Development and Validation of a Radiomics Nomogram Model for Predicting Postoperative Recurrence in Patients With Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer Who Achieved pCR After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery.
ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Although patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) can achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery, one-third of these patients with a pCR may still experience recurrence. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a predictive model to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS) in those patients who achieved pCR. Materials and methods: Two hundred six patients with ESCC were enrolled and divided into a training cohort (n = 146) and a validation cohort (n = 60). Radiomic features were extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images of each patient. Feature reduction was then implemented in two steps, including a multiple segmentation test and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox proportional hazards regression method. A radiomics signature was subsequently constructed and evaluated. For better prediction performance, a clinical nomogram based on clinical risk factors and a nomogram incorporating the radiomics signature and clinical risk factors was built. Finally, the prediction models were further validated by calibration and the clinical usefulness was examined in the validation cohort to determine the optimal prediction model. Results: The radiomics signature was constructed using eight radiomic features and displayed a significant correlation with RFS. The nomogram incorporating the radiomics signature with clinical risk factors achieved optimal performance compared with the radiomics signature (P < 0.001) and clinical nomogram (P < 0.001) in both the training cohort [C-index (95% confidence interval [CI]), 0.746 (0.680-0.812) vs. 0.685 (0.620-0.750) vs. 0.614 (0.538-0.690), respectively] and validation cohort [C-index (95% CI), 0.724 (0.696-0.752) vs. 0.671 (0.624-0.718) vs. 0.629 (0.597-0.661), respectively]. The calibration curve and decision curve analysis revealed that the radiomics nomogram outperformed the other two models. Conclusions: A radiomics nomogram model incorporating radiomics features and clinical factors has been developed and has the improved ability to predict the postoperative recurrence risk in patients with ESCC who achieved pCR after nCRT followed by surgery.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline and restaging CT-based radiomics with features associated with gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) plus surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled 106 ESCC patients receiving nCRT from two institutions. Gene expression profiles of 28 patients in the training set were used to detect differentially expressed (DE) genes between patients with and without relapse. Radiomic features that were correlated to DE genes were selected, followed by additional machine learning selection. A radiomic nomogram for disease-free survival (DFS) prediction incorporating the radiomic signature and prognostic clinical characteristics was established for DFS estimation and validated.<h4>Results</h4>The radiomic signature with DE genes feature selection achieved better performance for DFS prediction than without. The nomogram incorporating the radiomic signature and lymph nodal status significantly stratified patients into high and low-risk groups for DFS (<i>p</i> < 0.001). The areas under the curve (AUCs) for predicting 5-year DFS were 0.912 in the training set, 0.852 in the internal test set, 0.769 in the external test set.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Genomics association was useful for radiomic feature selection. The established radiomic signature was prognostic for DFS. The radiomic nomogram could provide a valuable prediction for individualized long-term survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In pancreatic cancer, methods to predict early recurrence (ER) and identify patients at increased risk of relapse are urgently required.<h4>Purpose</h4>To develop a radiomic nomogram based on MR radiomics to stratify patients preoperatively and potentially improve clinical practice.<h4>Study type</h4>Retrospective.<h4>Population</h4>We enrolled 303 patients from two medical centers. Patients with a disease-free survival ?12 months were assigned as the ER group (n =?130). Patients from the first medical center were divided into a training cohort (n =?123) and an internal validation cohort (n =?54). Patients from the second medical center were used as the external independent validation cohort (n =?126).<h4>Field strength/sequence</h4>3.0T axial T<sub>1</sub> -weighted (T<sub>1</sub> -w), T<sub>2</sub> -weighted (T<sub>2</sub> -w), contrast-enhanced T<sub>1</sub> -weighted (CET<sub>1</sub> -w).<h4>Assessment</h4>ER was confirmed via imaging studies as MRI or CT. Risk factors, including clinical stage, CA19-9, and radiomic-related features of ER were assessed. In addition, to determine the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of radiomic features extraction, the intra- and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated.<h4>Statistical tests</h4>The area under the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the radiomic signature in both the training and test groups. The results of decision curve analysis (DCA) indicated that the radiomic nomogram achieved the most net benefit.<h4>Results</h4>The AUC values of ER evaluation for the radiomics signature were 0.80 (training cohort), 0.81 (internal validation cohort), and 0.78 (external validation cohort). Multivariate logistic analysis identified the radiomic signature, CA19-9 level, and clinical stage as independent parameters of ER. A radiomic nomogram was then developed incorporating the CA19-9 level and clinical stage. The AUC values for ER risk evaluation using the radiomic nomogram were 0.87 (training cohort), 0.88 (internal validation cohort), and 0.85 (external validation cohort).<h4>Data conclusion</h4>The radiomic nomogram can effectively evaluate ER risks in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer preoperatively, which could potentially improve treatment strategies and facilitate personalized therapy in pancreatic cancer.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:231-245.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: To develop and validate a radiomic nomogram incorporating radiomic features with clinical variables for individual local recurrence risk assessment in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients before initial treatment. <b>Methods</b>: One hundred and forty patients were randomly divided into a training cohort (n = 80) and a validation cohort (n = 60). A total of 970 radiomic features were extracted from pretreatment magnetic resonance (MR) images of NPC patients from May 2007 to December 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used for selecting radiomic features associated with local recurrence, and multivariate analyses was used for building radiomic nomogram. <b>Results</b>: Eight contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CET1-w) image features and seven T2-weighted (T2-w) image features were selected to build a Cox proportional hazard model in the training cohort, respectively. The radiomic nomogram, which combined radiomic features and multiple clinical variables, had a good evaluation ability (C-index: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.58, 0.85]) in the validation cohort. The radiomic nomogram successfully categorized those patients into low- and high-risk groups with significant differences in the rate of local recurrence-free survival (<i>P</i> <0.05). <b>Conclusions</b>: This study demonstrates that MR imaging-based radiomics can be used as an aid tool for the evaluation of local recurrence, in order to develop tailored treatment targeting specific characteristics of individual patients.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate whether radiomic feature-based fluorine 18 (<sup>18</sup>F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging signatures allow prediction of gastric cancer (GC) survival and chemotherapy benefits. <b>Methods:</b> A total of 214 GC patients (training (n = 132) or validation (n = 82) cohort) were subjected to radiomic feature extraction (80 features). Radiomic features of patients in the training cohort were subjected to a LASSO cox analysis to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and were validated in the validation cohort. A radiomics nomogram with the radiomic signature incorporated was constructed to demonstrate the incremental value of the radiomic signature to the TNM staging system for individualized survival estimation, which was then assessed with respect to calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. The performance was assessed with concordance index (C-index) and integrated Brier scores. <b>Results:</b> Significant differences were found between the high- and low-radiomic score (Rad-score) patients in 5-year DFS and OS in training and validation cohorts. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Rad-score was an independent prognostic factor. Incorporating the Rad-score into the radiomics-based nomogram resulted in better performance (C<i>-</i>index: DFS, 0.800; OS, 0.786; in the training cohort) than TNM staging system and clinicopathologic nomogram. Further analysis revealed that patients with higher Rad-scores were prone to benefit from chemotherapy. <b>Conclusion:</b> The newly developed radiomic signature was a powerful predictor of OS and DFS. Moreover, the radiomic signature could predict which patients could benefit from chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accurate predictions of distant metastasis (DM) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) are helpful in developing appropriate treatment plans. This study aimed to perform DM prediction through deep learning radiomics.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively sampled 235 patients receiving nCRT with the minimum 36 months' postoperative follow-up from three hospitals. Through transfer learning, a deep learning radiomic signature (DLRS) based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was constructed. A nomogram was established integrating deep MRI information and clinicopathologic factors for better prediction. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used as performance metrics. Furthermore, the risk of DM in patients with different response to nCRT was evaluated with the nomogram.<h4>Findings</h4>DLRS performed well in DM prediction, with a C-index of 0·747 and an area under curve (AUC) at three years of 0·894 in the validation cohort. The performance of nomogram was better, with a C-index of 0·775. In addition, the nomogram could stratify patients with different responses to nCRT into high- and low-risk groups of DM (P < 0·05).<h4>Interpretation</h4>MRI-based deep learning radiomics had potential in predicting the DM of LARC patients receiving nCRT and could help evaluate the risk of DM in patients who have different responses to nCRT.<h4>Funding</h4>The funding bodies that contributed to this study are listed in the Acknowledgements section.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4> Early recurrence of glioblastoma after standard treatment makes patient care challenging. This study aimed to assess preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomics for predicting early recurrence of glioblastoma. <h4>Patients and Methods</h4> A total of 122 patients (training cohort: n = 86; validation cohort: n = 36) with pathologically confirmed glioblastoma were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative brain MRI images were analyzed for both radiomics and the Visually Accessible Rembrandt Image (VASARI) features of glioblastoma. Models incorporating MRI radiomics, the VASARI parameters, and clinical variables were developed and presented in a nomogram. Performance was assessed based on calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. <h4>Results</h4> The nomogram consisting of the radiomic signatures, the VASARI parameters, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values showed good discrimination between the patients with early recurrence and those with later recurrence, with an area under the curve of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.94) in the training cohort and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71-0.97] in the validation cohort. Decision curve analysis demonstrated favorable clinical application of the nomogram. <h4>Conclusion</h4> This study showed the potential usefulness of preoperative brain MRI radiomics in predicting the early recurrence of glioblastoma, which should be helpful in personalized management of glioblastoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preoperative prediction of the Lauren classification in gastric cancer (GC) is very important to the choice of therapy, the evaluation of prognosis, and the improvement of quality of life. However, there is not yet radiomics analysis concerning the prediction of Lauren classification straightly. In this study, a radiomic nomogram was developed to preoperatively differentiate Lauren diffuse type from intestinal type in GC. METHODS:A total of 539 GC patients were enrolled in this study and later randomly allocated to two cohorts at a 7:3 ratio for training and validation. Two sets of radiomic features were derived from tumor regions and peritumor regions on venous phase computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. With the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression, a combined radiomic signature was constructed. Also, a tumor-based model and a peripheral ring-based model were built for comparison. Afterwards, a radiomic nomogram integrating the combined radiomic signature and clinical characteristics was developed. All the models were evaluated regarding classification ability and clinical usefulness. RESULTS:The combined radiomic signature achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.715 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.663-0.767) in the training cohort and 0.714 (95% CI, 0.636-0.792) in the validation cohort. The radiomic nomogram incorporating the combined radiomic signature, age, CT T stage, and CT N stage outperformed the other models with a training AUC of 0.745 (95% CI, 0.696-0.795) and a validation AUC of 0.758 (95% CI, 0.685-0.831). The significantly improved sensitivity of radiomic nomogram (0.765 and 0.793) indicated better identification of diffuse type GC patients. Further, calibration curves and decision curves demonstrated its great model fitness and clinical usefulness. CONCLUSIONS:The radiomic nomogram involving the combined radiomic signature and clinical characteristics holds potential in differentiating Lauren diffuse type from intestinal type for reasonable clinical treatment strategy.
Project description:Objectives:To develop and validate a radiomics nomogram to improve prediction of recurrence and metastasis risk in T1 stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods:This retrospective study recruited 168 consecutive patients (mean age, 53.9 years; range, 28-76 years; 43 women) with T1 ccRCC between January 2012 and June 2019, including 50 aggressive ccRCC based on synchronous metastasis or recurrence after surgery. The patients were divided into two cohorts (training and validation) at a 7:3 ratio. Radiomics features were extracted from contrast enhanced CT images. A radiomics signature was developed based on reproducible features by means of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. Demographics, laboratory variables (including sex, age, Fuhrman grade, hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophils, albumin, and calcium) and CT findings were combined to develop clinical factors model. Integrating radiomics signature and independent clinical factors, a radiomics nomogram was developed. Nomogram performance was determined by calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. Results:Ten features were used to build radiomics signature, which yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 in the training cohort and 0.85 in the validation cohort. By incorporating the sex, maximum diameter, neutrophil count, albumin count, and radiomics score, a radiomics nomogram was developed. Radiomics nomogram (AUC: training, 0.91; validation, 0.92) had higher performance than clinical factors model (AUC: training, 0.86; validation, 0.90) or radiomics signature as a means of identifying patients at high risk for recurrence and metastasis. The radiomics nomogram had higher sensitivity than clinical factors mode (McNemar's chi-squared = 4.1667, p = 0.04) and a little lower specificity than clinical factors model (McNemar's chi-squared = 3.2, p = 0.07). The nomogram showed good calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated the superiority of the nomogram compared with the clinical factors model in terms of clinical usefulness. Conclusion:The CT-based radiomics nomogram could help in predicting recurrence and metastasis risk in T1 ccRCC, which might provide assistance for clinicians in tailoring precise therapy.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To develop and validate a nomogram model to predict complete response (CR) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients using pretreatment CT radiomic features.<h4>Methods</h4>Data of patients diagnosed as ESCC and treated with CCRT in Shantou Central Hospital during the period from January 2013 to December 2015 were retrospectively collected. Eligible patients were included in this study and randomize divided into a training set and a validation set after successive screening. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) with logistic regression to select radiomics features calculating Rad-score in the training set. The logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictive clinical factors for developing a nomogram model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) was used to assess the performance of the predictive nomogram model and decision curve was used to analyze the impact of the nomogram model on clinical treatment decisions.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 226 patients were included and randomly divided into two groups, 160 patients in training set and 66 patients in validation set. After LASSO analysis, seven radiomics features were screened out to develop a radiomics signature Rad-score. The AUC of Rad-score was 0.812 (95% CI 0.742-0.869, p?<?0.001) in the training set and 0.744 (95% CI 0.632-0.851, p?=?0.003) in the validation set. Multivariate analysis showed that Rad-score and clinical staging were independent predictors of CR status, with p values of 0.035 and 0.023, respectively. A nomogram model incorporating Rad-socre and clinical staging was developed and validated, with an AUC of 0.844 (95% CI 0.779-0.897) in the training set and 0.807 (95% CI 0.691-0.894) in the validation set. Delong test showed that the nomogram model was significantly superior to the clinical staging, with p?<?0.001 in the training set and p?=?0.026 in the validation set. The decision curve showed that the nomogram model was superior to the clinical staging when the risk threshold was greater than 25%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We developed and validated a nomogram model for predicting CR status of ESCC patients after CCRT. The nomogram model was combined radiomics signature Rad-score and clinical staging. This model provided us with an economical and simple method for evaluating the response of chemoradiotherapy for patients with ESCC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Preoperative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) accurately impacts preoperative preparation and surgical outcome in PHEO patients. Highly reliable model to diagnose PHEO is lacking. We aimed to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomic-clinical model to distinguish PHEO from adrenal lesions.<h4>Methods</h4>In total, 305 patients with 309 adrenal lesions were included and divided into different sets. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was used for data dimension reduction, feature selection, and radiomics signature building. In addition, a nomogram incorporating the obtained radiomics signature and selected clinical predictors was developed by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the radiomic-clinical model was assessed with respect to its discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness.<h4>Results</h4>Seven radiomics features were selected among the 1301 features obtained as they could differentiate PHEOs from other adrenal lesions in the training (area under the curve [AUC], 0.887), internal validation (AUC, 0.880), and external validation cohorts (AUC, 0.807). Predictors contained in the individualized prediction nomogram included the radiomics signature and symptom number (symptoms include headache, palpitation, and diaphoresis). The training set yielded an AUC of 0.893 for the nomogram, which was confirmed in the internal and external validation sets with AUCs of 0.906 and 0.844, respectively. Decision curve analyses indicated the nomogram was clinically useful. In addition, 25 patients with 25 lesions were recruited for prospective validation, which yielded an AUC of 0.917 for the nomogram.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We propose a radiomic-based nomogram incorporating clinically useful signatures as an easy-to-use, predictive and individualized tool for PHEO diagnosis.