome one of the biggest disadvantages of SIMS analysis by providing the ability to detect intact biomolecules at high spatial resolution. By increasing ionization efficiency and minimizing primary ion beam-induced fragmentation of analytes, ME-SIMS has proven useful for detection of numerous biorelevant species, now including peptides. We report here the first demonstration of tandem ME-SIMS for de novo sequencing of endogenous neuropeptides from tissue in situ (i.e., rat pituitary gland). The peptide ions were isolated for tandem MS analysis using a 1 Da mass isolation window, followed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) at 1.5 keV in a collision cell filled with argon gas, for confident identification of the detected peptide. Using this method, neuropeptides up to m/z 2000 were detected and sequenced from the posterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland. These results demonstrate the potential for ME-SIMS tandem MS development in bottom-up proteomics imaging at high-spatial resolution.
Project description:Bacillus are aerobic spore-forming bacteria that are known to lead to specific diseases, such as anthrax and food poisoning. This study focuses on the characterization of these bacteria by the detection of lipids extracted from 33 well-characterized strains from the Bacillus and Brevibacillus genera, with the aim to discriminate between the different species. For the purpose of analysing the lipids extracted from these bacterial samples, two rapid physicochemical techniques were used: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The findings of this investigation confirmed that MALDI-TOF-MS could be used to identify different bacterial lipids and, in combination with appropriate chemometrics, allowed for the discrimination between these different bacterial species, which was supported by LC-MS. The average correct classification rates for the seven species of bacteria were 62.23 and 77.03 % based on MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS data, respectively. The Procrustes distance for the two datasets was 0.0699, indicating that the results from the two techniques were very similar. In addition, we also compared these bacterial lipid MALDI-TOF-MS profiles to protein profiles also collected by MALDI-TOF-MS on the same bacteria (Procrustes distance, 0.1006). The level of discrimination between lipids and proteins was equivalent, and this further indicated the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS analysis as a rapid, robust and reliable method for the classification of bacteria based on different bacterial chemical components. Graphical abstract MALDI-MS has been successfully developed for the characterization of bacteria at the subspecies level using lipids and benchmarked against HPLC.
Project description:Lipid disorders have been associated with glomerulopathies, a distinct type of renal pathologies, such as nephrotic syndrome. Global analyses targeting kidney lipids in this pathophysiologic context have been extensively performed, but most often regardless of the architectural and functional complexity of the kidney. The new developments in mass spectrometry imaging technologies have opened a promising field in localized lipidomic studies focused on this organ. In this article, we revisit the main works having employed the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) technology, and the few reports on the use of TOF-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). We also present a first analysis of mouse kidney cortex sections by cluster TOF-SIMS. The latter represents a good option for high resolution lipid imaging when frozen unfixed histological samples are available. The advantages and drawbacks of this developing field are discussed.