The Health Status of Informal Waste Collectors in Korea.
ABSTRACT: Background: A broad, holistic approach was performed among informal waste collectors (IWCs) in Korea to understand their complex multidimensional health and safety problems. Methods: In the quantitative study, a survey of IWCs was conducted at four junk shops in Gangbuk-gu, Seoul, and survey data were used to calculate age-standardized prevalence rates based on comparisons with the general population in Korea. A qualitative study was also performed to provide more details on IWCs' occupational and musculoskeletal injuries and depression. Results: In the quantitative study, the age-standardized prevalence rate (aSPR) of occupational injury was higher than that of the general standard population (aSPR: 10.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.19-18.64) and that of blue-collar workers (aSPR: 4.65, 95% CI 2.32-8.32). Regarding musculoskeletal problems, compared to employed populations, the aSPRs of shoulder pain (aSPR: 2.63, 95% CI 1.60-4.06), wrist pain (aSPR: 3.33, 95% CI 1.33-6.86), knee pain (aSPR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.17), and ankle pain (aSPR: 3.54, 95% CI 1.14-8.26) were higher. Regarding psychological problems, depression (aSPR: 2.55, 95% CI 1.27-4.56) and suicidal or self-harm ideation (aSPR: 2.09, 95% CI 1.11-3.58) were higher compared to general populations. Through the qualitative study and case study on muscular problems, more details on the work environment problems of IWCs were obtained. Conclusions: IWCs are exposed to various occupational hazards and lack proper protection. They show a high prevalence of occupational injury, musculoskeletal disease, and depression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This review aimed at examining the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals in Western countries. Furthermore, possible occupational risk factors were analyzed. METHODS:The literature search was conducted from June to July 2016, with an update in December 2017 using the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, LIVIVO, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Science. The quality assessment was performed with a standardized instrument consisting of 10 items. A meta-analysis was carried out to compute pooled prevalence rates for musculoskeletal diseases and pain. RESULTS:A total of 41 studies were included in this review; 30 studies met the criteria for the meta-analysis. Prevalence rates of musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals ranged from 10.8% to 97.9%. The neck was the body region affected most often (58.5%, 95% CI = 46.0-71.0) followed by the lower back (56.4%, 95% CI = 46.1-66.8), the shoulder (43.1%, 95% CI = 30.7-55.5) and the upper back (41.1%, 95% CI = 32.3-49.9). Potential occupational risk factors included an awkward working posture, high number of treated patients, administrative work, vibration, and repetition. CONCLUSIONS:Musculoskeletal diseases and pain are a significant health burden for dental professionals. This study showed high prevalence rates for several body regions. Therefore, suitable interventions for preventing musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals are needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>With increasing life expectancy in China, no large population-based studies have been done on the trend for musculoskeletal disorders in China. We have investigated the pattern and trend of five major musculoskeletal disorders in China from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 and its association with sociodemographic index (SDI).<h4>Methods</h4>The main outcome measures were incidence, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain, and gout. Average annual percent change (AAPC) and annual percent change (APC) between 1990 and 2017 were analyzed with Joinpoint regression.<h4>Results</h4>The age-standardized rate of incidence, prevalence, and DALYs for the five major musculoskeletal disorders increased with age. For SDI, the age-standardized rate of DALYs was zigzagged increasing for rheumatoid arthritis and curvilinear increasing for gout, curvilinear decreasing for low back pain, and reaching to the highest point for osteoarthritis and neck pain with an SDI value of 0.61. The AAPC in age-standardized rate of DALYs indicated an increasing trend for rheumatoid arthritis (0.20, 95% CI 0.07, 0.34), osteoarthritis (0.26, 95% CI 0.20, 0.31), neck pain (0.09, 95% CI 0.07, 0.12), and gout (0.25, 95% CI 0.23, 0.27), but a decreasing trend for low back pain (-?0.96, 95% CI -?0.98, -?0.93). The AAPC of risk factors indicated a decreasing trend in smoking (-?0.14, 95% CI -?0.24, -?0.04) for rheumatoid arthritis, smoking (-?0.22, 95% CI -?0.24, -?0.19) and occupational ergonomic factors (-?1.25, 95% CI -?1.29, -?1.21) for low back pain, and impaired kidney function (-?0.95, 95% CI -?1.00, -?0.90) for gout, but an increasing trend in high body-mass index for osteoarthritis (3.10, 95% CI 3.03, 3.17), low back pain (3.07, 95% CI 2.99, 3.14), and gout (3.12, 95% CI 3.04, 3.20). Comparing the burden of five musculoskeletal diseases in China with the 19 countries of G20, China ranked first to second in the number of DALYs, and 12th to 16th in age-standardized rate of DALYs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There are remarkably complex temporal patterns in disease burden and risk factors for five major musculoskeletal disorders across past three decades. Population-wide initiatives targeting high body-mass index may mitigate the burden of musculoskeletal disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Work-related back and lower extremity disorders often present remarkable health and economic burdens on societies. Occupational barbers are usually neglected in research and policy actions, mainly in developing countries, and are hence more vulnerable to the conditions. So far, information about the factors influencing back and lower extremity disorders among barbers in Ethiopia is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors affecting back and lower extremity disorders among barbers in Gondar town, Ethiopia. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2017. A sample of 434 barbers recruited using the systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire was interviewer-administered for data collection. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The significance of associations was evaluated at ?0.05 p-value with a 95% confidence intervals (CI) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS:The response rate was 98.8% (N = 429). The mean age and mean length of employment were 26.38 (standard deviations (SD) ± 4.78) and 4.91 years, respectively. The prevalence of work-related low back pain in the previous 12 months and in the last 7 days was 55.7% (N = 239) [95% CI (51.0, 60.4)] and 32.6% (N = 140), respectively. About 40.6% (n = 97) of the participants with back pains indicated their activities were limited. The prevalence of knee/leg and ankle pain was 39.4% (N = 169) and 25.6% (N = 110), respectively. Out of the participants, 17% (n = 41) sought treatment services. Less than half, 40.6% (n = 97) said they perceived high disability, while 38.1% (n = 91) explained their pain was intense (severe). Age [AOR: 2.001; 95% CI (1.174, 4.346)], alcohol use [AOR: 2.283; 95% CI (1.376, 3.789)], lack of safety training [AOR: 0.110; 95% CI (0.032, 0.271], working posture [AOR: 0.142; 95% CI (0.045, 0.215)], and length of employment [AOR: 1.650.132; 95% CI (1.107, 2.140] were significantly associated factors. CONCLUSIONS:Back and lower extremity musculoskeletal pain and disability were found to be prevalent among Ethiopian barbers and to be associated with age, alcohol use, safety training, work postures, and length of employment. We believe that programs for management of musculoskeletal disorders need to address these factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:It has been reported that South Korea ranked as one of the longest-working nations among OECD countries. This study sought to examine the association between long working hours and musculoskeletal pain among Korean medical residents. METHODS:We analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 1,077 medical residents in South Korea. Working hours per week were categorized as follows: <60, 60-79, 80-99, and ?100. Musculoskeletal pains (ie, upper limb, lower limb, and low back pain) over the past 3 months were categorized into three groups: no pain, pain without interfering with work, and pain interfering with work. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between long working hours and musculoskeletal pains after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS:We found that the average working hours of medical resident was 85.6 hours per week in South Korea. Compared to the medical residents working <60 hours, those working ?100 hours per week were more likely to have upper limb pain (PR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.30) interfering with work or low back pain (PR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.06) interfering with work, whereas no statistically significant association was observed in the analysis of lower limb pain. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that extremely long working hours are associated with upper limb and low back pain interfering with their work among Korean medical residents.
Project description:Dust and fumes are complex mixtures of airborne gases and fine particles present in all environments inhabited by people. This study investigated the relationship between occupational dust exposure levels and mental health problems such as depression or anxiety, fatigue, and insomnia or sleep disturbance. We analyzed data from the third and fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) conducted by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency in 2011 and 2014. We performed chi-square tests to compare the different baseline and occupational characteristics and mental health status according to occupational dust exposure levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for mental health symptoms (fatigue, depression or anxiety, and insomnia or sleep disturbance) were calculated using adjusted multiple logistic regression models. A total of 78,512 participants (43,979 in men, 34,533 in women) were included in this study. Among them, 6,013 (7.7%) and 2,625 (3.3%) reported "moderate" and "severe" dust exposure, respectively. Among those who answered "yes" to depression or anxiety, fatigue, insomnia or sleep disturbance, 50 (4.6%), 961 (4.8%), and 123 (5.9%), respectively, demonstrated "severe" occupational dust exposure. Compared to "low" levels of dust exposure, "moderate" and "severe" exposure increased the risk of depression and anxiety (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.88-1.36; OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 0.87-1.58, per exposure respectively); however, this was not statistically significant. For fatigue, significance was observed for "moderate" 1.54 (1.46-1.64) and "severe" 1.65 (1.52-1.80) exposure levels. "Severe" levels increased the risk of insomnia or sleep disturbance (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.25-1.85). These results suggest that the "dust annoyance" concept of mental health, which may be explained by a neurocognitive mechanism, is plausible. Occupational "dust annoyance" has been linked to workers' mental health status, particularly in terms of fatigue and sleep disturbance; a dose-response relationship has been observed. Workers should be protected against dust to support their health and productivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent findings indicate that wide international variation in the prevalence of disabling regional musculoskeletal pain among working populations is driven by unidentified factors predisposing to pain at multiple anatomical sites. As a step towards identification of those factors, it would be helpful to know whether the prevalence of multisite pain changes when people migrate between countries with differing rates of symptoms; and if so, whether the change is apparent in first generation migrants, and by what age it becomes manifest. METHODS:To address these questions, we analysed data from an earlier interview-based cross-sectional survey, which assessed the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and risk factors in six groups of workers distinguished by the nature of their work (non-manual or manual) and their country of residence and ethnicity (UK white, UK of Indian subcontinental origin and Indian in India). Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS:Among 814 participants (response rate 95.4%), 20.6% reported pain at ≥3 anatomical sites. This outcome was much less frequent in Indian manual workers than among white non-manual workers in the UK (adjusted OR 0.06, 95%CI 0.01-0.36), while rates in Indian non-manual workers were intermediate (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.12-0.72). However, within the UK, there were only small differences between white non-manual workers and the other occupational groups, including those of Indian sub-continental origin. This applied even when analysis was restricted to participants aged 17 to 34 years, and when second and later generation migrants were excluded. CONCLUSIONS:The observed differences in the prevalence of multisite pain seem too large to be explained by healthy worker selection or errors in recall, and there was no indication of bias from differences in understanding of the term, pain. Our findings suggest that whatever drives the higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the UK than India is environmental rather than genetic, affects multiple anatomical sites, begins to act by fairly early in adult life, and has impact soon after people move from India to the UK.
Project description:Adults with sleep problems are at higher risk for onset of musculoskeletal pain, but the evidence is less clear for children. This prospective cohort study investigated whether children with sleep problems are at higher risk for onset of musculoskeletal pain and explored whether sex is a modifier of this association. In a prospective cohort study of Australian schoolchildren (n?=?1239, mean age 9 years), the associations between sleep problems at baseline and new onset of both musculoskeletal pain and persistent musculoskeletal pain (pain lasting >?3 months) 1 year later were investigated using logistic regression. The potential modifying effect of sex was also assessed. One-year incidence proportion for musculoskeletal pain onset is 43% and 7% for persistent musculoskeletal pain. Sleep problems were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and persistent musculoskeletal pain onset in boys, odds ratio 2.80 (95% CI 1.39, 5.62) and OR 3.70 (1.30, 10.54), respectively, but not girls OR 0.58 (0.28, 1.19) and OR 1.43 (0.41, 4.95), respectively.Conclusions: Rates of musculoskeletal pain are high in children. Boys with sleep problems are at greater risk of onset of musculoskeletal pain, but girls do not appear to have higher risk. Consideration of sleep health may help prevent persistent musculoskeletal pain in children. What is Known: • Sleep problems are associated with the onset of musculoskeletal pain in adults. • It is not clear if the association between sleep problems and the onset of musculoskeletal pain is present also in children and if sex plays a role in this association. What is New: • This is the first large population-based study that has prospectively investigated the relationship between sleep problems and onset of musculoskeletal pain in school-aged children. • Children, especially boys with sleep problems, were at increased risk for the development of persistent musculoskeletal pain.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships between physical occupational exposures, post-retirement shoulder/knee pain, and obesity. METHODS: 9 415 male participants (aged 63-73 in 2012) from the French GAZEL cohort answered self-administered questionnaires in 2006 and 2012. Occupational exposures retrospectively assessed in 2006 included arm elevation and squatting (never, <10 years, ≥10 years). "Severe" shoulder and knee pain were defined as ≥5 on an 8-point scale. BMI was self-reported. RESULTS: Mean BMI was 26.59 kg/m2 +/-3.5 in 2012. Long-term occupational exposure to arm elevation and squatting predicted severe shoulder and knee pain after retirement. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was a risk factor for severe shoulder pain (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03, 1.90). Overweight (adjusted OR 1.71; 1.28,2.29) and obesity (adjusted OR 3.21; 1.90,5.41) were risk factors for severe knee pain. In stratified models, associations between long-term squatting and severe knee pain varied by BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays a role in relationships between occupational exposures and musculoskeletal pain. Further prospective studies should use BMI in analyses of musculoskeletal pain and occupational factors, and continue to clarify this relationship.
Project description:Background: Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent complaints among instrumental musicians. The aims of this study were: to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain; to evaluate neck, shoulder, and lower back disability; and to determine the associated factors with the presence of musculoskeletal pain among musicians. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. We selected Spaniard musicians over 16 years old who played a musical instrument for at least five hours per week. They answered the Spanish versions of the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire, the Oswestry Disability Index, Neck Disability Index and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. Results: We found 94.8% of musicians presented at least one symptomatic region in the last 12 months, and 72.3% in the last seven days. Female musicians (OR 4.38, CI 2.11-9.12), musicians with overweight or obesity (OR 5.32, CI 2.18-12.97), and musicians who play more than 14 h per week (OR 3.86, CI 1.80-8.29)were shown to be a higher risk of suffering musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal disorders symptoms are highly prevalent in musicians. The main risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders symptoms were gender (being female), overweight, obesity, and spending playing more than 14 h a week practicing. This study highlights the need to provide strategies to prevent occupational disabilities among musicians. Further studies are needed to analyse the prevalence of pain in the musician using other sampling methods.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shoulder and neck pain are reported as the most common occupational-related health problem and cause of morbidity, absenteeism from work among school teachers worldwide. School teachers represent an occupational group, who are exposed and appears to have prevalent shoulder and/or neck pain due to their daily work tasks and the nature of work. There is a scant epidemiological study regarding shoulder and neck pain among school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was set out to assess the prevalence and associated factors of shoulder and/or neck pain among school teachers of Gondar town in North West Ethiopia. METHOD:An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to January 2017, a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to 848 primary and secondary school teachers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. To assess the burden of shoulder and/neck pain, data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and physical measures like height and weight were also measured during data collection. Independent variables which had significant association were identified using logistic regression model. RESULT:A total of 754 teachers participated, with a mean age of 42?±?9.73?years (88.9% response rate). Previous 12?months self-reported prevalence of shoulder and/ neck pain among school teachers was 57.3% with 95%CI (53.4-61.0%). Regular physical exercise (OR?=?0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.42), teaching experience (OR?=?2.85, 95% CI: 1.09-7.42), static head down posture (OR?=?2.26, 95% CI: 1.55-3.33), elevated arm over shoulder (OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 1.86-3.95), prolonged sitting (OR?=?1.50,95% CI: 1.02-2.23) and hypertension (OR?=?2.18, 95% CI: 1.24-3.82) were factors found to be significantly associated with shoulder and/neck pain. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:More than half of the study participants self-reported to have suffered shoulder and neck pain in the previous 12?months. Teaching experience, static head down posture, elevated arm over shoulder, and hypertension are likely to be significantly associated with shoulder and/ neck pain among school teachers in Ethiopia. Engaging in regular physical exercise has a protective effect against the shoulder and/or neck pain. Therefore, school authorities are recommended to provide facilities to enhance physical activity among school teachers and also provide adjustable board and classroom materials.