P-type transparent superconductivity in a layered oxide.
ABSTRACT: Development of p-type transparent conducting materials has been a challenging issue. The known p-type transparent conductors unsatisfy both of high transparency and high conductivity nor exhibit superconductivity. Here, we report on epitaxial synthesis, excellent p-type transparent conductivity, and two-dimensional superconductivity of Li1-x NbO2. The LiNbO2 epitaxial films with NbO2 sheets parallel to (111) plane of cubic MgAl2O4 substrates were stabilized by heating amorphous films. The hole doping associated with Li+ ion deintercalation triggered superconductivity below 4.2 kelvin. Optical measurements revealed that the averaged transmittance to the visible light of ~100-nanometer-thick Li1-x NbO2 was ~77%, despite the large number of hole carriers exceeding 1022 per cubic centimeter. These results indicate that Li1-x NbO2 is a previously unknown p-type transparent superconductor, in which strongly correlated electrons at the largely isolated Nb 4d z2 band play an important role for the high transparency.
Project description:Unique superconductivity at surfaces/interfaces, as exemplified by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces, and the high transition temperature in ultrathin FeSe films, have triggered intense debates on how superconductivity is affected in atomic and electronic reconstructions. The surface of superconducting cubic spinel oxide LiTi2O4 is another interesting system because its inherent surface electronic and atomic reconstructions add complexity to superconducting properties. Investigations of such surfaces are hampered by the lack of single crystals or high-quality thin films. Here, using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we report an unexpected small superconducting energy gap and a long coherence length on the surface of LiTi2O4(111) epitaxial thin films. Furthermore, we find that a pseudogap opening at the Fermi energy modifies the surface superconductivity. Our results open an avenue for exploring anomalous superconductivity on the surface of cubic transition-metal oxides, where the electronic states are spontaneously modulated involving rich many-body interactions.
Project description:Electronics allowing for visible light to pass through are attractive, where a key challenge is to make the core functional units transparent. Here, it is shown that transparent electronics can be constructed by epitaxial growth of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) on single-layer graphene (SLG) to give a desirable transparency of 95.7% to 550 nm visible light and an electrical conductivity of 4.0 × 104 S m-1. Through lattice and symmetry match, collective alignment of MOF pores and dense packing of MOFs vertically on SLG are achieved, as directly visualized by electron microscopy. These MOF-on-SLG constructs are capable of room-temperature recognition of gas molecules at the ppb level with a linear range from 10 to 108 ppb, providing real-time gas monitoring function in transparent electronics. The corresponding devices can be fabricated on flexible substrates with large size, 3 × 5 cm, and afford continuous folding for more than 200 times without losing conductivity or transparency.
Project description:Silver nanowires (AgNWs) show promise for fabricating flexible transparent conductors owing to their excellent conductivity, high transparency, and good mechanical properties. Here, we present the fabrication of transparent films composed of AgNWs with diameters of 20-30 nm and lengths of 25-30 μm on polyethylene terephthalate substrates and glass slides substrates using the Meyer rod method. We systematically investigated the films' optoelectronic and electrothermal properties. The morphology remained intact when heated at 25-150 °C and the AgNWs film showed high conductivity (17.6-14.3 Ω∙sq-1), excellent transmittance (93.9-91.8%) and low surface roughness values (11.2-14.7 nm). When used as a heater, the transparent AgNW conductive film showed rapid heating at low input voltages owing to a uniform heat distribution across the whole substrate surface. Additionally, the conductivity of the film decreased with increasing bending cycle numbers; however, the film still exhibited a good conductivity and heating performances after repeated bending.
Project description:Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What's more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3.
Project description:Indium tin oxide (ITO) still remains as the main candidate for high-performance optoelectronic devices, but there is a vital requirement in the development of sol-gel based synthesizing techniques with regards to green environment and higher conductivity. Graphene/ITO transparent bi-film was synthesized by a two-step process: 10 wt. % tin-doped ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO3)3.H2O and SnCl4, without using organic additives, on surface free energy enhanced (from 53.826 to 97.698 mJm-2) glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment, which facilitated void-free continuous ITO film due to high surface wetting. The chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene was transferred onto the synthesized ITO to enhance its electrical properties and it was capable of reducing sheet resistance over 12% while preserving the bi-film surface smoother. The ITO films contain the In2O3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of cubic structure with 14.35?±?0.5?nm crystallite size. The graphene/ITO bi-film exhibits reproducible optical transparency with 88.66% transmittance at 550?nm wavelength, and electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 117 ?/sq which is much lower than that of individual sol-gel derived ITO film.
Project description:Random networks of silver nano wires have been considered for use in transparent conductive films as an alternative to Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), which is unsuitable for flexible devices. However, the random distribution of nano wires makes such conductive films non-uniform. As electrical conductivity is achieved through a percolation process, understanding the scale-dependency of the macroscopic properties (like electrical conductivity) and the exact efficiency of the network (the proportion of nano wires that participate in electrical conduction) is essential for optimizing the design. In this paper, we propose a computational method for identifying the representative volume element (RVE) of nano wire networks. This defines the minimum pixel size in devices using such transparent electrodes. The RVE is used to compute the macroscopic properties of films and to quantify the electrically conducting efficiency of networks. Then, the sheet resistance and transparency of networks are calculated based on the predicted RVEs, in order to analyze the effects of nano wire networks on the electrical and optical properties of conductive films. The results presented in this paper provide insights that help optimizing random nano wire networks in transparent conductive films for achieving better efficiencies.
Project description:We have successfully fabricated transparent conductive mesoporous indium tin oxide (TCM-ITO) films by a screen-printing method. The TCM-ITO films possess approximately 22?nm mesopores and obtain electrical conductivity up to 14.96?S/cm by adjusting the mass ratio of cubic-shaped ITO nanoparticles to ethyl cellulose (EC) and precisely controlling the annealing process. The regulation mechanism of EC and the heat-induced recrystallization process of ITO nanoparticles are elaborated. The internal kinetic processes of the films based on different surface states are analysed, and an extensible impedance model is established.
Project description:Strain effects in epitaxial films can substantially enhance individual functional properties or induce properties which do not exist in corresponding bulk materials. The bcc α-Fe50Mn50 films are a ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature between 650 K and 750 K, which do not exist in nature can be manipulated through the tensile strain. In this study, γ-Fe50Mn50 epitaxial films grown on GaAs(001) using molecular beam epitaxy are found to structural transition from the face-centered-cubic (fcc, a = 0.327 nm) γ-phase to the body-centered-cubic (bcc, a = 0.889 nm) α-phase. For α-Fe50Mn50 epitaxial films, ferromagnetism is accompanied by structural phase transition due to the tensile strain induced by the differences of the thermal expansion between the film and the substrate. Moreover, by realizing in epitaxial films with fcc structure a tensile strain state, phase transitions were introduced Fe-Mn alloy system with bcc structure. These findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and properties of epitaxial CuAu-I type antiferromagnetic alloy thin films under strain.
Project description:We have studied the Mg doping of cubic GaN grown by plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PA-MBE) over GaAs (001) substrates. In particular, we concentrated on conditions to obtain heavy p-type doping to achieve low resistance films which can be used in bipolar devices. We simulated the Mg-doped GaN transport properties by density functional theory (DFT) to compare with the experimental data. Mg-doped GaN cubic epitaxial layers grown under optimized conditions show a free hole carrier concentration with a maximum value of 6?×?1019 cm-3 and mobility of 3 cm2/Vs. Deep level transient spectroscopy shows the presence of a trap with an activation energy of 114 meV presumably associated with nitrogen vacancies, which could be the cause for the observed self-compensation behavior in heavily Mg-doped GaN involving Mg-VN complexes. Furthermore, valence band analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed an Mg ionization energy of about 100 meV, which agrees quite well with the value of 99.6 meV obtained by DFT. Our results show that the cubic phase is a suitable alternative to generate a high free hole carrier concentration for GaN.
Project description:We reported the epitaxial growth of c-axis-oriented Bi1-xBaxCuSeO (0?? x ??10%) thin films and investigated the effect of Ba doping on the structure, valence state of elements, and thermoelectric properties of the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveal that Bi3+ is partially reduced to the lower valence state after Ba doping, while Cu and Se ions still exist as +?1 and -?2 valence state, respectively. As the Ba doping content increases, both resistivity and Seebeck coefficient decrease because of the increased hole carrier concentration. A large power factor, as high as 1.24 mWm-1 K-2 at 673 K, has been achieved in the 7.5% Ba-doped BiCuSeO thin film, which is 1.5 times higher than those reported for the corresponding bulk samples. Considering that the nanoscale-thick Ba-doped films should have a very low thermal conductivity, high ZT can be expected in the films.