Experimental Study on the Permeability of SAP Modified Concrete.
ABSTRACT: To study the permeability of superabsorbent polymer (SAP) modified concrete and the effect of internal pore characteristics on the permeability of concrete specimens, the results of the water penetration under pressure test, the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of SAP concrete were obtained and analyzed. The research shows that the addition of an appropriate amount of SAP can effectively improve the anti-permeability performance of concrete. After adding 0.2~0.6% SAP of cement quality to concrete, the penetration height value was reduced by 35~45%, the porosity was increased by 21-95%, and the tortuosity is increased by 14-15%, and all indicators show regular changes with the increase in SAP usage. Adding SAP to concrete changes the internal connection state of concrete, thereby further improving its impermeability by reducing the capillary pressure and changing the shape of the pores. The liquid permeation resistance is increased by the "threshold effect" inside concrete; this "threshold effect" is caused by the addition of SAP.
Project description:The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.
Project description:Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration) than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.
Project description:This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively) were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.
Project description:Nail delivery has interest for local treatment of nail diseases. Nevertheless, the low permeability of drugs in the nail plaque precludes the efficacy of local treatments. The use of penetration enhancers can increase drug permeability and improve the efficacy of the treatment of nail pathologies. In this work, different chemical substances have been evaluated as potential penetration enhancers. With this aim, the effect of different substances such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300), carbocysteine, N-acetylcysteine, lactic acid, potassium phosphate, Labrasol® and Labrafil® in the microstructure, nail surface and drug permeability has been evaluated. The models obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry and PoreXpert™ software show a more porous structure in nails treated with different enhancers. Permeation studies with bovine hooves and nails revealed that all the hydroalcoholic lacquers developed, and particularly those prepared with SLS, provide better nail penetration of the drugs ciclopirox olamine and clobetasol propionate. Results have shown that the increase of the drug penetration in the nail is caused by the formation of a porous random microstructure and by the decrease of the contact angle between lacquers and the surface or the nail plaque. The presence of SLS produces an improvement in the spreading of the solution on the nail surface and promotes the penetration of the solution into the nail pores. The hydroalcoholic lacquer, elaborated with cyclodextrin/poloxamer soluble polypseudorotaxane and sodium lauryl sulfate as an enhancer, allowed the rate of diffusion and penetration of the active ingredient within the nail to be significantly higher than obtained with the reference lacquers when using either ciclopirox olamine or clobetasol propionate as the active ingredient.
Project description:Porosity measurement is a key factor to identify the hydraulic performance of low permeable porous materials (e.g. rock or concrete). Porosimetry tests such as Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), or Gas Expansion (GE) are cost-prohibitive, use hazardous materials, or are incapable of accessing all inter-connected pores. An alternative Gas Expansion Induced Water Intrusion Porosimetry (GEIWIP) method was developed to measure the porosity of a low permeable porous medium using a gas/water intrusion apparatus. This method overcomes the previously mentioned porosimetry drawbacks by using distilled de-aired water (DDW) as a hazard-free liquid which is a wetting fluid to intrude the porous structure and fill the pores. As the DDW has the tendency to fill all inter-connected pores, no back-up pressure is required. This method has lower cost and needs less preparation time comparing to MIP test. Additionally, the GEIWIP set-up, the gas/water intrusion apparatus, can be moved to the field site and provide mobile measurement feasibility. The reliability of the test results was obtained by a repetitive testing process. The porosity of concrete samples with different mixtures was obtained and compared to those of MIP and NMR tests.
Project description:We compared patterns of visual field loss detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP) to saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and examined patient perceptions of each test.A cross-sectional study was done of 58 healthy subjects and 103 with glaucoma who were tested using SAP and two versions of SVOP (v1 and v2). Visual fields from both devices were categorized by masked graders as: 0, normal; 1, paracentral defect; 2, nasal step; 3, arcuate defect; 4, altitudinal; 5, biarcuate; and 6, end-stage field loss. SVOP and SAP classifications were cross-tabulated. Subjects completed a questionnaire on their opinions of each test.We analyzed 142 (v1) and 111 (v2) SVOP and SAP test pairs. SVOP v2 had a sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 77.9% for identifying normal versus abnormal visual fields. SAP and SVOP v2 classifications showed complete agreement in 54% of glaucoma patients, with a further 23% disagreeing by one category. On repeat testing, 86% of SVOP v2 classifications agreed with the previous test, compared to 91% of SAP classifications; 71% of subjects preferred SVOP compared to 20% who preferred SAP.Eye-tracking perimetry can be used to obtain threshold visual field sensitivity values in patients with glaucoma and produce maps of visual field defects, with patterns exhibiting close agreement to SAP. Patients preferred eye-tracking perimetry compared to SAP.This first report of threshold eye tracking perimetry shows good agreement with conventional automated perimetry and provides a benchmark for future iterations.
Project description:The uniaxial compression response of manufactured sand mortars proportioned using different water-cement ratio and sand-cement ratio is examined. Pore structure parameters such as porosity, threshold diameter, mean diameter, and total amounts of macropores, as well as shape and size of micropores are quantified by using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) technique. Test results indicate that strains at peak stress and compressive strength decreased with the increasing sand-cement ratio due to insufficient binders to wrap up entire sand. A compression stress-strain model of normal concrete extending to predict the stress-strain relationships of manufactured sand mortar is verified and agreed well with experimental data. Furthermore, the stress-strain model constant is found to be influenced by threshold diameter, mean diameter, shape, and size of micropores. A mathematical model relating stress-strain model constants to the relevant pore structure parameters of manufactured sand mortar is developed.
Project description:This article contains consolidated proteomic data obtained from xylem sap collected from tomato plants grown in Fe- and Mn-sufficient control, as well as Fe-deficient and Mn-deficient conditions. Data presented here cover proteins identified and quantified by shotgun proteomics and Progenesis LC-MS analyses: proteins identified with at least two peptides and showing changes statistically significant (ANOVA; p ? 0.05) and above a biologically relevant selected threshold (fold ? 2) between treatments are listed. The comparison between Fe-deficient, Mn-deficient and control xylem sap samples using a multivariate statistical data analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) is also included. Data included in this article are discussed in depth in the research article entitled "Effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the protein profiles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) xylem sap as revealed by shotgun analyses" . This dataset is made available to support the cited study as well to extend analyses at a later stage.
Project description:The aim of the study was to generate rules for the prediction of the chloride resistance of concrete modified with high calcium fly ash using machine learning methods. The rapid chloride permeability test, according to the Nordtest Method Build 492, was used for determining the chloride ions' penetration in concrete containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) for partial replacement of Portland cement. The results of the performed tests were used as the training set to generate rules describing the relation between material composition and the chloride resistance. Multiple methods for rule generation were applied and compared. The rules generated by algorithm J48 from the Weka workbench provided the means for adequate classification of plain concretes and concretes modified with high calcium fly ash as materials of good, acceptable or unacceptable resistance to chloride penetration.
Project description:X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that leads to an extreme, usually fatal increase in the number of lymphocytes upon infection with EBV. It is most commonly defined molecularly by loss of expression of SLAM-associated protein (SAP). Despite this, there is little understanding of how SAP deficiency causes lymphocytosis following EBV infection. Here we show that T cells from individuals with XLP are specifically resistant to apoptosis mediated by TCR restimulation, a process that normally constrains T cell expansion during immune responses. Expression of SAP and the SLAM family receptor NK, T, and B cell antigen (NTB-A) were required for TCR-induced upregulation of key pro-apoptotic molecules and subsequent apoptosis. Further, SAP/NTB-A signaling augmented the strength of the proximal TCR signal to achieve the threshold required for restimulation-induced cell death (RICD). Strikingly, TCR ligation in activated T cells triggered increased recruitment of SAP to NTB-A, dissociation of the phosphatase SHP-1, and colocalization of NTB-A with CD3 aggregates. In contrast, NTB-A and SHP-1 contributed to RICD resistance in XLP T cells. Our results reveal what we believe to be novel roles for NTB-A and SAP in regulating T cell homeostasis through apoptosis and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disease in XLP.