Mutations in the Hsp90 N Domain Identify a Site that Controls Dimer Opening and Expand Human Hsp90? Function in Yeast.
ABSTRACT: Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important for the activity of many client proteins. Hsp90 has an N-terminal ATPase domain (N), a middle domain (M) that interacts with clients and a C-terminal dimerization domain (C). "Closing" of dimers around clients is regulated by ATP binding, co-chaperones, and post-translational modifications. ATP hydrolysis coincides with release of mature client and resetting the reaction cycle. Humans have two Hsp90s: hHsp90? and hHsp90?. Although 85% identical, hHsp90? supports Hsp90 function in yeast much better than hHsp90?. Determining the basis of this difference would provide important insight into functional specificity of seemingly redundant Hsp90s, and the evolution of eukaryotic Hsp90 systems and clientele. Here, we found host co-chaperones Sba1, Cpr6 and Cpr7 inhibited hHsp90? function in yeast, and we identified mutations clustering in the N domain that considerably improved hHsp90? function in yeast. The strongest of these rescuer mutations accelerated nucleotide-dependent lid closing, N-M domain docking, and ATPase. It also disrupted binding to Sba1, which prolongs the closed state, and promoted N-M undocking and lid opening. Our data suggest the rescuer mutations improve function of hHsp90? in yeast by accelerating return to the open state. Our findings imply hHsp90? occupies the closed state too long to function effectively in yeast, and define an evolutionarily conserved region of the N domain involved in resetting the Hsp90 reaction cycle.
Project description:The molecular chaperones of the Hsp90 family are essential in all eukaryotic cells. They assist late folding steps and maturation of many different proteins, called clients, that are not related in sequence or structure. Hsp90 interaction with its clients appears to be coupled to a series of conformational changes. Using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) we investigated the structural dynamics of human Hsp90? (hHsp90) and yeast Hsp82 (yHsp82). We found that eukaryotic Hsp90s are much more flexible than the previously studied Escherichia coli homolog (EcHtpG) and that nucleotides induce much smaller changes. More stable conformations in yHsp82 are obtained in presence of co-chaperones. The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Cpr6 causes a different amide proton protection pattern in yHsp82 than the previously studied TPR-domain protein Sti1. In the simultaneous presence of Sti1 and Cpr6, protection levels are observed that are intermediate between the Sti1 and the Cpr6 induced changes. Surprisingly, no bimodal distributions of the isotope peaks are detected, suggesting that both co-chaperones affect both protomers of the Hsp90 dimer in a similar way. The cochaperones Sba1 was found previously in the crystal structure bound to the ATP hydrolysis-competent conformation of Hsp90, which did not allow to distinguish the mode of Sba1-mediated inhibition of Hsp90's ATPase activity by stabilizing the pre- or post-hydrolysis step. Our HX-MS experiments now show that Sba1 binding leads to a protection of the ATP binding lid, suggesting that it inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity by slowing down product release. This hypothesis was verified by a single-turnover ATPase assay. Together, our data suggest that there are much smaller energy barriers between conformational states in eukaryotic Hsp90s than in EcHtpG and that co-chaperones are necessary in addition to nucleotides to stabilize defined conformational states.
Project description:The conformationally coupled mechanism by which ATP is utilized by yeast Hsp90 is now well characterized. In contrast, ATP utilization by human Hsp90s is less well studied, and appears to operate differently. To resolve these conflicting models, we have conducted a side-by-side biochemical analysis in a series of mutant yeast and human Hsp90s that have been both mechanistically and structurally characterized with regard to the crystal structure of the yeast Hsp90 protein. We show that each monomer of the human Hsp90 dimer is mutually dependent on the other for ATPase activity. Fluorescence studies confirmed that the N-terminal domains of Hsp90beta come into close association with each other. Mutations that directly affect the conformational dynamics of the ATP-lid segment had marked effects, with T31I (yeast T22I) and A116N (yeast A107N) stimulating, and T110I (yeast T101I) inhibiting, human and yeast ATPase activity to similar extents, showing that ATP-dependent lid closure is a key rate-determining step in both systems. Mutation of residues implicated in N-terminal dimerization of yeast Hsp90 (L15R and L18R in yeast, L24R and L27R in humans) significantly reduced the ATPase activity of yeast and human Hsp90s, showing that ATP-dependent association of the N-terminal domains in the Hsp90 dimer is also essential in both systems. Furthermore, cross-linking studies of the hyper-active yeast A107N and human A116N ATP-lid mutants showed enhanced dimerization, suggesting that N-terminal association is a direct consequence of ATP binding and lid closure in both systems.
Project description:We previously reported that, in human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 (hHsp90), there are 4 highly immunogenic sites, designated sites Ia, Ib, Ic, and II. This study was performed to further characterize their epitopes and to identify the epitope that is potentially common to all members of the Hsp90 family. Panning of a bacterial library carrying randomized dodecapeptides revealed that Glu251-Ser-X-Asp254 constituted site Ia and Pro295-Ile-Trp-Thr-Arg299, site Ic. Site II (Asp701-Pro717) was composed of several epitopes. When 19 anti-hHsp90 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were subjected to immunoblotting against recombinant forms of 7 Hsp90-family members, 2 mAbs (K41110 and K41116C) that recognized site Ic bound to yeast Hsp90 with affinity identical to that for hHsp90, and 1 mAb (K3729) that recognized Glu222-Ala23, of hHsp90beta could bind to human 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp94), an endoplasmic reticulum paralog of Hsp90. Among the 5 amino acids constituting site Ic, Trp297 and Pro295 were essential for recognition by all anti-site-Ic mAbs, and Arg299 was important for most of them. The necessity of Ile296, Thr298, and Arg299, which are replaced by Leu, Met/Leu, and Lys, respectively, in some eukaryotic Hsp90, was dependent on the mAbs, and K41110 and K41116C could react with Hsp90s carrying these substitutions. From these data taken together, we propose that the pentapeptide Pro295-Ile-Trp-Thr-Arg299 of hHsp90 functions as an immunodominant epitope common to all eukaryotic Hsp90.
Project description:Hsp90 (heat shock protein of 90 kDa) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone responsible for the assembly and regulation of many eukaryotic signalling systems and is an emerging target for rational chemotherapy of many cancers. Although the structures of isolated domains of Hsp90 have been determined, the arrangement and ATP-dependent dynamics of these in the full Hsp90 dimer have been elusive and contentious. Here we present the crystal structure of full-length yeast Hsp90 in complex with an ATP analogue and the co-chaperone p23/Sba1. The structure reveals the complex architecture of the 'closed' state of the Hsp90 chaperone, the extensive interactions between domains and between protein chains, the detailed conformational changes in the amino-terminal domain that accompany ATP binding, and the structural basis for stabilization of the closed state by p23/Sba1. Contrary to expectations, the closed Hsp90 would not enclose its client proteins but provides a bipartite binding surface whose formation and disruption are coupled to the chaperone ATPase cycle.
Project description:Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an abundant essential eukaryotic molecular chaperone involved in the activation and stabilization of client proteins, including several transcription factors and oncogenic kinases. Hsp90 undergoes a complex series of conformational changes and interacts with partner co-chaperones such as Sba1, Cpr6, Cpr7, and Cns1 as it binds and hydrolyzes ATP. In the absence of nucleotide, Hsp90 is dimerized only at the carboxy-terminus. In the presence of ATP, Hsp90 also dimerizes at the amino-terminus, creating a binding site for Sba1. Truncation of a charged linker region of yeast Hsp90 (Hsp82?linker) was known to disrupt the ability of Hsp82 to undergo amino-terminal dimerization and bind Sba1. We found that yeast expressing Hsp82?linker constructs exhibited a specific synthetic lethal phenotype in cells lacking CPR7. The isolated tetratricopeptide repeat domain of Cpr7 was both necessary and sufficient for growth in those strains. Cpr6 and Cpr7 stably bound the carboxy-terminus of wild-type Hsp82 only in the presence of nonhydrolyzable ATP and formed an Hsp82-Cpr6-Cpr7 ternary complex. However, in cells expressing Hsp82?linker or lacking CPR7, Cpr6 was able to bind Hsp82 in the presence or absence of nucleotide. Overexpression of CNS1, but not of other co-chaperones, in cpr7 cells restored nucleotide-dependent Hsp82-Cpr6 interaction. Together, our results suggest that the in vivo functions of Cpr7 include modulating Hsp90 conformational changes, mediating proper signaling of the nucleotide-bound state to the carboxy-terminus of Hsp82, or regulating Hsp82-Cpr6 interaction.
Project description:The ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsp90 acts in concert with a cohort of associated proteins to facilitate the functional maturation of a number of cellular signaling proteins, such as steroid hormone receptors and oncogene tyrosine kinases. The Hsp90-associated protein p23 is required for the assembly of functional steroid aporeceptor complexes in cell lysates, and Hsp90-binding ansamycin antibiotics disrupt the activity of Hsp90-dependent signaling proteins in cultured mammalian cells and prevent the association of p23 with Hsp90-receptor heterocomplexes; these observations have led to the hypotheses that p23 is required for the maturation of Hsp90 target proteins and that ansamycin antibiotics abrogate the activity of such proteins by disrupting the interaction of p23 with Hsp90. In this study, I demonstrate that ansamycin antibiotics disrupt the function of Hsp90 target proteins expressed in yeast cells; prevent the assembly of Sba1, a yeast p23-like protein, into steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes; and result in the assembly of receptor-Hsp90 complexes that are defective for ligand binding. To assess the role of p23 in Hsp90 target protein function, I show that the activity of Hsp90 target proteins is unaffected by deletion of SBA1. Interestingly, steroid receptor activity in cells lacking Sba1 displays increased sensitivity to ansamycin antibiotics, and this phenotype is rescued by the expression of human p23 in yeast cells. These findings indicate that Hsp90-dependent signaling proteins can achieve a functional conformation in vivo in the absence of p23. Furthermore, while the presence of p23 decreases the sensitivity of Hsp90-dependent processes to ansamycin treatment, ansamycin antibiotics disrupt signaling through some mechanism other than altering the Hsp90-p23 interaction.
Project description:In recent years, Hsp90 is found to interact with several telomeric proteins at various phases of cell cycle. The Hsp90 chaperone system controls assembly and disassembly of telomere structures and thus maintains the dynamic state of telomere. Here, for the first time we report that the activity of another telomeric protein Sir2p is modulated by Hsp82, the ortholog of Hsp90 from budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In a temperature sensitive Hsp90 deficient yeast strain (iG170Dhsp82), less abundant Sir2p is observed, resulting in de-repression of telomere silencing and a complete loss of mating type silencing. Intriguingly, over expression of Hsp90, either by exposing cells to heat shock or by introducing HSP82 overexpression plasmid also yields reduced level of Sir2p, with a consequential loss of telomere silencing. Thus, Hsp90 homeostasis maintains the cellular pool of Sir2p and thereby controls the reversible nature of telomere silencing. Interestingly, such regulation is independent of one of its major co-chaperones Sba1 (human ortholog of p23).
Project description:The Hsp90 chaperone machine is required for the folding, activation, and/or stabilization of more than 50 proteins directly related to malignant progression. Hsp90 contains small molecule binding sites at both its N- and C-terminal domains; however, limited structural and biochemical data regarding the C-terminal binding site is available. In this report, the small molecule binding site in the Hsp90 C-terminal domain was revealed by protease fingerprinting and photoaffinity labeling utilizing LC-MS/MS. The identified site was characterized by generation of a homology model for hHsp90? using the SAXS open structure of HtpG and docking the bioactive conformation of NB into the generated model. The resulting model for the bioactive conformation of NB bound to Hsp90? is presented herein.
Project description:Hsp90, a dimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone, is required for the folding and activation of numerous essential substrate "client" proteins including nuclear receptors, cell cycle kinases, and telomerase. Fundamental to its mechanism is an ensemble of dramatically different conformational states that result from nucleotide binding and hydrolysis and distinct sets of interdomain interactions. Previous structural and biochemical work identified a conserved arginine residue (R380 in yeast) in the Hsp90 middle domain (MD) that is required for wild type hydrolysis activity in yeast, and hence proposed to be a catalytic residue. As part of our investigations on the origins of species-specific differences in Hsp90 conformational dynamics we probed the role of this MD arginine in bacterial, yeast, and human Hsp90s using a combination of structural and functional approaches. While the R380A mutation compromised ATPase activity in all three homologs, the impact on ATPase activity was both variable and much more modest (2-7 fold) than the mutation of an active site glutamate (40 fold) known to be required for hydrolysis. Single particle electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that, for all Hsp90s, mutation of this arginine abrogated the ability to form the closed "ATP" conformational state in response to AMPPNP binding. Taken together with previous mutagenesis data exploring intra- and intermonomer interactions, these new data suggest that R380 does not directly participate in the hydrolysis reaction as a catalytic residue, but instead acts as an ATP-sensor to stabilize an NTD-MD conformation required for efficient ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:Hsp90 is a conserved chaperone that facilitates protein homeostasis. Our crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed an extension of the N-terminal β-strand previously shown to cross between protomers in the closed state. In this study, we address the regulatory function of this extension or 'strap' and demonstrate its responsibility for an unusual temperature dependence in ATPase rates. This dependence is a consequence of a thermally sensitive kinetic barrier between the apo 'open' and ATP-bound 'closed' conformations. The strap stabilizes the closed state through trans-protomer interactions. Displacement of cis-protomer contacts from the apo state is rate-limiting for closure and ATP hydrolysis. Strap release is coupled to rotation of the N-terminal domain and dynamics of the nucleotide binding pocket lid. The strap is conserved in higher eukaryotes but absent from yeast and prokaryotes suggesting its role as a thermal and kinetic regulator, adapting Hsp90s to the demands of unique cellular and organismal environments.