Dental malformations associated with biallelic MMP20 mutations.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Matrix metallopeptidase 20 (MMP20) is an evolutionarily conserved protease that is essential for processing enamel matrix proteins during dental enamel formation. MMP20 mutations cause human autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation-type amelogenesis imperfecta (AI2A2; OMIM #612529). MMP20 is expressed in both odontoblasts and ameloblasts, but its function during dentinogenesis is unclear. METHODS:We characterized 10 AI kindreds with MMP20 defects, characterized human third molars and/or Mmp20-/- mice by histology, Backscattered Scanning Electron Microscopy (bSEM), µCT, and nanohardness testing. RESULTS:We identified six novel MMP20 disease-causing mutations. Four pathogenic variants were associated with exons encoding the MMP20 hemopexin-like (PEX) domain, suggesting a necessary regulatory function. Mutant human enamel hardness was softest (13% of normal) midway between the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and the enamel surface. bSEM and µCT analyses of the third molars revealed reduced mineral density in both enamel and dentin. Dentin close to the DEJ showed an average hardness number 62%-69% of control. Characterization of Mmp20-/- mouse dentin revealed a significant reduction in dentin thickness and mineral density and a transient increase in predentin thickness, indicating disturbances in dentin matrix secretion and mineralization. CONCLUSION:These results expand the spectrum of MMP20 disease-causing mutations and provide the first evidence for MMP20 function during dentin formation.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) are secreted proteinases that are essential for proper dental enamel formation. We characterized and compared enamel formed in wild-type, Mmp20 (-/-), Klk4 (-/-), Mmp20 (+/-) Klk4 (+/-), and Mmp20 (-/-) Klk4 (-/-) mice using dissecting and light microscopy, backscattered scanning electron microscopy (bSEM), SEM, microcomputed tomography (?CT), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Following eruption, fractures were observed on Mmp20 (-/-), Klk4 (-/-), Mmp20 (+/-) Klk4 (+/-), and Mmp20 (-/-) Klk4 (-/-) molars. Failure of the enamel in the Mmp20 (+/-) Klk4 (+/-) molars was unexpected and suggested that digenic effects could contribute to the etiology of amelogenesis imperfecta in humans. Micro-CT analyses of hemimandibles demonstrated significantly reduced high-density enamel volume in the Mmp20 (-/-) and Klk4 (-/-) mice relative to the wild-type, which was further reduced in Mmp20 (-/-) Klk4 (-/-) mice. bSEM images of 7-week Mmp20 (-/-) and Mmp20 (-/-) Klk4 (-/-) mandibular incisors showed rough, pitted enamel surfaces with numerous indentations and protruding nodules. The Mmp20 (+/-) and Mmp20 (+/-) Klk4 (+/-) incisors showed prominent, evenly spaced, horizontal ridges that were more distinct in Mmp20 (+/-) Klk4 (+/-) incisors relative to Mmp20 (+/-) incisors due to the darkening of the valleys between the ridges. In cross sections, the Mmp20 (-/-) and Mmp20 (-/-) Klk4 (-/-) exhibited three distinct layers. The outer layer exhibited a disturbed elemental composition and an irregular enamel surface covered with nodules. The Mmp20 null enamel was apparently unable to withstand the sheer forces associated with eruption and separated from dentin during development. Cells invaded the cracks and interposed between the dentin and enamel layers. MMP20 and KLK4 serve overlapping and complementary functions to harden enamel by removing protein, but MMP20 potentially serves multiple additional functions necessary for the adherence of enamel to dentin, the release of intercellular protein stores into the enamel matrix, the retreat of ameloblasts to facilitate thickening of the enamel layer, and the timely transition of ameloblasts to maturation.
Project description:Amelogenin is required for normal enamel formation and is the most abundant protein in developing enamel.Amelx+/+, Amelx+/- , and Amelx-/- molars and incisors from C57BL/6 mice were characterized using RT-PCR, Western blotting, dissecting and light microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered SEM (bSEM), nanohardness testing, and X-ray diffraction.No amelogenin protein was detected by Western blot analyses of enamel extracts from Amelx-/- mice. Amelx-/- incisor enamel averaged 20.3 ± 3.3 μm in thickness, or only 1/6th that of the wild type (122.3 ± 7.9 μm). Amelx-/- incisor enamel nanohardness was 1.6 Gpa, less than half that of wild-type enamel (3.6 Gpa). Amelx+/- incisors and molars showed vertical banding patterns unique to each tooth. IHC detected no amelogenin in Amelx-/- enamel and varied levels of amelogenin in Amelx+/- incisors, which correlated positively with enamel thickness, strongly supporting lyonization as the cause of the variations in enamel thickness. TEM analyses showed characteristic mineral ribbons in Amelx+/+ and Amelx-/- enamel extending from mineralized dentin collagen to the ameloblast. The Amelx-/- enamel ribbons were not well separated by matrix and appeared to fuse together, forming plates. X-ray diffraction determined that the predominant mineral in Amelx-/- enamel is octacalcium phosphate (not calcium hydroxyapatite). Amelx-/- ameloblasts were similar to wild-type ameloblasts except no Tomes' processes extended into the thin enamel. Amelx-/- and Amelx+/- molars both showed calcified nodules on their occlusal surfaces. Histology of D5 and D11 developing molars showed nodules forming during the maturation stage.Amelogenin forms a resorbable matrix that separates and supports, but does not shape early secretory-stage enamel ribbons. Amelogenin may facilitate the conversion of enamel ribbons into hydroxyapatite by inhibiting the formation of octacalcium phosphate. Amelogenin is necessary for thickening the enamel layer, which helps maintain ribbon organization and development and maintenance of the Tomes' process.
Project description:Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is one of the major non-collagenous proteins present in dentin, cementum and alveolar bone; it is also transiently expressed by ameloblasts. In humans many mutations have been found in DSPP and are associated with two autosomal-dominant genetic diseases - dentinogenesis imperfecta II (DGI-II) and dentin dysplasia (DD). Both disorders result in the development of hypomineralized and mechanically compromised teeth. The erupted mature molars of Dspp(-/-) mice have a severe hypomineralized dentin phenotype. Since dentin and enamel formations are interdependent, we decided to investigate the process of enamel onset mineralization in young Dspp(-/-) animals. We focused our analysis on the constantly erupting mouse incisor, to capture all of the stages of odontogenesis in one tooth, and the unerupted first molars. Using high-resolution microCT, we revealed that the onset of enamel matrix deposition occurs closer to the cervical loop and both secretion and maturation of enamel are accelerated in Dspp(-/-) incisors compared to the Dspp(+/-) control. Importantly, these differences did not translate into major phenotypic differences in mature enamel in terms of the structural organization, mineral density or hardness. The only observable difference was the reduction in thickness of the outer enamel layer, while the total enamel thickness remained unchanged. We also observed a compromised dentin-enamel junction, leading to delamination between the dentin and enamel layers. The odontoblast processes were widened and lacked branching near the DEJ. Finally, for the first time we demonstrate expression of Dspp mRNA in secretory ameloblasts. In summary, our data show that DSPP is important for normal mineralization of both dentin and enamel.
Project description:Ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation express matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20), an enzyme that cleaves enamel matrix proteins, including amelogenin (AMELX) and ameloblastin (AMBN). Previously, we showed that continuously erupting incisors from transgenic mice overexpressing active MMP20 had a massive cell infiltrate present within their enamel space, leading to enamel mineralization defects. However, effects of MMP20 overexpression on mouse molars were not analyzed, although these teeth more accurately represent human odontogenesis. Therefore, MMP20-overexpressing mice ( Mmp20+/+Tg+) were assessed by multiscale analyses, combining several approaches from high-resolution micro-computed tomography to enamel organ immunoblots. During the secretory stage at postnatal day 6 (P6), Mmp20+/+Tg+ mice had a discontinuous ameloblast layer and, unlike incisors, molar P12 maturation stage ameloblasts abnormally migrated away from the enamel layer into the stratum intermedium/stellate reticulum. TOPflash assays performed in vitro demonstrated that MMP20 expression promoted β-catenin nuclear localization and that MMP20 expression promoted invasion through Matrigel-coated filters. However, for both assays, significant differences were eliminated in the presence of the β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001. This suggests that MMP20 activity promotes cell migration via the Wnt pathway. In vivo, the unique molar migration of amelogenin-expressing ameloblasts was associated with abnormal deposition of ectopic calcified nodules surrounding the adherent enamel layer. Enamel content was assessed just prior to eruption at P15. Compared to wild-type, Mmp20+/+Tg+ molars exhibited significant reductions in enamel thickness (70%), volume (60%), and mineral density (40%), and MMP20 overexpression resulted in premature cleavage of AMBN, which likely contributed to the severe defects in enamel mineralization. In addition, Mmp20+/+Tg+ mouse molar enamel organs had increased levels of inactive p-cofilin, a protein that regulates cell polarity. These data demonstrate that increased MMP20 activity in molars causes premature degradation of ameloblastin and inactivation of cofilin, which may contribute to pathological Wnt-mediated cell migration away from the enamel layer.
Project description:The purposes of this study were to: (1) investigate adhesion through shear bond strength (SBS) testing of a resin composite bonded with a self-etching bonding system (SEB) to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-affected deproteinized mouse enamel or dentin; and (2) compare wild-type (WT), amelogenin null (AmelxKO), and matrix metalloproteinase-20 null (Mmp20KO) enamel and dentin phenotypes using micro-CT and nanoindentation.Enamel incisor surfaces of WT, AmelxKO, and Mmp20KO mice were treated with SEB with and without sodium hypochlorite and tested for SBS. Incisor dentin was also treated with SEB and tested for SBS. These surfaces were further examined by scanning electron miscroscopy. Micro-CT and nanoindentation analyses were performed on mouse dentin and enamel. Data were analyzed for significance by analysis of variance.Deproteinization did not improve SBS of SEB to these AI-affected enamel surfaces. SBS of AmelxKO teeth was similar in dentin and enamel; however, it was higher in Mmp20KO dentin. The nanohardness of knockout enamel was significantly lower than WT, while knockout dentin nanohardness was not different from WT.Using animal amelogenesis imperfecta models, enamel sodium hypochlorite deproteinization of hypoplastic and hypoplastic-hypomaturation enamel did not increase shear bond strength, while removal of the defective enamel allowed optimal dentin bonding.
Project description:The enamel layerof kallikrein 4 (Klk4)-null mice has a normal thickness and a decussating pattern of enamel rods, but it contains residual enamel proteins, is less highly mineralized, and fractures in its deepest part just above the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). The plane of fracture is puzzling because the deepest enamel is deposited earliest and, through the action of the secretory stage enamel protease (Mmp20), is the most mature part of the enamel layer at the time of the onset of Klk4 expression.To characterize the planes of fracture in Mmp20- and Klk4-null mice and to localize Klk4 expression in developing teeth.Klk4- and Mmp20-null mice were sacrificed at 7 weeks and their mandibular incisors were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Klk4(+/)(lac)(Z) mice were mated with Klk4(+/)(lac)(Z) mice. Offspring were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. Klk4(+/)(+), Klk4(+/)(lac)(Z), and Klk4(lac)(Z/)(lac)(Z) (null) littermates on postnatal days 5, 8, 11, and 14 were processed for ?-galactosidase histochemistry.The enamel layer fractures at the DEJ in Mmp20-null mice, and fractures occur in enamel above the DEJ in Klk4-null mice. Klk4 is not expressed by secretory-stage ameloblasts, murine odontoblasts beneath the secretory stage, or maturation-stage ameloblasts. Klk4 is specifically expressed by transition and maturation-stage ameloblasts.The breakage of enamel near the DEJ in Klk4-null mice is not due to a failure of odontoblasts to express Klk4, but it relates to a progressive hypomineralization of enamel with depth.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) is expressed by ameloblasts in developing teeth and MMP20 mutations cause enamel malformation. We established a stably transfected Tet-Off Mmp20-inducible ameloblast-lineage cell line and found that MMP20 expression promoted cell invasion. Previously, we engineered transgenic mice (Tg) that drive Mmp20 expression and showed that Mmp20(+/+)Tg mice had soft enamel. Here we asked if Mmp20 overexpression disrupts ameloblast function. Incisors from Mmp20(+/+) mice expressing the Mmp20 Tg had a striking cell infiltrate which nearly replaced the entire enamel layer. A thin layer of enamel-like material remained over the dentin and at the outer tooth surface, but between these regions were invading fibroblasts and epithelial cells that surrounded ectopic bone-like calcifications. Mmp20(+/+)Tg mice had decreased enamel organ cadherin levels compared to the Mmp20 ablated and WT mice and, instead of predominantly locating adjacent to the ameloblast cell membrane, ?-catenin was predominantly present within the nuclei of invading cells. Our data suggest that increased cadherin cleavage by transgenic MMP20 in the WT background releases excess ?-catenin, which translocates to ameloblast nuclei to promote cell migration/invasion. Therefore, we conclude that MMP20 plays a role in normal ameloblast migration through tightly controlled Wnt signaling and that MMP20 overexpression disrupts this process.
Project description:The relationship between tooth form and dietary preference is a crucial issue in vertebrate evolution. However, the mechanical properties of a tooth are influenced not only by its shape but also by its internal structure. Here, we use synchrotron transmission X-ray microscopy to examine the internal microstructures of multiple dinosaur teeth within a phylogenetic framework. We found that the internal microstructures of saurischian teeth are very different from advanced ornithischian teeth, reflecting differences in dental developmental strategies. The three-tissue composition (enamel-mantle dentin-bulk dentin) near the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in saurischian teeth represents the primitive condition of dinosaur teeth. Mantle dentin, greatly reduced or absent from DEJ in derived ornithischian teeth, is a key difference between Saurischia and Ornithischia. This may be related to the derived herbivorous feeding behavior of ornithischians, but interestingly, it is still retained in the herbivorous saurischian sauropods. The protective functions of mantle dentin with porous microstructures between enamel and bulk dentin inside typical saurischian teeth are also discussed using finite-element analysis method. Evolution of the dental modifications in ornithischian dinosaurs, with the absence of mantle dentin, may be related to changes in enamel characteristics with enamel spindles extending through the DEJ.
Project description:Dentin consists of inorganic hard tissue and organic dentin matrix components (DMCs). Various kinds of bioactive molecules are included in DMCs and some of them can be released after digestion by endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the caries region. Digested DMCs induced by MMP20 have been reported to promote pulpal wound healing processes, but the released critical molecules responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. Here, we identified protein S100-A7 as a critical molecule for pulpal healing in digested DMCs by comprehensive proteomic approaches and following pulp capping experiments in rat molars. In addition, immunohistochemical results indicated the specific distribution of S100-A7 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) as receptor for S100-A7 in the early stage of the pulpal healing process, and following accumulation of CD146-positive stem cells in wounded pulp. Our findings indicate that protein S100-A7 released from dentin by MMP20 might play a key role in dentin pulp regeneration.
Project description:Tooth enamel forms in an ephemeral protein matrix where changes in protein abundance, composition and posttranslational modifications are critical to achieve healthy enamel properties. Amelogenin (AMELX) with its splice variants is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, with only one known phosphorylation site at serine 16 shown in vitro to be critical for regulating mineralization. The phosphorylated form of AMELX stabilizes amorphous calcium phosphate, while crystalline hydroxyapatite forms in the presence of the unphosphorylated protein. While AMELX regulates mineral transitions over space and time, it is unknown whether and when un-phosphorylated amelogenin occurs during enamel mineralization. This study aims to reveal the spatiotemporal distribution of the cleavage products of the most abundant AMLEX splice variants including the full length P173, the shorter leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP), and the exon 4-containing P190 in forming enamel, all within the context of the changing enamel matrix proteome during mineralization. We microsampled permanent pig molars, capturing known stages of enamel formation from both crown surface and inner enamel. Nano-LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses after tryptic digestion rendered more than 500 unique protein identifications in enamel, dentin, and bone. We mapped collagens, keratins, and proteolytic enzymes (CTSL, MMP2, MMP10) and determined distributions of P173, LRAP, and P190 products, the enamel proteins enamelin (ENAM) and ameloblastin (AMBN), and matrix-metalloprotease-20 (MMP20) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4). All enamel proteins and KLK4 were near-exclusive to enamel and in excellent agreement with published abundance levels. Phosphorylated P173 and LRAP products decreased in abundance from recently deposited matrix toward older enamel, mirrored by increasing abundances of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT). Our results showed that hierarchical clustering analysis of secretory enamel links closely matching distributions of unphosphorylated P173 and LRAP products with ACPT and non-traditional amelogenesis proteins, many associated with enamel defects. We report higher protein diversity than previously published and Gene Ontology (GO)-defined protein functions related to the regulation of mineral formation in secretory enamel (e.g., casein ?-S1, CSN1S1), immune response in erupted enamel (e.g., peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRP), and phosphorylation. This study presents a novel approach to characterize and study functional relationships through spatiotemporal mapping of the ephemeral extracellular matrix proteome.