LncRNA H19 Regulates BMP2-Induced Hypertrophic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Promoting Runx2 Phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) triggers hypertrophic differentiation after chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which blocked the further application of BMP2-mediated cartilage tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of BMP2-mediated hypertrophic differentiation of MSCs. Materials and Methods:In vitro and in vivo chondrogenic differentiation models of MSCs were constructed. The expression of H19 in mouse limb was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Transgenes BMP2, H19 silencing, and overexpression were expressed by adenoviral vectors. Gene expression was determined by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Correlations between H19 expressions and other parameters were calculated with Spearman's correlation coefficients. The combination of H19 and Runx2 was identified by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis. Results:We identified that H19 expression level was highest in proliferative zone and decreased gradually from prehypertrophic zone to hypertrophic zone in mouse limbs. With the stimulation of BMP2, the highest expression level of H19 was followed after the peak expression level of Sox9; meanwhile, H19 expression levels were positively correlated with chondrogenic differentiation markers, especially in the late stage of BMP2 stimulation, and negatively correlated with hypertrophic differentiation markers. Our further experiments found that silencing H19 promoted BMP2-triggered hypertrophic differentiation through in vitro and in vivo tests, which indicated the essential role of H19 for maintaining the phenotype of BMP2-induced chondrocytes. In mechanism, we characterized that H19 regulated BMP2-mediated hypertrophic differentiation of MSCs by promoting the phosphorylation of Runx2. Conclusion:These findings suggested that H19 regulates BMP2-induced hypertrophic differentiation of MSCs by promoting the phosphorylation of Runx2.
Project description:Articular and growth plate cartilage both arise from condensations of mesenchymal cells, but ultimately develop important histological and functional differences. Each is composed of three layers-the superficial, mid and deep zones of articular cartilage and the resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system plays an important role in cartilage development. A gradient in expression of BMP-related genes has been observed across growth plate cartilage, likely playing a role in zonal differentiation. To investigate the presence of a similar expression gradient in articular cartilage, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to separate murine growth plate and articular cartilage from the proximal tibia into their six constituent zones, and used a solution hybridization assay with color-coded probes (nCounter) to quantify mRNAs for 30 different BMP-related genes in each zone. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were then used to confirm spatial expression patterns. Expression gradients for Bmp2 and 6 were observed across growth plate cartilage with highest expression in hypertrophic zone. However, intracellular BMP signaling, assessed by phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining, appeared to be higher in the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic area than in hypertrophic zone, possibly due to high expression of Smad7, an inhibitory Smad, in the hypertrophic zone. We also found BMP expression gradients across the articular cartilage with BMP agonists primarily expressed in the superficial zone and BMP functional antagonists primarily expressed in the deep zone. Phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining showed a similar gradient. In combination with previous evidence that BMPs regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, the current findings suggest that BMP signaling gradients exist across both growth plate and articular cartilage and that these gradients may contribute to the spatial differentiation of chondrocytes in the postnatal endochondral skeleton.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have chondrocyte differentiation potential and are considered to be a cell source for cell-transplantation-mediated repair of cartilage defects, including those associated with osteoarthritis (OA). However, chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation is a major obstacle for the application of hBMSCs in articular cartilage defect treatment. We have previously shown that microRNA-27b (miR-27b) inhibits hypertrophy of chondrocytes from rat knee cartilage. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-27b in chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation of hBMSCs. METHODS:Chondrogenic marker and microRNA expression in hBMSC chondrogenic pellets were evaluated using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The hBMSCs were transfected with miR-27b before inducing differentiation. Gene and protein expression levels were analyzed using RT-qPCR and western blot. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to confirm interaction between CBFB and RUNX2. Luciferase reporter assays were used to demonstrate that CBFB is a miR-27b target. Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated in hBMSCs treated with shRNA targeting CBFB. Chondrogenic hBMSC pellets overexpressing miR-27b were implanted into cartilage lesions in model rats; therapeutic effects were assessed based on histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:The hBMSCs showed typical MSC differentiation potentials. During chondrogenic differentiation, collagen 2 and 10 (COL2 and COL10), SOX9, and RUNX2 expression was upregulated. Expression of miR-140, miR-143, and miR-181a increased over time, whereas miR-27b and miR-221 were downregulated. Cartilage derived from hBMSC and overexpressing miR-27b exhibited higher expression of COL2 and SOX9, but lower expression of COL10, RUNX2, and CBFB than did the control cartilage. CBFB and RUNX2 formed a complex, and CBFB was identified as a novel miR-27b target. CBFB knockdown by shRNA during hBMSC chondrogenic differentiation led to significantly increased COL2 and SOX9 expression and decreased COL10 expression. Finally, miR-27b-overexpressing hBMSC chondrogenic pellets had better hyaline cartilage morphology and reduced expression of hypertrophic markers and tend to increase repair efficacy in vivo. CONCLUSION:MiR-27b plays an important role in preventing hypertrophic chondrogenesis of hBMSCs by targeting CBFB and is essential for maintaining a hyaline cartilage state. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of hBMSC chondrocyte differentiation and will aid in the development of strategies for treating cartilage injury based on hBMSC transplantation.
Project description:Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stromal progenitor cells that can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9 is one of the most potent and yet least characterized BMPs that are able to induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we conducted gene expression-profiling analysis and identified that Hey1 of the hairy/Enhancer of split-related repressor protein basic helix-loop-helix family was among the most significantly up-regulated early targets in BMP9-stimulated MSCs. We demonstrated that Hey1 expression was up-regulated at the immediate early stage of BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that Hey1 may be a direct target of the BMP9-induced Smad signaling pathway. Silencing Hey1 expression diminished BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo and led to chondrogenic differentiation. Likewise, constitutive Hey1 expression augmented BMP9-mediated bone matrix mineralization. Hey1 and Runx2 were shown to act synergistically in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation, and Runx2 expression significantly decreased in the absence of Hey1, suggesting that Runx2 may function downstream of Hey1. Accordingly, the defective osteogenic differentiation caused by Hey1 knockdown was rescued by exogenous Runx2 expression. Thus, our findings suggest that Hey1, through its interplay with Runx2, may play an important role in regulating BMP9-induced osteoblast lineage differentiation of MSCs.
Project description:Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) was used to attach biologically-active BMP2 to collagen type I-coated poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffolds. Irreversibly cross-linked BMP2 retained its activity and induced Smad-dependent gene expression in cells seeded on PLLA-BMP2 scaffolds. These modified scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured in low-serum and growth factor free medium and support deposition of the calcified matrix and induction of the molecular osteogenic markers Runx2, osteopontin, osteonectin and bone sialoprotein. Importantly, the PLLA-BMP2 scaffolds did not support chondrogenic differentiation in hBMSCs as there was no expression of chondrogenic markers aggrecan, Sox 9, and collagen type II, and no deposition of cartilaginous glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix. Thus, TG2-mediated cross-linking of BMP2 to a scaffold is a novel approach to induce osteoblast-specific programming of hBMSCs in a spatially controlled manner.
Project description:To investigate the functional effects of resveratrol (RSV) on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), we treated MSCs with RSV continuously during ex vivo expansion. MSCs were continuously treated with RSV from passage (P) 0 to P5. A proliferative capacity of RSV-treated MSCs was higher than that of non-treated MSCs and similar with P1-MSCs. Continuous treatment of RSV on MSCs increased the stemness and inhibited the senescence. During chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, RSV-treated MSCs had higher differentiation potential and reduced hypertrophic maturation, which are limitations for hyaline cartilage formation. The histological analysis of micromass demonstrated increased chondrogenic differentiation potential. We further explored the therapeutic effectiveness of this method in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. A rabbit osteochondral defect model was established to investigate the hyaline cartilage regeneration potential of RSV-treated MSCs. Moreover, the cartilage regeneration potential of RSV-treated MSCs was greater than that of untreated MSCs. The expression levels of chondrogenic markers increased and those of hypertrophic markers decreased in RSV-treated MSCs compared with untreated MSCs. Sustained treatment of RSV on MSCs during ex vivo expansion resulted in the maintenance of stemness and enhanced chondrogenic differentiation potential. Consequentially, highly efficient MSCs promoted superior hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo. This novel treatment method provides a basis for cell-based tissue engineering.
Project description:Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the form of pellet culture and encapsulation in alginate beads has been widely used as conventional model for in vitro chondrogenesis. However, comparative characterization between differentiation, hypertrophic markers, cell adhesion molecule and ultrastructural changes during alginate and pellet culture has not been described. Hence, the present study was conducted comparing MSCs cultured in pellet and alginate beads with monolayer culture. qPCR was performed to assess the expression of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and cell adhesion molecule genes, whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to assess the ultrastructural changes. In addition, immunocytochemistry for Collagen type II and aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis were performed. Our results indicate that pellet and alginate bead cultures were necessary for chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. It also indicates that cultures using alginate bead demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05) chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic (p < 0.05) gene expressions as compared with pellet cultures. N-cadherin and N-CAM1 expression were up-regulated in second and third weeks of culture and were comparable between the alginate bead and pellet culture groups, respectively. TEM images demonstrated ultrastructural changes resembling cell death in pellet cultures. Our results indicate that using alginate beads, MSCs express higher chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic gene expression. Enhanced production of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules was also observed in this group. These findings suggest that alginate bead culture may serve as a superior chondrogenic model, whereas pellet culture is more appropriate as a hypertrophic model of chondrogenesis.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) has been used to induce bone regeneration by promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, its effect is attenuated in osteoporotic conditions by unknown mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of reduced osteogenic effect of BMP2 in osteoporotic conditions. By interrogating the microarray data from osteoporosis patients, we revealed an upregulation of the epigenetic modifying protein lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A) and decreased Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression. Further studies were focused on the role of KDM5A in osteoporosis. We first established ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model and found that the BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoporotic MSCs was impaired. The elevated level of KDM5A was confirmed in osteoporotic MSCs. Overexpression of KDM5A in normal MSCs inhibited BMP2-induced osteogenesis. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation of osteoporotic MSCs was restored by specific KDM5A short hairpin RNA or inhibitor. Furthermore, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we demonstrated that KDM5A functions as endogenous modulator of osteogenic differentiation by decreasing H3K4me3 levels on promoters of Runx2, depend on its histone methylation activity. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of KDM5A in regulating bone formation in osteoporotic mice, and pretreatment with KDM5A inhibitor partly rescued the bone loss during osteoporosis. Our results show, for the first time, that KDM5A-mediated H3K4me3 modification participated in the etiology of osteoporosis and may provide new strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of BMP2 in osteoporotic conditions.
Project description:In the growth plate, the interplay between parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling tightly regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during longitudinal bone growth. We found that PTHrP increases the expression of Zfp521, a zinc finger transcriptional coregulator, in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Mice with chondrocyte-targeted deletion of Zfp521 resembled PTHrP(-/-) and chondrocyte-specific PTHR1(-/-) mice, with decreased chondrocyte proliferation, early hypertrophic transition, and reduced growth plate thickness. Deleting Zfp521 increased expression of Runx2 and Runx2 target genes, and decreased Cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expression while increasing Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Zfp521 associated with Runx2 in chondrocytes, antagonizing its activity via an HDAC4-dependent mechanism. PTHrP failed to upregulate Cyclin D1 and to antagonize Runx2, Ihh, and collagen X expression when Zfp521 was absent. Thus, Zfp521 is an important PTHrP target gene that regulates growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.
Project description:Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mimicking embryonal endochondral ossification and become hypertrophic. BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and Activin Membrane Bound Inhibitor (BAMBI) is a pseudoreceptor that regulates the activity of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and BMP signalling during chondrogenesis. Both TGF-? and BMP signalling are regulators of chondrogenic cell differentiation. Human bone marrow derived MSCs were chondrogenically predifferentiated in aggregate culture for 14 days. Thereafter, one group was subjected to hypertrophy enhancing media conditions while controls were kept in chondrogenic medium until day 28. Histological evaluation, gene expression by PCR, and Western blot analysis were carried out at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28. A subset of cultures was treated with the BMP inhibitor Noggin to test for BMP dependent expression of BAMBI. Hypertrophic differentiated pellets showed larger cells with increased collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase staining. There was significantly increased expression of BAMBI on gene expression and protein level in hypertrophic cultures compared to the chondrogenic control and increased BMP4 gene expression. Immunohistochemistry showed intense staining of BAMBI in hypertrophic cells. BAMBI expression was dose-dependently downregulated by Noggin. The pseudoreceptor BAMBI is upregulated upon enhancement of hypertrophy in MSC chondrogenic differentiation by a BMP dependent mechanism.