Effect of Lb. plantarum BFE 5092 Fermentation on Antinutrient and Oligosaccharide Composition of Whole Red Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).
ABSTRACT: Common beans are a leguminous plant of the genus Phaseolus. They are rich in protein, energy, and minerals. They confer a wide range of health benefits when consumed. Utilization of common bean has however been poor due to high antinutrient content that results in reduced nutrient digestibility and mineral bioavailability. Flatulence after consumption is also a huge deterrent to common bean consumption. Lactic acid fermentation is the most common form of food fermentation with the Lactobacilli spp dominating most spontaneous fermentations. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the antinutrient and flatulence causing oligosaccharide composition of red haricot bean. A factorial research design was used in the study. Red haricot beans were sorted and soaked for 15?h. The soaked beans were fermented in 2% salt-sugar solutions for 120?h. Experimental batch was inoculated with Lb. plantarum BFE 5092 (IF), and the control batch was spontaneously fermented (SF). Microbial growth and pH were monitored every 24?h during fermentation. After fermentation, the beans were dried and milled, and the flours were subjected to biochemical analysis. ANOVA was done using SPSS statistics 23. The pH decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 6.06 to 3.9 in both batches at the end of fermentation. The LAB counts significantly increased (P < 0.05) in both batches, whereas coliform counts decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Fungi were not detected in both batches. Soaking lowered tannins and phytates and raffinose concentrations significantly but had no significant effect on stachyose concentration. At the end of 120?h of fermentation, the tannin content was 109.50 and 54.04?mg/100?g in IF and SF, respectively. Phytates were at 242.52 and 163.43?mg/100?g in IF and SF, respectively. Raffinose content was 32.85 and 32.58?mg/100?g in IF and SF, respectively, while stachyose content was 593.33 and 467.49?mg/100?g in IF and SF, respectively. This research showed that LAB is able to ferment soaked whole red haricot and lower the tannin, phytate, raffinose, and stachyose content significantly. Spontaneous fermentation lowered these antinutrients and oligosaccharides better than inoculation with Lb. plantarum BFE 5092.
Project description:Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, RFOs are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the RFO physiology in A. thaliana. In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970) as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 ?M) as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only semi-quantitative PCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ?AtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ?AtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the RFO physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf accumulation under abiotic stress.
Project description:Herein, we present a biocatalytic method to produce raffinose and stachyose using sucrose as the substrate. An in vitro multienzyme system was developed using five enzymes, namely, sucrose synthase (SUS), UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (GalE), galactinol synthase (GS), raffinose synthase (RS), and stachyose synthase (STS), and two intermedia, namely, UDP and inositol, which can be recycled. This reaction system produced 11.1 mM raffinose using purified enzymes under optimal reaction conditions and substrate concentrations. Thereafter, a stepwise cascade reaction strategy was employed to circumvent the instability of RS and STS in this system, and a 4.2-fold increase in raffinose production was observed. The enzymatic cascade reactions were then conducted using cell extracts to avoid the need for enzyme purification and supplementation with UDP. Such modification further increased raffinose production to 86.6 mM and enabled the synthesis of 61.1 mM stachyose. The UDP turnover number reached 337. Finally, inositol in the reaction system was recycled five times, and 255.8 mM raffinose (128.9 g/liter) was obtained.IMPORTANCE Soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) have elicited considerable attention because of their potential applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. This study demonstrates an alternative method to produce raffinose and stachyose, which are the major bioactive components of SBOS, from sucrose via an in vitro enzyme system. High concentrations of galactinol, raffinose, and stachyose were synthesized with the aid of a stepwise cascade reaction process, which can successfully address the issue of mismatched enzyme characteristics of an in vitro metabolic engineering platform. The biocatalytic approach presented in this work may enable the synthesis of other valuable galactosyl oligosaccharides, such as verbascose and higher homologs, which are difficult to obtain through plant extraction.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking the enzyme dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) show markedly reduced ability to grow on raffinose and stachyose as sole carbon sources. Import of these sugars occurs through the previously characterized raffinose ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, encoded by the raf operon, that lacks the necessary ATP-binding protein. In this study, we identified the raffinose ATP-binding protein RafK and showed that it was directly involved in raffinose and stachyose import. RafK carries a C-terminal regulatory domain present in a subset of ATP-binding proteins that has been involved in both direct regulation of transporter activity (inducer exclusion) and transcription of transporter genes. Pneumococci lacking RafK showed a 50- to 80-fold reduction in expression of the raf operon genes aga (alpha-galactosidase) and rafEFG (raffinose substrate binding and permease genes), and both glucose and sucrose inhibited raffinose uptake through inducer exclusion. Like RafK, the presence of DLDH also activated the expression of raf operon genes, as DLDH-negative pneumococci showed a significantly decreased expression of aga and rafEFG, but DLDH did not regulate rafK or the putative regulatory genes rafR and rafS. DLDH also bound directly to RafK both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the possibility that DLDH regulates raffinose transport by a direct interaction with the regulatory domain of the transporter. Finally, although not as attenuated as DLDH-negative bacteria, pneumococci lacking RafK were significantly outcompeted by wild-type bacteria in colonization experiments of murine lung and nasopharynx, indicating a role for raffinose and stachyose transport in vivo.
Project description:The conjugative plasmid pRSD2 carries a raf operon that encodes a peripheral raffinose metabolic pathway in enterobacteria. In addition to the previously known raf genes, we identified another gene, rafY, which in Escherichia coli codes for an outer membrane protein (molecular mass, 53 kDa) similar in function to the known glycoporins LamB (maltoporin) and ScrY (sucrose porin). Sequence comparisons with LamB and ScrY revealed no significant similarities; however, both lamB and scrY mutants are functionally complemented by RafY. Expressed from the tac promoter, RafY significantly increases the uptake rates for maltose, sucrose, and raffinose at low substrate concentrations; in particular it shifts the apparent K(m) for raffinose transport from 2 mM to 130 microM. Moreover, RafY permits diffusion of the tetrasaccharide stachyose and of maltodextrins up to maltoheptaose through the outer membrane of E. coli. A comparison of all three glycoporins in regard to their substrate selectivity revealed that both ScrY and RafY have a broad substrate range which includes alpha-galactosides while LamB seems to be restricted to malto-oligosaccharides. It supports growth only on maltodextrins but not, like the others, on raffinose and stachyose.
Project description:Fructans are known to occur in 15% of flowering plants and their accumulation is often associated with stress responses. Typically, particular fructan types occur within particular plant families. The family of the Buxaceae, harboring Pachysandra terminalis, an accumulator of graminan- and levan-type fructans, also harbors boxtree (Buxus sempervirens), a cold and drought tolerant species. Surprisingly, boxtree leaves do not accumulate the expected graminan- and levan-type fructans, but small inulin fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS: 1-kestotriose and nystose) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs: raffinose and stachyose) instead. The seasonal variation in concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose, FOS and RFOs were followed. Raffinose and stachyose peaked during the winter months, while FOS peaked at a very narrow time-interval in spring, immediately preceded by a prominent sucrose accumulation. Sucrose may function as a reserve carbohydrate in winter and early spring leaves. The switch from RFO to fructan metabolism in spring strongly suggests that fructans and RFOs fulfill distinct roles in boxtree leaves. RFOs may play a key role in the cold acclimation of winter leaves while temporal fructan biosynthesis in spring might increase sink strength to sustain the formation of new shoots.
Project description:Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop. However, multiple abiotic stresses severely affect sesame growth and production. Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), such as raffinose and stachyose, play an important role in desiccation tolerance of plants and developing seeds. In the present study, three types of key enzymes, galactinol synthase (GolS), raffinose synthase (RafS) and stachyose synthase (StaS), responsible for the biosynthesis of RFOs were identified at the genome-wide scale in sesame. A total of 7 SiGolS and 15 SiRS genes were identified in the sesame genome. Transcriptome analyses showed that SiGolS and SiRS genes exhibited distinct expression profiles in different tissues and seed developmental stages. Comparative expression analyses under various abiotic stresses indicated that most of SiGolS and SiRS genes were significantly regulated by drought, osmotic, salt, and waterlogging stresses, but slightly affected by cold stress. The up-regulation of several SiGolS and SiRS genes by multiple abiotic stresses suggested their active implication in sesame abiotic stress responses. Taken together, these results shed light on the RFOs-mediated abiotic stress resistance in sesame and provide a useful framework for improving abiotic stress resistance of sesame through genetic engineering.
Project description:Stachyose is the main transporting sugar in phloem of Raffinose family oligosaccharides-transporting species. Stachyose synthase (STS) is a key enzyme for stachyose biosynthesis, but the gene encoding STS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a model plant for studying stachyose metabolism and phloem function. In this research, stachyose synthase gene (CsSTS) from cucumber was isolated and its physiological functions were analyzed. CsSTS expressed mainly in the phloem of the minor veins in mature leaves and localized to companion cells. Reverse genetics with CsSTS RNAi lines revealed obviously reductions in STS activity and stachyose content along with a small amount of starch accumulation in leaves, suggesting that CsSTS is involved in phloem loading of cucumber leaves. After 6 °C low temperature stress, malondialdehyde content and electrical conductivity increased, especially in CsSTS-RNAi plants. But CsSTS expression was up-regulated, STS activity and stachyose level increased, the activities of reactive-oxygen-scavenging enzyme in cucumber seedlings improved significantly and starch accumulation reduced, especially in CsSTS-OE lines. These results demonstrate clearly that CsSTS is involved in phloem loading, carbohydrate distribution and tolerance of cucumber seedlings to low temperature stress.
Project description:Background:Soybean meal is an excellent and cost-effective protein source; however, its usage is limited in the piglet due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the antigens glycinin and ?-conglycinin. The objective of the current study was to screen and select for bacteria that can be efficiently adopted to ferment soybean meal in order to solve this problem. Results:Bacteria were isolated from fermented soy foods and the grass carp intestine, and strains selected for high protease, cellulase and amylase activities. The isolated bacteria were characterized as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacilus amyloliquefacien, respectively. Fermentation with food-derived Isolate-2 and fish-derived F-9 increased crude protein content by 5.32% and 8.27%, respectively; improved the amino acid profile by increasing certain essential amino acids, broke down larger soy protein to 35 kDa and under, eliminated antigenicity against glycinin and ?-conglycinin, and removed raffinose and stachyose in the soybean meal following a 24-h fermentation. Conclusions:Our results suggest these two B. amyloliquefaciens bacteria can efficiently solid state ferment soybean meal and ultimately produce a more utilizable food source for growing healthy piglets.
Project description:A novel ?-galactosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 36 was cloned from Bacillus coagulans, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. The purified enzyme Aga-BC7050 was 85 kDa according to SDS-PAGE and 168 kDa according to gel filtration, indicating that its native structure is a dimer. With p-nitrophenyl-?-d- galactopyranoside (pNPGal) as the substrate, optimal temperature and pH were 55 °C and 6.0, respectively. At 60 °C for 30 min, it retained > 50% of its activity. It was stable at pH 5.0-10.0, and showed remarkable resistance to proteinase K, subtilisin A, ?-chymotrypsin, and trypsin. Its activity was not inhibited by glucose, sucrose, xylose, or fructose, but was slightly inhibited at galactose concentrations up to 100 mM. Aga-BC7050 was highly active toward pNPGal, melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose. It completely hydrolyzed melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose in < 30 min. These characteristics suggest that Aga-BC7050 could be used in feed and food industries and sugar processing.
Project description:We identified and characterized a mutant of soybean stachyose synthase gene controlling reduced stachyose content which benefit the soybean seed composition breeding program in the future. It has been shown that in soybean, increased sucrose and reduced raffinose family oligosaccharides would have a positive impact on the world's feed industry by improving digestibility and feed efficiency. We searched for new sources of modified oligosaccharide content in a subset of the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection and then identified plant introduction (PI) 603176A as having ultra-low stachyose content (0.5%). We identified a 33-bp deletion mutant in the putative stachyose synthase gene (STS gene, Glyma19g40550) of PI 603176A. A co-dominate indel marker was successfully developed from this 33-bp deletion area and was genetically mapped into two F 2:3 populations and a F 4:5 population, which associated with low stachyose content in the progeny lines. These observations provided strong evidence that the STS gene is responsible for stachyose biosynthesis in the soybean plant. Expression of the sts gene remained at the normal level, suggesting the loss of function in the gene is due to defective protein function. This gene-based perfect genetic marker for low stachyose content can be useful for marker-assisted selection in soybean molecular breeding programs.