Healthcare services utilisation among patients with hypertension and diabetes in rural Ghana.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) remain a global burden and is projected to increase due to aging, rapid urbanization and unhealthy lifestyles. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in rural districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana and to determine factors that influence utilization of health care services. SETTING:Offinso North, Amansie West, Ahafo Ano South, and Asante Akim South. METHODS:A population based prospective cross-sectional study comprising of adults aged 18 years and above was carried out from January 2016 to March 2016. A multistage sampling method was employed to select four rural districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from respondents. RESULTS:A total of 684 participants were recruited in the study. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was found to be 16.23% and 5.41% respectively. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension comorbidity was 1.61%. The public hospital was the most preferred choice of facility (52.56%) for patients with NCDs.Educational level significantly decreased the likelihood of seeking healthcare in OTCMS and Health Centre to Hospitals (RRR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.011-0.917, p = 0.042) and (RRR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.198-0.679, p = 0.001) respectively. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of self -reported hypertension and diabetes observed in this study was relatively lower for hypertension and higher for diabetes as compared to other studies in Ghana. The public hospital is the most preferred choice of health facilities for patients with hypertension and diabetes in the rural districts.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Poor maternal health delivery in developing countries results in more than half a million maternal deaths during pregnancy, childbirth or within a few weeks of delivery. This is partly due to unavailability and low utilization of maternal healthcare services in limited-resource settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the access and utilization of maternal healthcare in Amansie-West district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.<h4>Methods</h4>An analytical cross-sectional study, involving 720 pregnant women systematically sampled from antenatal clinics in five sub-districts was conducted from February to May 2015 in the Amansie-West district. Data on participants' socio-economic characteristics, knowledge level and access and utilization of maternal health care services were collected with a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios were estimated to describe the association between explanatory variables and maternal healthcare using generalized estimating equations (GEE).<h4>Results</h4>68.5, 83.6 and 33.6% of the women had >?3 antenatal care visits, utilized skilled delivery and postnatal care services respectively. The mothers' knowledge level of pregnancy emergencies and newborn danger signs was low. Socio-economic characteristics and healthcare access influenced the utilization of maternal healthcare. Compared to the lowest wealth quintile, being in the highest wealth quintile was associated with higher odds of receiving postnatal care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95%CI: 2.84; 1.63, 4.94). Use of health facility as a main source of healthcare was also associated with higher odds of antenatal care and skilled delivery.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrates suboptimal access and utilization of maternal healthcare in rural districts of Ghana, which are influenced by socio-economic characteristics of pregnant mothers. This suggests the need for tailored intervention to improve maternal healthcare utilization for mothers in this and other similar settings.
Project description:Mathematical models can aid in elucidating the spread of infectious disease dynamics within a given population over time. In an attempt to model tuberculosis (TB) dynamics among high-burden districts in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, the SEIR epidemic model with demography was employed within both deterministic and stochastic settings for comparison purposes. The deterministic model showed success in modelling TB infection in the region to the transmission dynamics of the stochastic SEIR model over time. It predicted tuberculosis dying out in ten of twelve high-burden districts in the Ashanti Region, but an outbreak in Obuasi municipal and Amansie West district. The effect of introducing treatment at the incubation stage of TB transmission was also investigated, and it was discovered that treatment introduced at the exposed stage decreased the spread of TB. Branching process approximation was used to derive explicit forms of relevant epidemiological quantities of the deterministic SEIR model for stability analysis of equilibrium points. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the overall infection rate, basic reproductive number, herd immunity threshold, and Malthusian parameter based on bootstrapping, jackknife, and Latin Hypercube sampling schemes. It was recommended that the Ghana Health Service should find a good mechanism to detect TB in the early stages of infection in the region. Public health attention must also be given to districts with a potentially higher risk of experiencing endemic TB even though the estimates of the overall epidemic thresholds from our SEIR model suggested that the Ashanti Region as a whole had herd immunity against TB infection.
Project description:Mansonellosis was first reported in Ghana by Awadzi in the 1990s. Co-infections of Mansonella perstans have also been reported in a small cohort of patients with Buruli ulcer and their contacts. However, no study has assessed the exact prevalence of the disease in a larger study population. This study therefore aimed to find out the prevalence of M. perstans infection in some districts in Ghana and to determine the diversity of Culicoides that could be potential vectors for transmission.From each participant screened in the Asante Akim North (Ashanti Region), Sene West and Atebubu Amantin (Brong Ahafo Region) districts, a total of 70 ?l of finger prick blood was collected for assessment of M. perstans microfilariae. Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps as well as the Human Landing Catch (HLC) method were used to assess the species diversity of Culicoides present in the study communities.From 2,247 participants, an overall prevalence of 32% was recorded although up to 75% prevalence was demonstrated in some of the communities. Culicoides inornatipennis was the only species of Culicoides caught with the HLC method. By contrast, C. imicola (47%), C. neavei (25%) and C. schultzei (15%) were caught by the CDC light trap method. A wide diversity of other Culicoides spp. was also identified but correlation was only found between the prevalence of C. inornatipennis and M. perstans during the dry season.Here we demonstrate for the first time that M. perstans is highly prevalent in three districts in Ghana. We found a wide spectrum of Culicoides spp. Culicoides inornatipennis was the most anthropophilic and is therefore likely to be the species responsible for transmission of infection but formal proof has yet to be obtained.NCT02281643 . Registered October 26, 2014. 'Retrospectively registered'.ClinicalTrials.gov.
Project description:Efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer--an emerging ulcerative skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans--have been hampered by our poor understanding of reservoirs and transmission. To help address this issue, we compared whole genomes from 18 clinical M. ulcerans isolates from a 30 km2 region within the Asante Akim North District, Ashanti region, Ghana, with 15 other M. ulcerans isolates from elsewhere in Ghana and the surrounding countries of Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Contrary to our expectations of finding minor DNA sequence variations among isolates representing a single M. ulcerans circulating genotype, we found instead two distinct genotypes. One genotype was closely related to isolates from neighbouring regions of Amansie West and Densu, consistent with the predicted local endemic clone, but the second genotype (separated by 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from other Ghanaian strains) most closely matched M. ulcerans from Nigeria, suggesting another introduction of M. ulcerans to Ghana, perhaps from that country. Both the exotic genotype and the local Ghanaian genotype displayed highly restricted intra-strain genetic variation, with less than 50 SNP differences across a 5.2 Mbp core genome within each genotype. Interestingly, there was no discernible spatial clustering of genotypes at the local village scale. Interviews revealed no obvious epidemiological links among BU patients who had been infected with identical M. ulcerans genotypes but lived in geographically separate villages. We conclude that M. ulcerans is spread widely across the region, with multiple genotypes present in any one area. These data give us new perspectives on the behaviour of possible reservoirs and subsequent transmission mechanisms of M. ulcerans. These observations also show for the first time that M. ulcerans can be mobilized, introduced to a new area and then spread within a population. Potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans thus might include humans, or perhaps M. ulcerans-infected animals such as livestock that move regularly between countries.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Studies from high-income countries suggest higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among individuals in low socioeconomic groups. However, some studies from low/middle-income countries show the reverse pattern among those in high socioeconomic groups. It is unknown which pattern applies to individuals living in rural and urban Ghana. We assessed the association between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and CKD in rural and urban Ghana and to what extent the higher SES of people in urban areas of Ghana could account for differences in CKD between rural and urban populations. SETTING:The study was conducted in Ghana (Ashanti region). We used baseline data from a multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study. PARTICIPANTS:The sample consisted of 2492 adults (Rural Ghana, 1043, Urban Ghana, 1449) aged 25-70 years living in Ghana. EXPOSURE:Educational level, occupational level and wealth index. OUTCOME:Three CKD outcomes were considered using the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes severity of CKD classification: albuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate and high to very high CKD risk based on the combination of these two. RESULTS:All three SES indicators were not associated with CKD in both rural and urban Ghana after age and sex adjustment except for rural Ghana where high wealth index was significantly associated with higher odds of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (adjusted OR, 2.38; 95% CI 1.03 to 5.47). The higher rate of CKD observed in urban Ghana was not explained by the higher SES of that population. CONCLUSION:SES indicators were not associated with prevalence of CKD except for wealth index and reduced eGFR in rural Ghana. Consequently, the higher SES of urban Ghana did not account for the increased rate of CKD among urban dwellers suggesting the need to identify other factors that may be driving this.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study was conducted to determine the source of medicines and medicine information of persons living with hypertension and diabetes in rural and urban Ghana and assessing if they are influenced by predisposing and enabling factors as defined by Andersen's behavioural model.<h4>Methods</h4>A population based cross sectional study was conducted in four (4) rural and four (4) urban districts in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. A multistage and proportional sampling method was used in enrolling participants aged 18 years and above. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from respondents. Data collected was exported to STATA for analysis. Descriptive analysis was performed. Chi-square tests/Fisher's exact test and multinomial logistic regression models were used to establish association between variables.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 336 self -reported persons with hypertension and diabetes were enrolled in the study with 199(59.23%) living in urban communities. The majority of participants with hypertension and diabetes living in the rural communities 77 (56.20%) were females contrasting with the male majority in urban communities 106 (53. 27%). In the rural communities, 49 (35.77%) of participants sourced medicines from the health centre while 45 (32.85%) and 35(25.55%) sourced medicines from the hospital and over the counter medicine shop (OTCMS) respectively. In the urban communities, 153 (76.88%) sourced medicines from the hospital while 33 (16.58%) sourced medicines from the pharmacy. The predisposing factor age (OR: 1.1, 95%CI 1.040-1.210) under OTCMS, age (OR 1.0, 95% CI: 1.002-1.066) under hospital and enabling factor socioeconomic status (OR: 0.3, 95%CI 0.085-0.855) under Hospital influenced participant's source of medicine in the urban communities. The results also revealed that majority of participants in both rural 99 (72.26%), and urban 164 (82.41%) communities sourced medicine information mainly from public healthcare facilities, pre-disposing factors; age (OR 1.1 95%CI 1.032-1.270) under family member, age (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.022-1.167) under friend health professional, age (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.050-1.147) under nearest health institution, marital status (OR: 0.004, 95%CI 0.003-0.441) under friend health Professional were found to influence participants' source of medicine information in the urban communities while in the rural communities the predisposing factor marital status (OR 10.6, 95%CI 1.044 -106.835), education (OR: 26.1, 95%CI 1.271-537.279) under friend health professional, age (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.002-1.187), educational level (OR 30.6, 95%CI 1.718-546.668) under nearest health institution and enabling factor socio-economic status (OR 6.6, 95%CI 1.016 -43.510) under nearest health institution influenced one's source of medicine information.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Majority of inhabitants with hypertension and diabetes in both rural and urban communities, sourced medicines and medicine information from public health institutions though a larger proportion was recorded in the urban communities. More participants in the rural communities than in the urban communities sourced medicines and medicine information from community pharmacies. Participants' source of medicine and medicine information was influenced by both predisposing and enabling factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Recent data on sustained hypertension and obesity among school-going children and adolescents in India are limited. This study evaluates the prevalence of sustained hypertension and obesity and their risk factors among urban and rural adolescents in northern India. SETTING:A school-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban and rural areas of Ludhiana, Punjab, India using standardised measurement tools. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1959 participants aged 11-17 years (urban: 849; rural: 1110) were included in this school-based survey. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:To measure sustained hypertension among school children, two distinct blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded at an interval of 1 week. High BP was defined and classified into three groups as recommended by international guidelines: (1) normal BP: <90th percentile compared with age, sex and height percentile in each age group; (2) prehypertension: BP=90th-95th percentile; and (3) hypertension: BP >95th percentile. The Indian Academy of Pediatrics classification was used to define underweight, normal, overweight and obesity as per the body mass index (BMI) for specific age groups. RESULTS:The prevalence of sustained hypertension among rural and urban areas was 5.7% and 8.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in rural and urban school children was 2.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The adjusted multiple regression model found that urban area (relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.7, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.93), hypertension (RRR: 7.4, 95% CI 4.21 to 13.16) and high socioeconomic status (RRR: 38.6, 95% CI 16.54 to 90.22) were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity. However, self-reported regular physical activity had a protective effect on the risk of obesity among adolescents (RRR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.62). Adolescents who were overweight (RRR: 2.66, 95% CI 1.49 to 4.40) or obese (RRR: 7.21, 95% CI 4.09 to 12.70) and reported added salt intake in their diet (RRR: 4.90, 95% CI 2.83 to 8.48) were at higher risk of hypertension. CONCLUSION:High prevalence of sustained hypertension and obesity was found among urban school children and adolescents in a northern state in India. Hypertension among adolescents was positively associated with overweight and obesity (high BMI). Prevention and early detection of childhood obesity and high BP should be strengthened to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases in adults.
Project description:There is a surge in chronic diseases in the developing world, driven by a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study described differences in prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors between urban and rural settlements in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study included 672 participants (median age 50 years), of which 312 were from Kumasi (urban) and 360 from Jachie-Pramso (rural). Demographic, anthropometric and other cardio-metabolic risk factors were gathered and venous blood samples were drawn for biochemical assays. Results suggested significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (80.0 mmHg vs 79.5 mmHg; p = 0.0078), and fasting blood sugar (5.0 mmo/l vs 4.5 mmol/l; p < 0.0001) between the two groups. Further differences in anthropometric measures suggested greater adiposity amongst participants in the urban area. Participants in the urban area were more likely than rural participants, to have high total cholesterol and LDL-c (p < 0.0001 respectively). Risk factors including BMI ≥ 25 (p < 0.0001), BMI ≥ 30 (p < 0.0001), high waist circumference (p < 0.0001), high waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.0001) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.0186) were more prevalent amongst participants in the urban area. Markers of adiposity were higher amongst females than males in both areas (p < 0.05). In the urban area, hypertension, diabetes and lifestyle risk factors were more prevalent amongst males than females. Differences in risk factors by urban/rural residence remained significant after adjusting for gender and age. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are more prevalent amongst urban settlers, highlighting an urgent need to avert the rise of diet and lifestyle-related chronic diseases.
Project description:Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene-environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall aim of the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) project is to understand the reasons for the high prevalence of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan Africans in diaspora by (1) studying the complex interplay between environment (eg, lifestyle), healthcare, biochemical and (epi)genetic factors, and their relative contributions to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D; (2) to identify specific risk factors within these broad categories to guide intervention programmes and (3) to provide a basic knowledge for improving diagnosis and treatment.RODAM is a multicentre cross-sectional study among homogenous sub-Saharan African participants (ie, Ghanaians) aged >25 years living in rural and urban Ghana, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK (http://rod-am.eu/). Standardised data on the main outcomes, genetic and non-genetic factors are collected in all locations. The aim is to recruit 6250 individuals comprising five subgroups of 1250 individuals from each site. In Ghana, Kumasi and Obuasi (urban stratum) and villages in the Ashanti region (rural stratum) are served as recruitment sites. In Europe, Ghanaian migrants are selected through the municipality or Ghanaian organisations registers.Ethical approval has been obtained in all sites. This paper gives an overview of the rationale, conceptual framework and methods of the study. The differences across locations will allow us to gain insight into genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the occurrence of obesity and T2D and will inform targeted intervention and prevention programmes, and provide the basis for improving diagnosis and treatment in these populations and beyond.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The association between psychosocial stressors (PS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations is unknown. We examined the association between PS and CKD prevalence among rural and urban Ghanaians and Ghanaian migrants living in three European cities. We also assessed if the influence of PS on CKD is partially mediated by primary risk factors (hypertension and diabetes) of CKD. DESIGN:A multi-centred cross sectional data from the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants study. SETTING:Rural and urban Ghana and three European cities (Amsterdam, Berlin and London). PARTICIPANTS:A random sample of 5659 adults (Europe 3167, rural Ghana 1043 and urban Ghana 1449) aged 25-70 years. EXPLANATORY MEASURES:PS defined by negative life events, perceived discrimination, perceived stress at work/home and depressive symptoms. Three CKD outcomes were considered using the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes severity of CKD classification. Comparisons between PS and CKD outcomes were made using logistic regression analyses across all sites. RESULTS:We observed higher proportion of negative life events (68.7%) and perceived permanent stress (15.9%) among Ghanaians living in Ghana than Ghanaians living in Europe. Depressive symptoms (7.5%) and perceived discrimination (29.7%) were more common among Ghanaians living in Europe than Ghanaians living in Ghana. No significant association was observed between any of the PS constructs and CKD outcomes across sites except for positive association between stress at work/home and albuminuria (2.81, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.40) and CKD risk (2.78, 95% CI 1.43 to 5.43) among Ghanaians living in Berlin. CONCLUSION:Our study found a positive association between stress at work/home and albuminuria and CKD risk. There was no convincing evidence of associations between the other PS constructs and the prevalence of CKD risk. Further studies are needed to identify potential factors driving the high prevalence of CKD among these populations.