Enhancing Local Disaster Management Network through Developing Resilient Community in New Taipei City, Taiwan.
ABSTRACT: Large-scaled disaster events had increasingly occurred worldwide due to global and environmental change. Evidently, disaster response cannot rely merely on the public force. In the golden hour of crisis, not only the individuals should learn to react, protect themselves, and try to help each other, but also the local school, enterprise, non-government organization (NGO), nonprofit organization (NPO), and volunteer groups should collaborate to effectively deal with disaster events. New Taipei City (NTPC), Taiwan, was aware of the need for non-public force response and therefore developed the process of enhancing local disaster management networks through promoting the resilient community since 2009. The concept of a resilient community is to build community-based capacity for mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery in an all-hazards manner. This study organized the NTPC experience and presented the standard operation procedure (SOP) to promote the resilient community, key obstacles, maintenance mechanism, and the successful formulation of the local disaster management network. The performance of the promotion was evaluated through a questionnaire survey and found that participants affirmed the positive effect of building community capacity through the entire process. In general, the resilient community as the center of the local disaster management work is shown promising to holistically bridge the inner/outer resources and systematically respond to disaster events.
Project description:The number of foreign residents and tourists in Japan has been dramatically increasing in recent years. Despite the fact that Japan is prone to natural disasters, with each climate-related event turning into an emergency such as with record rainfalls, floods and mudslides almost every year, non-Japanese communication infrastructure and everyday disaster drills for foreigners have received little attention. This study aims to understand how a resilient communication ecosystem forms in various disaster contexts involving foreigners. Within a framework of information ecology we try to get an overview of the communication ecosystem in literature and outline its structure and trends in social media use. Our empirical case study uses Twitter API and R programming software to extract and analyze tweets in English during Typhoon 19 (Hagibis) in October 2019. It reveals that many information sources transmit warnings and evacuation orders through social media but do not convey a sense of locality and precise instructions on how to act. For future disaster preparedness, we argue that the municipal government, as a responsible agent, should (1) make available instructional information in foreign languages on social media, (2) transfer such information through collaboration with transmitters, and (3) examine the use of local hashtags in social media to strengthen non-Japanese speaker's capacity to adapt.
Project description:Damage caused by weather events has increased dramatically across the world in recent years. In the case of Japan, record-breaking rainfall has caused devastating damage almost every year since 2014; many people have been killed in these disasters. To better prepare for future heavy rainfalls, we need to discover how to prepare for disasters and mitigate damage by learning from examples in resilient communities. In 2017, torrential rains hit Toho Village in northern Kyushu, and the people as a whole responded well to avoid disastrous outcomes. We studied the actions and motivations of residents of Toho during this rainfall event by conducting semi-structured interviews in November 2017. The interviewees indicated that their motivation for evacuating was "personal observation of the danger" or "communication with neighbors". Communication within the community was found to be an important factor that enabled the safe evacuation of community members, even without notice of the disaster risk and/or in the absence of timely information from the government because of a power outage. Knowledge of local landforms would be also helpful to reinforce appropriate actions and precautions needed during a disaster.
Project description:A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings.
Project description:Climate change will increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events and create risks that will impact health care facilities. Health care facilities will need to assess climate change risks and adopt adaptive management strategies to be resilient, but guidance tools are lacking. In this study, a toolkit was developed for health care facility officials to assess the resiliency of their facility to climate change impacts. A mixed methods approach was used to develop climate change resiliency indicators to inform the development of the toolkit. The toolkit consists of a checklist for officials who work in areas of emergency management, facilities management and health care services and supply chain management, a facilitator's guide for administering the checklist, and a resource guidebook to inform adaptation. Six health care facilities representing three provinces in Canada piloted the checklist. Senior level officials with expertise in the aforementioned areas were invited to review the checklist, provide feedback during qualitative interviews and review the final toolkit at a stakeholder workshop. The toolkit helps health care facility officials identify gaps in climate change preparedness, direct allocation of adaptation resources and inform strategic planning to increase resiliency to climate change.
Project description:Recently, myriapods have attracted the attention of engineers because mobile robots that mimic them potentially have the capability of producing highly stable, adaptive, and resilient behaviors. The major challenge here is to develop a control scheme that can coordinate their numerous legs in real time, and an autonomous decentralized control could be the key to solve this problem. Therefore, we focus on real centipedes and aim to design a decentralized control scheme for myriapod robots by drawing inspiration from behavioral experiments on centipede locomotion under unusual conditions. In the behavioral experiments, we observed the response to the removal of a part of the terrain and to amputation of several legs. Further, we determined that the ground reaction force is significant for generating rhythmic leg movements; the motion of each leg is likely affected by a sensory input from its neighboring legs. Thus, we constructed a two-dimensional model wherein a simple local reflexive mechanism was implemented in each leg. We performed simulations by using this model and demonstrated that the myriapod robot could move adaptively to changes in the environment and body properties. Our findings will shed new light on designing adaptive and resilient myriapod robots that can function under various circumstances.
Project description:Floods lead to tremendous losses of property, infrastructure, business and increased risk of diseases. Floods are also the most frequent natural disasters, affecting over 2.8 billion people in the world and causing over 200?000 deaths over the past three decades. The World Health Organization categorised the 2012 flood disaster in Nigeria as the worst flood to have hit the country in the past 50 years. This study reviews flood disasters in Nigeria and how they have been managed over the past two decades. The extensive review of the literature is complemented by data obtained from Ajegunle, a community in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local Government Area. Because of its proximity to water bodies, its large population and its small land mass, the Ajegunle community is highly susceptible to floods and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The study also discusses the institutionalisation and development of disaster management in Nigeria. Further, it critically evaluates the disaster management framework and other current disaster management policies as well as the effectiveness and functions of the disaster management focus areas and government response. The study takes a historic approach to flood disasters, linking disaster management to human health with a special focus on flood-related infectious diseases, isolating waterborne diseases as being predominant. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to develop an understanding of how the people of Ajegunle are affected by flood disasters. This study reveals poorly managed health reforms and argues that in spite of government's disaster management policies, there is an absence of organised and coordinated institutional structures to plan and respond to flood emergencies. It also revealed that diarrhoea outbreak was the predominant waterborne disease associated with flood disasters. Although Lagos State has been said to have the best flood preparedness plan in Nigeria, it has failed to reduce the yearly flood disasters and their impact on the health of the people. The article suggests a holistic approach by the government to get stakeholders, especially the health sector, more actively involved in disaster management planning. Keywords:disaster management; floods; waterborne diseases; Ajegunle; Lagos; Nigeria.
Project description:Objective:This study aims to explore the expectations of survivors towards disaster nurses. Methods:The study used qualitative content analysis. Data were collected in 2017 through three focus group discussions with 21 survivors and in-depth interviews with three community leaders; the respondents had experienced one of the following events: a) an earthquake in Padang 2009, b) a volcanic eruption in Yogyakarta 2010, and c) flooding in Jakarta 2014. Results:Four themes represented survivors' expectations of what nurses can do in responding to a disaster, including: a) provision of direct nursing care, b) provision of information of health service access, c) provision of resources through cross-sector coordination, and d) disaster preparedness activities for the community. Conclusions:This study suggests the importance of disaster nurses having the competency to update information regarding healthcare access, particularly the utilization of health insurance and providing culturally competent care to the survivors. Disaster nurses are also expected to be able to train the community and families about preparedness-related activities. Besides, these disaster nurses should improve their competency in disaster risk reduction. More broadly, such nurses should have the ability to advocate and coordinate with the local government and other stakeholders regarding access to healthcare services and continuous rapid assessment, so that survivors receive immediate and appropriate treatment.
Project description:The global COVID-19 pandemic is affecting everyone, but in many different ways, stimulating contrasting reactions and responses: opportunities for some, difficulties for many. A simple survey of how individual workers in urban ecology have been coping with COVID-19 constraints found divergent responses to COVID-19 on people’s activities, both within countries and between continents. Many academics felt frustrated at being unable to do fieldwork, but several saw opportunities to change ways of working and review their engagement with the natural world. Some engaging with social groups found new ways of sharing ideas and developing aspirations without face-to-face contact. Practitioners creating and managing urban greenspaces had to devise ways to work and travel while maintaining social distancing. Many feared severe funding impacts from changed local government priorities. Around the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has amplified issues, such as environmental injustice, disaster preparation and food security, that have been endemic in most countries across the global south in modern times. However, developing and sustaining the strong community spirit shown in many places will speed economic recovery and make cities more resilient against future geophysical and people-made disasters. Significantly, top-down responses and one-size-fits-all solutions, however good the modelling on which they are based, are unlikely to succeed without the insights that local knowledge and community understanding can bring. We all will have to look at disaster preparation in a more comprehensive, caring and consistent way in future.
Project description:Groups of social organisms in nature are resilient systems that can overcome unpredicted threats by helping its members. These social organisms are assumed to behave both autonomously and cooperatively as individuals, the helper, the helped and other part of a group depending on the context such as emergencies. However, the structure and function of these resilient actions, such as how helpers help colleagues and how the helper's action is effective at multiple subsystem scales remain unclear. Here we investigated the behaviour of organised and efficient small human groups in a ballgame defence, and identified three principles of hierarchical resilient help when under attack. First, at a present high emergency level, the helper simply switched the local roles in the attacked subsystem with the helped. Second, at an intermediate emergency level, the helpers effectively acted in overlapping subsystems. Third, for the most critical emergency, the helpers globally switched the action on the overall system. These resilient actions to the benefit of the system were assumed to be observed in only humans, which help colleagues at flexibly switched and overlapped hierarchical subsystem. We suggest that these multi-layered helping behaviours can help to understand resilient cooperation in social organisms and human groups.
Project description:The influence of shared enjoyment and positive affect (PA) on resilient thinking was examined in 191 middle-aged adults (40-65 years), participating in a study of resilience. Participants completed diaries assessing positive events, shared enjoyment, PA, and resilient cognitions (RC). Multilevel structural equation modeling was utilized to examine when and who engages in RC. Participants reported more RC on days they experienced more positive experiences. This relationship was explained by shared enjoyment and PA. Level-1 proportional reduction of variance (PRV) for shared enjoyment, PA, and RC was 9%, 10%, and 35%, respectively. Individuals reporting more positive experiences trended toward a more resilient mindset; PA accounted for this relationship. Shared enjoyment mediated the relationship between interpersonal events and PA. These findings suggest PA is integral to having a resilient mindset, and shared enjoyment is a potential mechanism that may influence PA. Level-2 PRV for shared enjoyment, PA, and RC was 22%, 21%, and 55%, respectively. RC were associated with less depression and anxiety; and greater well-being, vitality, and physical functioning at follow-up.