Extended Polysaccharide Analysis within the Liposomal Encapsulation of Polysaccharides System.
ABSTRACT: The Liposomal Encapsulation of Polysaccharides (LEPS) dual antigen vaccine carrier system was assessed across two distinct polysaccharides for encapsulation efficiency, subsequent liposomal surface adornment with protein, adjuvant addition, and size and charge metrics. The polysaccharides derive from two different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and have traditionally served as the active ingredients of vaccines against pneumococcal disease. The LEPS system was designed to mimic glycoconjugate vaccines that covalently couple polysaccharides to protein carriers; however, the LEPS system uses a noncovalent co-localization mechanism through protein liposomal surface attachment. In an effort to more thoroughly characterize the LEPS system across individual vaccine components and thus support broader future utility, polysaccharides from S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 4 were systematically compared within the LEPS framework both pre- and post-surface protein attachment. For both polysaccharides, ?85% encapsulation efficiency was achieved prior to protein surface attachment. Upon protein attachment with either a model protein (GFP) or a pneumococcal disease antigen (PncO), polysaccharide encapsulation was maintained at ?61% encapsulation efficiency. Final LEPS carriers were also evaluated with and without alum as an included adjuvant, with encapsulation efficiency maintained at ?30%, while protein surface attachment efficiency was maintained at ?~50%. Finally, similar trends and distributions were observed across the different polysaccharides when assessed for liposomal zeta potential and size.
Project description:The enclosed work focuses on the construction variables associated with a dual-antigen liposomal carrier, delivering encapsulated polysaccharides and surface-localized proteins, which served as a vaccine delivery device effective against pneumococcal disease. Here, the goal was to better characterize and compare the carrier across a range of formulation steps and assessment metrics. Specifically, the vaccine carrier was subjected to new methods of liposomal formation, including alterations to the base components used for subsequent macromolecule encapsulation and surface attachment, with characterization spanning polysaccharide encapsulation, liposomal size and charge, and surface protein localization. Results demonstrate variations across the liposomal constructs comprised two means of surface-localizing proteins (either via metal or biological affinity). In general, final liposomal constructs demonstrated a size and zeta potential range of approximately 50 to 600 nm and -4 to -41 mV, respectively, while demonstrating at least 60% polysaccharide encapsulation efficiency and 60% protein surface localization for top-performing liposomal carrier constructs. The results, thus, indicate that multiple formulations could serve in support of vaccination studies, and that the selection of a suitable final delivery system would be dictated by preferences or requirements linked to target antigens and/or regulatory demands.
Project description:Taxanes including paclitaxel and docetaxel are effective anticancer agents preferably sufficient for liposomal drug delivery. However, the encapsulation of these drugs with effective amounts into conventional liposomes is difficult due to their high hydrophobicity. Therefore, an effective encapsulation strategy for liposomal taxanes has been eagerly anticipated. In this study, the mixture of polyethoxylated castor oil (Cremophor EL) and ethanol containing phosphate buffered saline termed as CEP was employed as a solvent of the inner hydrophilic core of liposomes where taxanes should be incorporated. Docetaxel-, paclitaxel-, or 7-oxacetylglycosylated paclitaxel-encapsulating liposomes were successfully prepared with almost 100% of encapsulation efficiency and 29.9, 15.4, or 29.1 mol% of loading efficiency, respectively. We then applied the docetaxel-encapsulating liposomes for targeted drug delivery. Docetaxel-encapsulating liposomes were successfully developed HER2-targeted drug delivery by coupling HER2-specific binding peptide on liposome surface. The HER2-targeting liposomes exhibited HER2-specific internalization and enhanced anticancer activity in vitro. Therefore, we propose the sophisticated preparation of liposomal taxanes using CEP as a promising formulation for effective cancer therapies.
Project description:The overall goal for this review is to summarize the current body of knowledge about the structure and function of major known antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major gram-positive bacterial pathogen of humans. This information is then related to the role of these proteins in pneumococcal pathogenesis and in the development of new vaccines and/or other antimicrobial agents. S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of fatal community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly and is also one of the most common causes of middle ear infections and meningitis in children. The present vaccine for the pneumococcus consists of a mixture of 23 different capsular polysaccharides. While this vaccine is very effective in young adults, who are normally at low risk of serious disease, it is only about 60% effective in the elderly. In children younger than 2 years the vaccine is ineffective and is not recommended due to the inability of this age group to mount an antibody response to the pneumococcal polysaccharides. Antimicrobial drugs such as penicillin have diminished the risk from pneumococcal disease. Several pneumococcal proteins including pneumococcal surface proteins A and C, hyaluronate lyase, pneumolysin, autolysin, pneumococcal surface antigen A, choline binding protein A, and two neuraminidase enzymes are being investigated as potential vaccine or drug targets. Essentially all of these antigens have been or are being investigated on a structural level in addition to being characterized biochemically. Recently, three-dimensional structures for hyaluronate lyase and pneumococcal surface antigen A became available from X-ray crystallography determinations. Also, modeling studies based on biophysical measurements provided more information about the structures of pneumolysin and pneumococcal surface protein A. Structural and biochemical studies of these pneumococcal virulence factors have facilitated the development of novel antibiotics or protein antigen-based vaccines as an alternative to polysaccharide-based vaccines for the treatment of pneumococcal disease.
Project description:The present work aimed to develop an optimized liposomal formulation for enhancing the anti-viral activity of propolis against COVID-19. Docking studies were performed for certain components of Egyptian Propolis using Avigan, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir as standard antivirals against both COVID-19 3CL-protease and S1 spike protein. Response surface methodology and modified injection method were implemented to maximize the entrapment efficiency and release of the liposomal formulation. The optimized formulation parameters were as follow: LMC of 60 mM, CH% of 20% and DL of 5 mg/ml. At those values the E.E% and released % were 70.112% and 81.801%, respectively with nanosized particles (117 ± 11 nm). Docking studies revealed that Rutin and Caffeic acid phenethyl ester showed the highest affinity to both targets. Results showed a significant inhibitory effect of the optimized liposomal formula of Propolis against COVID-3CL protease (IC50 = 1.183 ± 0.06) compared with the Egyptian propolis extract (IC50 = 2.452 ± 0.11), P < 0.001. Interestingly, the inhibition of viral replication of COVID-19 determined by RT_PCR has been significantly enhanced via encapsulation of propolis extract within the liposomal formulation (P < 0.0001) and was comparable to the viral inhibitory effect of the potent antiviral (remdesivir). These findings identified the potential of propolis liposomes as a promising treatment approach against COVID-19.
Project description:PURPOSE:Sepantronium bromide (YM155) is a hydrophilic quaternary compound that cannot be administered orally due to its low oral bioavailability; it is furthermore rapidly eliminated via the kidneys. The current study aims at improving the pharmacokinetic profile of YM155 by its formulation in immunoliposomes that can achieve its enhanced delivery into tumor tissue and facilitate uptake in neuroblastoma cancer cells. METHODS:PEGylated YM155 loaded liposomes composed of DPPC, cholesterol and DSPE-PEG2000 were prepared via passive film-hydration and extrusion method. Targeted (i.e. immuno-)liposomes were prepared by surface functionalization with SATA modified monoclonal anti-disialoganglioside (GD2) antibodies. Liposomes were characterized based on their size, charge, antibody coupling and YM155 encapsulation efficiency, and stability. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy were performed on IMR32 and KCNR neuroblastoma cell lines. The efficacy of developed formulations were assessed by in-vitro toxicity assays. A pilot pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to assess plasma circulation and tumor accumulation profiles of the developed liposomal formulations. RESULTS:YM155 loaded immunoliposomes had a size of 170 nm and zeta potential of -10 mV, with an antibody coupling efficiency of 60% andYM155 encapsulation efficiency of14%. Targeted and control liposomal formulations were found to have similar YM155 release rates in a release medium containing 50% serum. An in-vitro toxicity study on KCNR cells showed less toxicity for immunoliposomes as compared to free YM155. In-vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of YM155 liposomes showed prolonged blood circulation and significantly increased half-lives of liposomal YM155 in tumor tissue, as compared to a bolus injection of free YM155. CONCLUSIONS:YM155 loaded immunoliposomes were successfully formulated and characterized, and initial in-vivo results show their potential for improving the circulation time and tumor accumulation of YM155.
Project description:Pain is modulated by social context. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that romantic partners can provide a potent form of social support during pain. However, such studies have only focused on passive support, finding a relatively late-onset modulation of pain-related neural processing. In this study, we examined for the first time dynamic touch by one's romantic partner as an active form of social support. Specifically, 32 couples provided social, active, affective (vs active but neutral) touch according to the properties of a specific C-tactile afferent pathway to their romantic partners, who then received laser-induced pain. We measured subjective pain ratings and early N1 and later N2-P2 laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) to noxious stimulation, as well as individual differences in adult attachment style. We found that affective touch from one's partner reduces subjective pain ratings and similarly attenuates LEPs both at earlier (N1) and later (N2-P2) stages of cortical processing. Adult attachment style did not affect LEPs, but attachment anxiety had a moderating role on pain ratings. This is the first study to show early neural modulation of pain by active, partner touch, and we discuss these findings in relation to the affective and social modulation of sensory salience.
Project description:Although bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) might function as a potential substitute for live BCG, its use in the treatment of bladder cancer remains limited owing to issues such as insolubility and micrometer-size following exposure to an aqueous environment. Thus, to develop a novel nanoparticulate system for efficient BCG-CWS delivery, liposomal encapsulation was carried out using a modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method (targets: Size, <200 nm; encapsulation efficiency, ~60%). Further, the liposomal surface was functionalized with specific ligands, folic acid (FA), and Pep-1 peptide (Pep1), as targeting and cell-penetrating moieties, respectively. Functionalized liposomes greatly increased the intracellular uptake of BCG-CWS in the bladder cancer cell lines, 5637 and MBT2. The immunoactivity was verified through elevated cytokine production and a THP-1 migration assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy revealed that the BCG-CWS-loaded liposomes effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing MBT2 tumors. Dual ligand-functionalized liposome was also superior to single ligand-functionalized liposomes. Immunohistochemistry supported the enhanced antitumor effect of BCG-CWS, with IL-6 production and CD4 infiltration. Thus, we conclude that FA- and Pep1-modified liposomes encapsulating BCG-CWS might be a good candidate for bladder cancer treatment with high target selectivity.
Project description:The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin's potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded ?-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin.Curcumin-loaded ?-cyclodextrin liposomes were demonstrated in vitro to have significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Differences between mechanisms of cell death were also evaluated.
Project description:The specificity of the thioester-containing site in three plasma proteins is regulated by elements of their protein structures other than the thioester bond itself. Human C4A and alpha 2-macroglobulin preferentially form amide linkages while human C3 primarily forms ester linkages with hydroxyl groups. We have examined the thioester in C3 and found evidence of strong preferences for certain carbohydrates, indications of selectivity for specific positions on those carbohydrates and a preference for terminal sugars in polysaccharides. A testable set of rules are derived from these findings which predict preferred attachment sites on polysaccharides. A computer model of the effect of different reactivities on activation of the alternative pathway of complement suggested that organisms might greatly alter their susceptibility to complement with small changes in carbohydrate structure. While a random selection of 20 biological particles showed no correlation between activation and C3b attachment efficiency, subsets of related organisms differing primarily in their surface polysaccharide exhibited stronger correlations. The strongest correlation occurred in a series of the yeasts (Cryptococcus neoformans) possessing capsular polysaccharides with one, two, three or four branching xylose sugars per repeating unit. These organisms exhibited capture efficiencies for metastable C3b from 12% (one-xylose strain) to 41% (four-xylose strain).
Project description:This article contains original data, figures and methods used in the characterization of the liposomal carrier 'DDC642' for topical applications, described in "An elastic liposomal formulation for RNAi-based topical treatment of skin disorders: proof-of-concept in the treatment of psoriasis" (Desmet et al., 2016) . Several elastic liposomal formulations have been evaluated for their ability to encapsulate and deliver RNA interference (RNAi) molecules to cultured primary skin cells. The efficiency and effectiveness of these liposomes were compared to that of our previously characterized liposomes, the 'SECosomes' (SEC) (Geusens et al., 2010) . After selection of a potential superior carrier, based on encapsulation and transfection efficiency data (Desmet et al., 2016) , the selected DDC642 liposomes were characterized more in-depth. Herein, a detailed characterization of the DDC642 liposome and RNAi-loaded lipoplexes is given, including the matching protocols.