Radical SAM Enzyme HydE Generates Adenosylated Fe(I) Intermediates En Route to the [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Catalytic H-Cluster.
ABSTRACT: The H-cluster of [FeFe]-hydrogenase consists of a [4Fe-4S]H-subcluster linked by a cysteinyl bridge to a unique organometallic [2Fe]H-subcluster assigned as the site of interconversion between protons and molecular hydrogen. This [2Fe]H-subcluster is assembled by a set of Fe-S maturase enzymes HydG, HydE and HydF. Here we show that the HydG product [FeII(Cys)(CO)2(CN)] synthon is the substrate of the radical SAM enzyme HydE, with the generated 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical attacking the cysteine S to form a C5'-S bond concomitant with reduction of the central low-spin Fe(II) to the Fe(I) oxidation state. This leads to the cleavage of the cysteine C3-S bond, producing a mononuclear [FeI(CO)2(CN)S] species that serves as the precursor to the dinuclear Fe(I)Fe(I) center of the [2Fe]H-subcluster. This work unveils the role played by HydE in the enzymatic assembly of the H-cluster and expands the scope of radical SAM enzyme chemistry.
Project description:Hydrogenase enzymes catalyze the rapid and reversible interconversion of H2 with protons and electrons. The active site of the [FeFe] hydrogenase is the H cluster, which consists of a [4Fe-4S]H subcluster linked to an organometallic [2Fe]H subcluster. Understanding the biosynthesis and catalytic mechanism of this structurally unusual active site will aid in the development of synthetic and biological hydrogenase catalysts for applications in solar fuel generation. The [2Fe]H subcluster is synthesized and inserted by three maturase enzymes-HydE, HydF, and HydG-in a complex process that involves inorganic, organometallic, and organic radical chemistry. HydG is a member of the radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) family of enzymes and is thought to play a prominent role in [2Fe]H subcluster biosynthesis by converting inorganic Fe(2+), l-cysteine (Cys), and l-tyrosine (Tyr) into an organometallic [(Cys)Fe(CO)2(CN)](-) intermediate that is eventually incorporated into the [2Fe]H subcluster. In this Forum Article, the mechanism of [2Fe]H subcluster biosynthesis is discussed with a focus on how this key [(Cys)Fe(CO)2(CN)](-) species is formed. Particular attention is given to the initial metallocluster composition of HydG, the modes of substrate binding (Fe(2+), Cys, Tyr, and SAM), the mechanism of SAM-mediated Tyr cleavage to CO and CN(-), and the identification of the final organometallic products of the reaction.
Project description:[FeFe]-hydrogenases are nature's most prolific hydrogen catalysts, excelling at facilely interconverting H2 and protons. The catalytic core common to all [FeFe]-hydrogenases is a complex metallocofactor, referred to as the H-cluster, which is composed of a standard [4Fe-4S] cluster linked through a bridging thiolate to a 2Fe subcluster harboring dithiomethylamine, carbon monoxide, and cyanide ligands. This 2Fe subcluster is synthesized and inserted into [FeFe]-hydrogenase by three maturase enzymes denoted HydE, HydF, and HydG. HydE and HydG are radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes and synthesize the nonprotein ligands of the H-cluster. HydF is a GTPase that functions as a scaffold or carrier for 2Fe subcluster production. Herein, we utilize UV-visible, circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic studies to establish the existence of redox active [4Fe-4S] and [2Fe-2S] clusters bound to HydF. We have used spectroelectrochemical titrations to assign iron-sulfur cluster midpoint potentials, have shown that HydF purifies with a reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster in the absence of exogenous reducing agents, and have tracked iron-sulfur cluster spectroscopic changes with quaternary structural perturbations. Our results provide an important foundation for understanding the maturation process by defining the iron-sulfur cluster content of HydF prior to its interaction with HydE and HydG. We speculate that the [2Fe-2S] cluster of HydF either acts as a placeholder for HydG-derived Fe(CO)2CN species or serves as a scaffold for 2Fe subcluster assembly.
Project description:Hydrogenases catalyze the redox interconversion of protons and H2, an important reaction for a number of metabolic processes and for solar fuel production. In FeFe hydrogenases, catalysis occurs at the H cluster, a metallocofactor comprising a [4Fe-4S]H subcluster coupled to a [2Fe]H subcluster bound by CO, CN(-), and azadithiolate ligands. The [2Fe]H subcluster is assembled by the maturases HydE, HydF, and HydG. HydG is a member of the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine family of enzymes that transforms Fe and L-tyrosine into an [Fe(CO)2(CN)] synthon that is incorporated into the H cluster. Although it is thought that the site of synthon formation in HydG is the "dangler" Fe of a [5Fe] cluster, many mechanistic aspects of this chemistry remain unresolved including the full ligand set of the synthon, how the dangler Fe initially binds to HydG, and how the synthon is released at the end of the reaction. To address these questions, we herein show that L-cysteine (Cys) binds the auxiliary [4Fe-4S] cluster of HydG and further chelates the dangler Fe. We also demonstrate that a [4Fe-4S]aux[CN] species is generated during HydG catalysis, a process that entails the loss of Cys and the [Fe(CO)2(CN)] fragment; on this basis, we suggest that Cys likely completes the coordination sphere of the synthon. Thus, through spectroscopic analysis of HydG before and after the synthon is formed, we conclude that Cys serves as the ligand platform on which the synthon is built and plays a role in both Fe(2+) binding and synthon release.
Project description:The organometallic H cluster at the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenase consists of a 2Fe subcluster coordinated by cyanide, carbon monoxide, and a nonprotein dithiolate bridged to a [4Fe-4S] cluster via a cysteinate ligand. Biosynthesis of this cluster requires three accessory proteins, two of which (HydE and HydG) are radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes. The third, HydF, is a GTPase. We present here spectroscopic and kinetic studies of HydF that afford fundamental new insights into the mechanism of H-cluster assembly. Electron paramagnetic spectroscopy reveals that HydF binds both [4Fe-4S] and [2Fe-2S] clusters; however, when HydF is expressed in the presence of HydE and HydG (HydF(EG)), only the [4Fe-4S] cluster is observed by EPR. Insight into the fate of the [2Fe-2S] cluster harbored by HydF is provided by FTIR, which shows the presence of carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands in HydF(EG). The thorough kinetic characterization of the GTPase activity of HydF shows that activity can be gated by monovalent cations and further suggests that GTPase activity is associated with synthesis of the 2Fe subcluster precursor on HydF, rather than with transfer of the assembled precursor to hydrogenase. Interestingly, we show that whereas the GTPase activity is independent of the presence of the FeS clusters on HydF, GTP perturbs the EPR spectra of the clusters, suggesting communication between the GTP- and cluster-binding sites. Together, the results indicate that the 2Fe subcluster of the H cluster is synthesized on HydF from a [2Fe-2S] cluster framework in a process requiring HydE, HydG, and GTP.
Project description:Three iron-sulfur proteins--HydE, HydF, and HydG--play a key role in the synthesis of the [2Fe](H) component of the catalytic H-cluster of FeFe hydrogenase. The radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzyme HydG lyses free tyrosine to produce p-cresol and the CO and CN(-) ligands of the [2Fe](H) cluster. Here, we applied stopped-flow Fourier transform infrared and electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopies to probe the formation of HydG-bound Fe-containing species bearing CO and CN(-) ligands with spectroscopic signatures that evolve on the 1- to 1000-second time scale. Through study of the (13)C, (15)N, and (57)Fe isotopologs of these intermediates and products, we identify the final HydG-bound species as an organometallic Fe(CO)2(CN) synthon that is ultimately transferred to apohydrogenase to form the [2Fe](H) component of the H-cluster.
Project description:Nature utilizes [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes to catalyze the interconversion between H2 and protons and electrons. Catalysis occurs at the H-cluster, a carbon monoxide-, cyanide-, and dithiomethylamine-coordinated 2Fe subcluster bridged via a cysteine to a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biosynthesis of this unique metallocofactor is accomplished by three maturase enzymes denoted HydE, HydF, and HydG. HydE and HydG belong to the radical S-adenosylmethionine superfamily of enzymes and synthesize the nonprotein ligands of the H-cluster. These enzymes interact with HydF, a GTPase that acts as a scaffold or carrier protein during 2Fe subcluster assembly. Prior characterization of HydF demonstrated the protein exists in both dimeric and tetrameric states and coordinates both [4Fe-4S]2+/+ and [2Fe-2S]2+/+ clusters [Shepard, E. M., Byer, A. S., Betz, J. N., Peters, J. W., and Broderick, J. B. (2016) Biochemistry 55, 3514-3527]. Herein, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is utilized to characterize the [2Fe-2S]+ and [4Fe-4S]+ clusters bound to HydF. Examination of spin relaxation times using pulsed EPR in HydF samples exhibiting both [4Fe-4S]+ and [2Fe-2S]+ cluster EPR signals supports a model in which the two cluster types either are bound to widely separated sites on HydF or are not simultaneously bound to a single HydF species. Gel filtration chromatographic analyses of HydF spectroscopic samples strongly suggest the [2Fe-2S]+ and [4Fe-4S]+ clusters are coordinated to the dimeric form of the protein. Lastly, we examined the 2Fe subcluster-loaded form of HydF and showed the dimeric state is responsible for [FeFe]-hydrogenase activation. Together, the results indicate a specific role for the HydF dimer in the H-cluster biosynthesis pathway.
Project description:HydE and HydG are radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine enzymes required for the maturation of [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA) and produce the nonprotein organic ligands characteristic of its unique catalytic cluster. The catalytic cluster of HydA (the H-cluster) is a typical [4Fe-4S] cubane bridged to a 2Fe-subcluster that contains two carbon monoxides, three cyanides, and a bridging dithiomethylamine as ligands. While recent studies have shed light on the nature of diatomic ligand biosynthesis by HydG, little information exists on the function of HydE. Herein, we present biochemical, spectroscopic, bioinformatic, and molecular modeling data that together map the active site and provide significant insight into the role of HydE in H-cluster biosynthesis. Electron paramagnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopic studies demonstrate that reconstituted HydE binds two [4Fe-4S] clusters and copurifies with S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Incorporation of deuterium from D2O into 5'-deoxyadenosine, the cleavage product of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, coupled with molecular docking experiments suggests that the HydE substrate contains a thiol functional group. This information, along with HydE sequence similarity and genome context networks, has allowed us to redefine the presumed mechanism for HydE away from BioB-like sulfur insertion chemistry; these data collectively suggest that the source of the sulfur atoms in the dithiomethylamine bridge of the H-cluster is likely derived from HydE's thiol containing substrate.
Project description:Three maturase enzymes-HydE, HydF, and HydG-synthesize and insert the organometallic component of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site (the H-cluster). HydG generates the first organometallic intermediates in this process, ultimately producing an [Fe(CO)2(CN)] complex. A limitation in understanding the mechanism by which this complex forms has been uncertainty regarding the precise metallocluster composition of HydG that comprises active enzyme. We herein show that the HydG auxiliary cluster must bind both l-cysteine and a dangler Fe in order to generate the [Fe(CO)2(CN)] product. These findings support a mechanistic framework in which a [(Cys)Fe(CO)2(CN)](-) species is a key intermediate in H-cluster maturation.
Project description:Maturation of [FeFe] hydrogenases requires the biosynthesis and insertion of the catalytic iron-sulfur cluster, the H cluster. Two radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) proteins proposed to function in H cluster biosynthesis, HydEF and HydG, were recently identified in the hydEF-1 mutant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (M. C. Posewitz, P. W. King, S. L. Smolinski, L. Zhang, M. Seibert, and M. L. Ghirardi, J. Biol. Chem. 279:25711-25720, 2004). Previous efforts to study [FeFe] hydrogenase maturation in Escherichia coli by coexpression of C. reinhardtii HydEF and HydG and the HydA1 [FeFe] hydrogenase were hindered by instability of the hydEF and hydG expression clones. A more stable [FeFe] hydrogenase expression system has been achieved in E. coli by cloning and coexpression of hydE, hydF, and hydG from the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Coexpression of the C. acetobutylicum maturation proteins with various algal and bacterial [FeFe] hydrogenases in E. coli resulted in purified enzymes with specific activities that were similar to those of the enzymes purified from native sources. In the case of structurally complex [FeFe] hydrogenases, maturation of the catalytic sites could occur in the absence of an accessory iron-sulfur cluster domain. Initial investigations of the structure and function of the maturation proteins HydE, HydF, and HydG showed that the highly conserved radical-SAM domains of both HydE and HydG and the GTPase domain of HydF were essential for achieving biosynthesis of active [FeFe] hydrogenases. Together, these results demonstrate that the catalytic domain and a functionally complete set of Hyd maturation proteins are fundamental to achieving biosynthesis of catalytic [FeFe] hydrogenases.
Project description:Assembly of active Fe-hydrogenase in the chloroplasts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires auxiliary maturases, the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent enzymes HydG and HydE and the GTPase HydF. Genes encoding homologous maturases had been found in the genomes of all eubacteria that contain Fe-hydrogenase genes but not yet in any other eukaryote. By means of proteomic analysis, we identified a homologue of HydG in the hydrogenosomes, mitochondrion-related organelles that produce hydrogen under anaerobiosis by the activity of Fe-hydrogenase, in the pathogenic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Genes encoding two other components of the Hyd system, HydE and HydF, were found in the T. vaginalis genome database. Overexpression of HydG, HydE, and HydF in trichomonads showed that all three proteins are specifically targeted to the hydrogenosomes, the site of Fe-hydrogenase maturation. The results of Neighbor-Net analyses of sequence similarities are consistent with a common eubacterial ancestor of HydG, HydE, and HydF in T. vaginalis and C. reinhardtii, supporting a monophyletic origin of Fe-hydrogenase maturases in the two eukaryotes. Although Fe-hydrogenases exist in only a few eukaryotes, related Narf proteins with different cellular functions are widely distributed. Thus, we propose that the acquisition of Fe-hydrogenases, together with Hyd maturases, occurred once in eukaryotic evolution, followed by the appearance of Narf through gene duplication of the Fe-hydrogenase gene and subsequent loss of the Hyd proteins in eukaryotes in which Fe-hydrogenase function was lost.