Long-Term Assessment of Air Quality and Identification of Aerosol Sources at Setubal, Portugal.
ABSTRACT: Understanding air pollution in urban areas is crucial to identify mitigation actions that may improve air quality and, consequently, minimize human exposure to air pollutants and their impact. This study aimed to assess the temporal evolution of the air quality in the city of Setúbal (Portugal) during a time period of 10 years (2003-2012), by evaluating seasonal trends of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2 and NOx) measured in nine monitoring stations. In order to identify emission sources of particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were characterized in two different areas (urban traffic and industrial) in winter and summer and, afterwards, source apportionment was performed by means of Positive Matrix Factorization. Overall, the air quality has been improving over the years with a decreasing trend of air pollutant concentration, with the exception of O3. Despite this improvement, levels of PM10, O3 and nitrogen oxides still do not fully comply with the requirements of European legislation, as well as with the guideline values of the World Health Organization (WHO). The main anthropogenic sources contributing to local PM levels were traffic, industry and wood burning, which should be addressed by specific mitigation measures in order to minimize their impact on the local air quality.
Project description:Covid19-induced lockdown measures caused modifications in atmospheric pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban road traffic was the most impacted, with 48–60% average reduction in Italy. This offered an unprecedented opportunity to assess how a prolonged (?2 months) and remarkable abatement of traffic emissions impacted on urban air quality. Six out of the eight most populated cities in Italy with different climatic conditions were analysed: Milan, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Naples, and Palermo. The selected scenario (24/02/2020–30/04/2020) was compared to a meteorologically comparable scenario in 2019 (25/02/2019–02/05/2019). NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 observations from 58 air quality and meteorological stations were used, while traffic mobility was derived from municipality-scale big data. NO2 levels remarkably dropped over all urban areas (from ?24.9% in Milan to ?59.1% in Naples), to an extent roughly proportional but lower than traffic reduction. Conversely, O3 concentrations remained unchanged or even increased (up to 13.7% in Palermo and 14.7% in Rome), likely because of the reduced O3 titration triggered by lower NO emissions from vehicles, and lower NOx emissions over typical VOCs-limited environments such as urban areas, not compensated by comparable VOCs emissions reductions. PM10 exhibited reductions up to 31.5% (Palermo) and increases up to 7.3% (Naples), while PM2.5 showed reductions of ?13–17% counterbalanced by increases up to ?9%. Higher household heating usage (+16–19% in March), also driven by colder weather conditions than 2019 (?0.2 to ?0.8 °C) may partly explain primary PM emissions increase, while an increase in agriculture activities may account for the NH3 emissions increase leading to secondary aerosol formation. This study confirmed the complex nature of atmospheric pollution even when a major emission source is clearly isolated and controlled, and the need for consistent decarbonisation efforts across all emission sectors to really improve air quality and public health. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • Air quality impacts of Covid19 lockdown over 6 major Italian cities were assessed.• Daily observations of air quality, meteorological parameters and mobility were used.• Against a dramatic road traffic reduction (48–60%), NO2 levels reduced by 24.9–59.1%.• O3 levels remained basically unchanged or slightly increased (up to 11.4–14.7%).• PM daily concentrations slightly decreased, at most by 17% (PM2.5) and 32.1% (PM10). Main finding A 2-month urban traffic ban extended to the whole Italy only significantly reduced NO2 levels, while O3, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were affected to a minor extent.
Project description:The outbreak of coronavirus named COVID-19, initially identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has spread rapidly at the global scale. Most countries have rapidly stopped almost all activities including industry, services and transportation of goods and people, thus decreasing air pollution in an unprecedented way, and providing a unique opportunity to study air pollutants. While satellite data have provided visual evidence for the global reduction in air pollution such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) worldwide, precise and quantitative information is missing at the local scale. Here we studied changes in particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) at 10 urban sites in Hangzhou, a city of 7.03 million inhabitants, and at 1 rural site, before city lockdown, January 1-23, during city lockdown, January 24-February 15, and during resumption, February 16-28, in 2020. Results show that city lockdown induced a sharp decrease in PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 concentrations at both urban and rural sites. The NO2 decrease is explained by reduction in traffic emissions in the urban areas, and by lower regional transport in rural areas during lockdown, as expected. SO2 concentrations decreased from 6.3 to 5.3 ?g m-3 in the city, but increased surprisingly from 4.7 to 5.8 ?g m-3 at the rural site: this increase is attributed both to higher coal consumption for heating and emissions from traditional fireworks of the Spring Eve and Lantern Festivals during lockdown. Unexpectedly, O3 concentrations increased by 145% from 24.6 to 60.6 ?g m-3 in the urban area, and from 42.0 to 62.9 ?g m-3 in the rural area during the lockdown. This finding is explained by the weakening of chemical titration of O3 by NO due to reductions of NOx fresh emissions during the non-photochemical reaction period from 20:00 PM to 9:00 AM (local time). During the lockdown, compared to the same period in 2019, the daily average concentrations in the city decreased by 42.7% for PM2.5, 47.9% for PM10, 28.6% for SO2, 22.3% for CO and 58.4% for NO2, which is obviously explained by the absence of city activities. Overall, we observed not only the expected reduction in some atmospheric pollutants (PM, SO2, CO, NO2), but also unexpected increases in SO2 in the rural areas and of ozone (O3) in both urban and rural areas, the latter being paradoxically due to the reduction in nitrogen oxide levels. In other words, the city lockdown has improved air quality by reducing PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2, but has also decreased air quality by augmenting O3 and SO2.
Project description:Lockdown measures to contain COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a considerable change in air pollution worldwide. We estimate the temporal and diurnal changes of the six criteria air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants (NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) during lockdown (25th March - 3rd May 2020) across regions of India using the observations from 134 real-time monitoring sites of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Significant reduction in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO has been found in all the regions during the lockdown. SO2 showed mixed behavior, with a slight increase at some sites but a comparatively significant decrease at other locations. O3 also showed a mixed variation with a mild increase in IGP and a decrease in the South. The absolute decrease in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was observed during peak morning traffic hours (08-10 Hrs) and late evening (20-24 Hrs), but the percentage reduction is almost constant throughout the day. A significant decrease in day-time O3 has been found over Indo Gangetic plain (IGP) and central India, whereas night-time O3 has increased over IGP due to less O3 loss. The most significant reduction (?40-60%) was found in PM2.5 and PM10. The highest decrease in PM was found for the north-west and IGP followed by South and central regions. A considerable reduction (?30-70%) in NO2 was found except for a few sites in the central region. A similar pattern was observed for CO having a ?20-40% reduction. The reduction observed for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and enhancement in O3 was proportional to the population density. Delhi's air quality has improved with a significant reduction in primary pollutants, however, an increase in O3 was observed. The changes reported during the lockdown are combined effect of changes in the emissions, meteorology, and atmospheric chemistry that requires detailed investigations.
Project description:Air pollution has become a severe threat and challenge in China. Focusing on air quality in a heavily polluted city (Weifang Cty), this study aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of air pollution and identify the influence of weather factors on primary pollutants in Weifang over a long period from 2014-2018. The results indicate the annual Air quality Index (AQI) in Weifang has decreased since 2014 but is still far from the standard for excellent air quality. The primary pollutants are O3 (Ozone), PM10 (Particles with aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm), and PM2.5 (Particles with aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm); the annual concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 show a significant reduction but that of O3 is basically unchanged. Seasonally, PM10 and PM2.5 show a U-shaped pattern, while O3 exhibits inverted U-shaped variations, and different pollutants also present different characteristics daily. Spatially, O3 exhibits a high level in the central region and a low level in the rural areas, while PM10 and PM2.5 are high in the northwest and low in the southeast. Additionally, the concentration of pollutants is greatly affected by meteorological factors, with PM2.5 being negatively correlated with temperature and wind speed, while O3 is positively correlated with the temperature. This research investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of the air pollution and provided important policy advice based on the findings, which can be used to mitigate air pollution.
Project description:The elevation and dissipation of pollutants after the ignition of fireworks in different functional areas of a valley city were investigated.The Air Quality Index (AQI) as well as inter-day and intra-day concentrations of various air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) were measured during two episodes that took place during Chinese New Year festivities.For the special terrain of Jinan, the mean concentrations of pollutants increased sharply within 2-4 h of the firework displays, and concentrations were 4-6 times higher than the usual levels. It took 2-3 d for the pollutants to dissipate to background levels. Compared to Preliminary Eve (more fireworks are ignited on New Year's Eve, but the amounts of other human activities are also lesser), the primary pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and CO reached higher concentrations on New Year's Eve, and the highest concentrations of these pollutants were detected in living quarters. All areas suffered from serious pollution problems on New Year's Eve (rural = urban for PM10, but rural > urban for PM2.5). However, SO2 and NO2 levels were 20%-60% lower in living quarters and industrial areas compared to the levels in these same areas on Preliminary Eve. In contrast to the other pollutants, O3 concentrations fell instead of rising with the firework displays.Interactions between firework displays and other human activities caused different change trends of pollutants. PM2.5 and PM10 were the main pollutants, and the rural living quarter had some of the highest pollution levels.
Project description:The purpose of this data, was to evaluate the air quality index of Kerman city in different season of 2015. The data showed that the PM10 and O3 were highest in the winter season and PM2.5, CO, SO2 and NO2 in the spring season as the air quality indexes. The highest number of unhealthy days was observed in spring in relation to PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants. The data showed that 33 and 9 days of the spring season had unfavorable conditions in relation PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants respectively. Therefore, the pollutant responsible for air pollution in Kerman was PM2.5. By comparing the air quality index in different seasons of 2015 in terms of different pollutants, it was found that in most of the seasons, Kerman has a desirable air quality index.
Project description:The associations between ambient air pollutants and tuberculosis seasonality are unclear. We assessed the temporal cross-correlations between ambient air pollutants and tuberculosis seasonality. Monthly tuberculosis incidence data and ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2)) and air quality index (AQI) from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai were included. A cross-correlogram and generalized additive model were used. A 4-month delayed effect of PM2.5 (0.55), PM10 (0.52), SO2 (0.47), NO2 (0.40), CO (0.39), and AQI (0.45), and a 6-month delayed effect of O3 (-0.38) on the incidence of tuberculosis were found. The number of tuberculosis cases increased by 8%, 4%, 18%, and 14% for a 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2; 4% for a 10 unit increment in AQI; 8% for a 0.1 mg/m3 increment in CO; and decreased by 4% for a 10 μg/m3 increment in O3. PM2.5 concentrations above 50 μg/m3, 70 μg/m3 for PM10, 16 μg/m3 for SO2, 47 μg/m3 for NO2, 0.85 mg/m3 for CO, and 85 for AQI, and O3 concentrations lower than 95 μg/m3 were positively associated with the incidence of tuberculosis. Ambient air pollutants were correlated with tuberculosis seasonality. However, this sort of study cannot prove causality.
Project description:Objective To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes.Design Retrospective population based cohort study.Setting Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km2), UK, from 2006 to 2010.Participants 540?365 singleton term live births.Main outcome measures Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight.Results Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 ?g/m3 nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 73 ?g/m3 nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14 ?g/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 23 ?g/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10), and 32 ?g/m3 ozone (O3). Average daytime (LAeq,16hr) and night-time (Lnight) road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, and source specific PM2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM2.5 traffic exhaust) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM2.5 traffic non-exhaust) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM2.5 traffic exhaust and PM2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM2.5>13.8 ?g/m3during pregnancy.Conclusions The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes.
Project description:We investigated temporal variations of ambient air pollutants and the influences of meteorological parameters on their concentrations using a robust method; convergent cross mapping; in Tehran (2012-2017). Tehran citizens were consistently exposed to annual PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 approximately 3.0-4.5, 3.5-4.5 and 1.5-2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization air quality guideline levels during the period. Except for O3, all air pollutants demonstrated the lowest and highest concentrations in summertime and wintertime, respectively. The highest O3 concentrations were found on weekend (weekend effect), whereas other ambient air pollutants had statistically significant (P?<?0.05) daily variations in which higher concentrations were observed on weekdays compared to weekend (holiday effect). Hourly O3 concentration reached its peak at 3.00 p.m., though other air pollutants displayed two peaks; morning and late night. Approximately 45% to 65% of AQI values were in the subcategory of unhealthy for sensitive groups and PM2.5 was the responsible air pollutant in Tehran. Amongst meteorological factors, temperature was the key influencing factor for PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, while nebulosity and solar radiation exerted major influences on ambient SO2 and O3 concentrations. Additionally, there is a moderate coupling between wind speed and NO2 and CO concentrations.
Project description:Short-term exposures to outdoor air pollutants have been associated with lower lung function, but the results are inconsistence. The effects of different pollutant levels on lung function changes are still unclear. We quantified the effects of outdoor air pollution exposure (NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5) on lung function among 1,694 female non-smokers from the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort in China by using linear mixed model. We further investigated the associations in the two cities with different air quality levels separately to quantify the effects of different pollutant level exposure on lung function. We found the moving averages of NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly associated with reduced FVC. In city at high pollutant level, the moving average of NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5 exposures were significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 reductions. In the low-level air pollution city, PM10 (Lag03-Lag05) and O3 concentrations (Lag01-Lag03) were significantly associated with reduced FVC, while PM10 (Lag03-Lag05), O3 (Lag0-Lag03), and PM2.5 (Lag04-Lag06) exposure were significantly associated with reduced FEV1. Our results suggest that outdoor air pollution is associated with short-term adverse effects on lung function among female non-smokers. The adverse effects may persist for longer durations within 7 days at higher air pollutant levels.