Intrahepatic Expression of Fatty Acid Translocase CD36 Is Increased in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
ABSTRACT: Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH) featuring obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) dysregulates hepatic lipid metabolism and might contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) observed in OSA patients. However, further research is required to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying IH-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OSA on hepatic CD36 expression and the impact of IH by using a mouse model of OSA. Histological analysis, lipid content and CD36 expression were assessed in livers from subjects who underwent liver biopsy and polygraphic study during sleep, and in livers from mice submitted to chronic IH mimicking OSA. Among those who presented OSA features, NAFLD were significantly more frequent than in control subjects with normal respiratory function (77.8 vs. 36.4%, respectively), and showed more severe liver disease. Interestingly, CD36 expression was significantly overexpressed within the liver of OSA patients with respect to controls, and a significant positive correlation was observed between hepatic levels of CD36 and the values of two well-known respiratory parameters that characterized OSA: apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Moreover, hepatic lipid accumulation as well as induction of hepatic lipogenic genes, and CD36 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in livers from mice exposed to IH conditions for 8 weeks than in their corresponding littermates. This study provides novel evidence that IH featuring OSA could contribute to NAFLD setup partly by upregulating hepatic CD36 expression.
Project description:Oxidative stress is proposed as a central mediator in NAFLD pathogenesis, but the specific trigger for reactive oxygen species generation has not been clearly delineated. In addition, emerging evidence shows that obesity related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxia are associated with NAFLD progression in adults. The aim of this study was to determine if OSA/nocturnal hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes the progression of pediatric NAFLD.Subjects with biopsy proven NAFLD and lean controls were studied. Subjects underwent polysomnograms, liver histology scoring, laboratory testing, urine F(2)-isoprostanes (measure of lipid peroxidation) and 4-hydroxynonenal liver immunohistochemistry (in situ hepatic lipid peroxidation).We studied 36 adolescents with NAFLD and 14 lean controls. The OSA/hypoxia group (69% of NAFLD subjects) had more severe fibrosis (64% stage 0-2; 36% stage 3) than those without OSA/hypoxia (100% stage 0-2), p=0.03. Higher F(2)-isoprostanes correlated with apnea/hypoxia index (r=0.39, p=0.03), % time SaO2 <90% (r=0.56, p=0.0008) and inversely with SaO2 nadir (r=-0.46, p=0.008). OSA/hypoxia was most severe in subjects with the greatest 4HNE staining (p=0.03). Increasing F(2)-isoprostanes(r=0.32, p=0.04) and 4HNE hepatic staining (r=0.47, p=0.007) were associated with worsening steatosis. Greater oxidative stress occurred in subjects with definite NASH as measured by F(2)-isoprostanes (p=0.06) and hepatic 4HNE (p=0.03) compared to those with borderline/not NASH.These data support the role of nocturnal hypoxia as a trigger for localized hepatic oxidative stress, an important factor associated with the progression of NASH and hepatic fibrosis in obese pediatric patients.Obstructive sleep apnea and low nighttime oxygen are associated with NAFLD progression in adults. In this study, we show that adolescents with NAFLD who have OSA and low oxygen have significant scar tissue in their livers. NAFLD subjects affected by OSA and low oxygen have a greater imbalance between the production of free radicals and their body's ability to counteract their harmful effects than subjects without OSA and low oxygen. This study shows that low oxygen levels may be an important trigger in the progression of pediatric NASH.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia might contribute to hepatosteatosis, the earliest stage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis, remain still to be elucidated. We aimed to assess the impact of hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) on the fatty acid translocase CD36 expression and function in vivo and in vitro. METHODS:CD36 expression and intracellular lipid content were determined in hypoxic hepatocytes, and in hypoxic CD36- or HIF2? -silenced human liver cells. Histological analysis, and HIF2? and CD36 expression were evaluated in livers from animals in which von Hippel-Lindau (Vhl) gene is inactivated (Vhlf/f -deficient mice), or both Vhl and Hif2a are simultaneously inactivated (Vhlf/f Hif2?/f -deficient mice), and from 33 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 18 subjects with histologically normal liver. RESULTS:In hypoxic hepatocytes, CD36 expression and intracellular lipid content were augmented. Noteworthy, CD36 knockdown significantly reduced lipid accumulation, and HIF2A gene silencing markedly reverted both hypoxia-induced events in hypoxic liver cells. Moreover livers from Vhlf/f -deficient mice showed histologic characteristics of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and increased CD36 mRNA and protein amounts, whereas both significantly decreased and NASH features markedly ameliorated in Vhlf/f Hif2?f/f -deficient mice. In addition, both HIF2? and CD36 were significantly overexpressed within the liver of NAFLD patients and, interestingly, a significant positive correlation between hepatic transcript levels of CD36 and erythropoietin (EPO), a HIF2? -dependent gene target, was observed in NAFLD patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that HIF2? drives lipid accumulation in human hepatocytes by upregulating CD36 expression and function, and could contribute to hepatosteatosis setup.
Project description:CD36 has been associated with obesity and diabetes in human liver diseases, however, its role in age-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Therefore, liver biopsies were collected from individuals with histologically normal livers (n=30), and from patients diagnosed with simple steatosis (NAS; n=26). Patients were divided into two groups according to age and liver biopsy samples were immunostained for CD36. NAFLD parameters were examined in young (12-week) and middle-aged (52-week) C57BL/6J mice, some fed with chow-diet and some fed with low-fat (LFD; 10% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 12-weeks. CD36 expression was positively associated with age in individuals with normal livers but not in NAS patients. However, CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in aged NAS patients as compared to young. In chow-fed mice, aging, despite an increase in hepatic CD36 expression, was not associated with the development of NAFLD. However, middle-aged mice did exhibit the development of HFD-induced NAFLD, mediated by an increase of CD36 on the membrane. Enhanced CD36-mediated hepatic fat uptake may contribute to an accelerated progression of NAFLD in mice and humans. Therapies to prevent the increase in CD36 expression and/or CD36 from anchoring at the membrane may prevent the development of NAFLD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide, although its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. A recent study revealed that hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), a cholesterol re-absorber from bile to the liver expressed on the bile canalicular membrane, is an exacerbation factor of NAFLD. Indeed, transgenic mice with hepatic expression of human NPC1L1 under a liver-specific promoter (L1-Tg mice) developed steatosis with a high-fat diet (HFD) containing cholesterol within a few weeks. However, the mechanism underlying diet-induced hepatic NPC1L1-mediated lipid accumulation is poorly defined. METHODS:To achieve a deeper understanding of steatosis development in L1-Tg mice, the biochemical features of hepatic NPC1L1-mediated steatosis were investigated. Hemizygous L1-Tg mice and wild-type littermate controls fed a HFD or control-fat diet were used. At the indicated time points, the livers were evaluated for cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) contents as well as mRNA levels of hepatic genes involved in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis. The hepatic ability to secrete very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG was also investigated. RESULTS:Unlike the livers of wild-type mice that have little expression of hepatic Npc1l1, the livers of L1-Tg mice displayed time-dependent changes that indicated steatosis formation. In steatosis, there were three different stages of development: mild accumulation of hepatic cholesterol and TG (early stage), acceleration of hepatic TG accumulation (middle stage), and further accumulation of hepatic cholesterol (late stage). In the early stage, between WT and L1-Tg mice fed a HFD for 2?weeks, there were no significant differences in the hepatic expression of Ppar?, Acox1, Fat/Cd36, Srebf1, and Srebf2; however, the hepatic ability to secrete VLDL-TG decreased in L1-Tg mice (P?<?0.05). Furthermore, this decrease was completely prevented by administration of ezetimibe, an NPC1L1-selective inhibitor. CONCLUSION:Hepatic NPC1L1 exacerbates diet-induced steatosis, which was accompanied by decreased hepatic ability of VLDL-TG secretion. The obtained results provide a deeper understanding of L1-Tg mice as a promising NAFLD animal model that is able to re-absorb biliary-secreted cholesterol similar to humans. Furthermore, this work supports further studies of the pathophysiological impact of re-absorbed biliary cholesterol on the regulation of hepatic lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that the hypoxia of OSA increases hepatic production of lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and that LOX may serve as a biomarker of hepatic fibrosis.Thirty-five patients with severe obesity underwent liver biopsy, polysomnography, and serum LOX testing. A separate group with severe OSA had serum LOX measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP or no therapy, as did age-matched controls. LOX expression and secretion were measured in mouse hepatocytes following exposure to hypoxia.The Johns Hopkins Bayview Sleep Disorders Center, and the Hypertension Unit of the Heart Institute at the University of São Paulo Medical School.In the bariatric cohort, the apnea-hypopnea index was higher in patients with hepatic fibrosis than in those without fibrosis (42.7 ± 30.2 events/h, versus 16.2 ± 15.5 events/h; P = 0.002), as was serum LOX (84.64 ± 29.71 ng/mL, versus 45.46 ± 17.16 ng/mL; P < 0.001). In the sleep clinic sample, patients with severe OSA had higher baseline LOX than healthy controls (70.75 ng/mL versus 52.36 ng/mL, P = 0.046), and serum LOX decreased in patients with OSA on CPAP (mean decrease 20.49 ng/mL) but not in untreated patients (mean decrease 0.19 ng/mL). Hypoxic mouse hepatocytes demonstrated 5.9-fold increased LOX transcription (P = 0.046), and enhanced LOX protein secretion.The hypoxic stress of obstructive sleep apnea may increase circulating lysyl oxidase (LOX) levels. LOX may serve as a biomarker of liver fibrosis in patients with severe obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Project description:Liver regeneration requires intrahepatic and extrahepatic metabolic reprogramming to meet the high hepatic bioenergy demand for liver cell repopulation. This study aims to elucidate how pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), a critical regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, coordinates metabolic regulation with efficient liver growth. We found that hepatic Pdk4 expression was elevated after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). In Pdk4-/- PHx mice, the liver/body weight ratio was more rapidly restored, accompanied by more aggressive hepatic DNA replication; however, Pdk4-/- mice developed more severe hypoglycemia. In Pdk4-/- PHx livers, the pro-regenerative insulin signaling was potentiated, as demonstrated by early peaking of the phosphorylation of insulin receptor, more remarkable induction of the insulin receptor substrate proteins, IRS1 and IRS2, and more striking activation of Akt. The hepatic up-regulation of CD36 contributed to the enhanced transient regeneration-associated steatosis in Pdk4-/- PHx mice. Notably, CD36 overexpression in mice promoted the recovery of liver/body weight ratio and elevated intrahepatic adenosine triphosphate after PHx. CD36 expression was transcriptionally suppressed by FOXO1 (forkhead box protein O1), which was stabilized and translocated to the nucleus following AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) activation. PHx remarkably induced AMPK activation, which became incompetent to respond in Pdk4-/- livers. Moreover, we defined that PDK4-regulated AMPK activation directly depended on intracellular adenosine monophosphate in vitro and in regenerative livers. Conclusion: PDK4 inhibition reprograms glucose and lipid metabolism to promote liver regeneration by enhancing hepatic insulin/Akt signaling and activating an AMPK/FOXO1/CD36 regulatory axis of lipid. These findings may lead to potential therapeutic strategies to prevent hepatic insufficiency and liver failure.
Project description:<h4>Rationale and objectives</h4>Although many clinical physiology and epidemiology studies show an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and markers of insulin resistance, no causal pathway has been established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the intermittent hypoxia (IH) stimulus that characterizes OSA causes insulin resistance in the absence of obesity. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of IH on specific metabolic function in liver and muscle. Finally, we examined the potential mechanistic role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating insulin resistance in response to IH.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps were conducted and whole-body insulin sensitivity, hepatic glucose output, and muscle-specific glucose utilization assessed in conscious, chronically instrumented adult male C57BL/6J mice exposed to (1) IH (achieving a nadir of Fi(O(2)) = 5-6% at 60 cycles/h for 9 h), (2) intermittent air as a control, (3) IH with ANS blockade (hexamethonium), or (4) IA with ANS blockade. IH decreased whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with intermittent air (38.8 +/- 2.7 vs. 49.4 +/- 1.5 mg/kg/min, p < 0.005) and reduced glucose utilization in oxidative muscle fibers, but did not cause a change in hepatic glucose output. Furthermore, the reduction in whole-body insulin sensitivity during IH was not restored by ANS blockade.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that IH can cause acute insulin resistance in otherwise lean, healthy animals, and that the response is associated with decreased glucose utilization of oxidative muscle fibers, but that it occurs independently of activation of the ANS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with altered production of secreted proteins. Increased understanding of secreted proteins could lead to improved prediction and treatment of NAFLD. Here, we aimed to discover novel secreted proteins in humans that are associated with hepatic fat content using unbiased proteomic profiling strategy, and how the identified Thbs1 modulates lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. METHOD:NAFLD patients were enrolled and treated with lifestyle intervention. Patients who underwent liver biopsy were enrolled for analyzing the correlation between circulating Thbs1 and liver steatosis. Mice were fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet and treated with recombinant Thbs1. Primary hepatocytes isolated from CD36 knockout (CD36-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates (controls) were treated with glucose plus insulin for 24 h together with or without recombinant Thbs1. FINDING:Serum Thbs1 levels are increased in participants with NAFLD and positively associated with liver steatosis grades. Improvement of liver steatosis after lifestyle intervention was accompanied with significant reduction of serum Thbs1 levels. Pharmacological administration of recombinant human Thbs1 attenuates hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Treatment with Thbs1 protein or stably overexpression of Thbs1 causes a significant reduction of lipid accumulation in primary hepatocytes or HepG2 cells exposed to high glucose plus insulin, suggesting that Thbs1 regulates lipid metabolism in a hepatocyte-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, Thbs1 inhibits cleavage and processing of SREBP-1, leading to a reduction of target lipogenic gene expression and hepatic steatosis. Inhibitory effects of Thbs1 on lipogenesis and triglyceride accumulation are abrogated in CD36 deficient primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose plus insulin. Interestingly, beneficial effects of Thbs1 on lipid accumulation are observed in primary hepatocytes treated with a Thbs1 nonapeptide mimetic ABT-526. INTERPRETATION:Thbs1 is a biomarker for NAFLD in humans, and pharmacological and genetic approaches for the modulation of Thbs1 activity may have the therapeutic potential for treating hepatic steatosis. FUND: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Funding Sources section.
Project description:Curcumin has the potential to cure dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its therapeutic effects are curbed by poor bioavailability. Our previous work has shown that modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves blood concentration and tissue distribution. This study sought to investigate the role of a novel PEGylated curcumin derivative (Curc-mPEG454) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in a high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6J mouse model. Mice were fed either a control chow diet (D12450B), an HFD (D12492) as the NAFLD model, or an HFD with Curc-mPEG454 administered by intraperitoneal injection at 50?mg/kg or 100?mg/kg for 16 weeks. We found that Curc-mPEG454 significantly lowered the body weight and serum triglyceride (TG) levels and reduced liver lipid accumulation in HFD-induced NAFLD mice. It was also shown that Curc-mPEG454 suppressed the HFD-induced upregulated expression of CD36 and hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), a positive regulator of CD36. Moreover, Curc-mPEG454 dramatically activated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which negatively controls hepatic PPAR-? expression. These findings suggest that Curc-mPEG454 reverses HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via the activation of CREB inhibition of the hepatic PPAR-?/CD36 pathway, which may be an effective therapeutic for high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD.
Project description:Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a superfamily of transcription factors which sense hormonal signals or nutrients to regulate various biological events, including development, reproduction, and metabolism. Here, this study identifies nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6), as an important regulator of hepatic triglyceride (TG) homeostasis and causal factor in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of NR2F6 in the liver promotes TG accumulation in lean mice, while hepatic-specific suppression of NR2F6 improves obesity-associated hepatosteatosis, insulin resistance, and methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Mechanistically, the fatty acid translocase CD36 is identified as a transcriptional target of NR2F6 to mediate its steatotic role. NR2F6 is able to bind directly onto the CD36 promoter region in hepatocytes and increases the enrichment of nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and histone acetylation at its promoter. Of pathophysiological significance, NR2F6 is significantly upregulated in the livers of obese mice and NAFLD patients. Moreover, treatment with metformin decreases NR2F6 expression in obese mice, resulting in suppression of CD36 and reduced hepatic TG contents. Therefore, these results provide evidence for an unpredicted role of NR2F6 that contributes to liver steatosis and suggest that NR2F6 antagonists may present a therapeutic strategy for reversing or treating NAFLD/NASH pathogenesis.