Structural and biochemical characterization of the environmental MBLs MYO-1, ECV-1 and SHD-1.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:MBLs form a large and heterogeneous group of bacterial enzymes conferring resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. A large environmental reservoir of MBLs has been identified, which can act as a source for transfer into human pathogens. Therefore, structural investigation of environmental and clinically rare MBLs can give new insights into structure-activity relationships to explore the role of catalytic and second shell residues, which are under selective pressure. OBJECTIVES:To investigate the structure and activity of the environmental subclass B1 MBLs MYO-1, SHD-1 and ECV-1. METHODS:The respective genes of these MBLs were cloned into vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified enzymes were characterized with respect to their catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The enzymatic activities and MICs were determined for a panel of different ?-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems. Thermostability was measured and structures were solved using X-ray crystallography (MYO-1 and ECV-1) or generated by homology modelling (SHD-1). RESULTS:Expression of the environmental MBLs in E. coli resulted in the characteristic MBL profile, not affecting aztreonam susceptibility and decreasing susceptibility to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins. The purified enzymes showed variable catalytic activity in the order of <5% to ?70% compared with the clinically widespread NDM-1. The thermostability of ECV-1 and SHD-1 was up to 8°C higher than that of MYO-1 and NDM-1. Using solved structures and molecular modelling, we identified differences in their second shell composition, possibly responsible for their relatively low hydrolytic activity. CONCLUSIONS:These results show the importance of environmental species acting as reservoirs for MBL-encoding genes.
Project description:A Swedish patient of Indian origin traveled to New Delhi, India, and acquired a urinary tract infection caused by a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that typed to the sequence type 14 complex. The isolate, Klebsiella pneumoniae 05-506, was shown to possess a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) but was negative for previously known MBL genes. Gene libraries and amplification of class 1 integrons revealed three resistance-conferring regions; the first contained bla(CMY-4) flanked by ISEcP1 and blc. The second region of 4.8 kb contained a complex class 1 integron with the gene cassettes arr-2, a new erythromycin esterase gene; ereC; aadA1; and cmlA7. An intact ISCR1 element was shown to be downstream from the qac/sul genes. The third region consisted of a new MBL gene, designated bla(NDM-1), flanked on one side by K. pneumoniae DNA and a truncated IS26 element on its other side. The last two regions lie adjacent to one another, and all three regions are found on a 180-kb region that is easily transferable to recipient strains and that confers resistance to all antibiotics except fluoroquinolones and colistin. NDM-1 shares very little identity with other MBLs, with the most similar MBLs being VIM-1/VIM-2, with which it has only 32.4% identity. As well as possessing unique residues near the active site, NDM-1 also has an additional insert between positions 162 and 166 not present in other MBLs. NDM-1 has a molecular mass of 28 kDa, is monomeric, and can hydrolyze all beta-lactams except aztreonam. Compared to VIM-2, NDM-1 displays tighter binding to most cephalosporins, in particular, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cephalothin (cefalotin), and also to the penicillins. NDM-1 does not bind to the carbapenems as tightly as IMP-1 or VIM-2 and turns over the carbapenems at a rate similar to that of VIM-2. In addition to K. pneumoniae 05-506, bla(NDM-1) was found on a 140-kb plasmid in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the patient's feces, inferring the possibility of in vivo conjugation. The broad resistance carried on these plasmids is a further worrying development for India, which already has high levels of antibiotic resistance.
Project description:New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDMs), the recent additions to metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), pose a serious public health threat due to its highly efficient hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics and rapid worldwide dissemination. The MBL-hydrolyzing mechanism for carbapenems is less studied than that of penicillins and cephalosporins. Here, we report crystal structures of NDM-1 in complex with hydrolyzed imipenem and meropenem, at resolutions of 1.80-2.32 Å, together with NMR spectra monitoring meropenem hydrolysis. Three enzyme-intermediate/product derivatives, EI1, EI2, and EP, are trapped in these crystals. Our structural data reveal double-bond tautomerization from Δ2 to Δ1, absence of a bridging water molecule and an exclusive β-diastereomeric product, all suggesting that the hydrolytic intermediates are protonated by a bulky water molecule incoming from the β-face. These results strongly suggest a distinct mechanism of NDM-1-catalyzed carbapenem hydrolysis from that of penicillin or cephalosporin hydrolysis, which may provide a novel rationale for design of mechanism-based inhibitors.
Project description:?-Lactamase production increasingly threatens the effectiveness of ?-lactams, which remain a mainstay of antimicrobial chemotherapy. New activities emerge through both mutation of previously known ?-lactamases and mobilization from environmental reservoirs. The spread of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) represents a particular challenge because of their typically broad-spectrum activities encompassing carbapenems, in addition to other ?-lactam classes. Increasingly, genomic and metagenomic studies have revealed the distribution of putative MBLs in the environment, but in most cases their activity against clinically relevant ?-lactams and, hence, the extent to which they can be considered a resistance reservoir remain uncharacterized. Here we characterize the product of one such gene, blaRm3, identified through functional metagenomic sampling of an environment with high levels of biocide exposure. blaRm3 encodes a subclass B3 MBL that, when expressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain, is exported to the bacterial periplasm and hydrolyzes clinically used penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems with an efficiency limited by high Km values. An Rm3 crystal structure reveals the MBL superfamily ??/?? fold, which more closely resembles that in mobilized B3 MBLs (AIM-1 and SMB-1) than other chromosomal enzymes (L1 or FEZ-1). A binuclear zinc site sits in a deep channel that is in part defined by a relatively extended N terminus. Structural comparisons suggest that the steric constraints imposed by the N terminus may limit its affinity for ?-lactams. Sequence comparisons identify Rm3-like MBLs in numerous other environmental samples and species. Our data suggest that Rm3-like enzymes represent a distinct group of B3 MBLs with a wide distribution and can be considered an environmental reservoir of determinants of ?-lactam resistance.
Project description:Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are broad-spectrum, Zn(II)-dependent lactamases able to confer resistance to virtually every ?-lactam antibiotic currently available. The large diversity of active-site structures and metal content among MBLs from different sources has limited the design of a pan-MBL inhibitor. GOB-18 is a divergent MBL from subclass B3 that is expressed by the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Elizabethkingia meningoseptica This MBL is atypical, since several residues conserved in B3 enzymes (such as a metal ligand His) are substituted in GOB enzymes. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic di-Zn(II) form of GOB-18. This enzyme displays a unique active-site structure, with residue Gln116 coordinating the Zn1 ion through its terminal amide moiety, replacing a ubiquitous His residue. This situation contrasts with that of B2 MBLs, where an equivalent His116Asn substitution leads to a di-Zn(II) inactive species. Instead, both the mono- and di-Zn(II) forms of GOB-18 are active against penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. In silico docking and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that residue Met221 is not involved in substrate binding, in contrast to Ser221, which otherwise is conserved in most B3 enzymes. These distinctive features are conserved in recently reported GOB orthologues in environmental bacteria. These findings provide valuable information for inhibitor design and also posit that GOB enzymes have alternative functions.
Project description:Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are zinc-dependent bacterial enzymes characterized by an efficient hydrolysis of carbapenems and a lack of sensitivity to commercially available beta-lactamase inactivators. Apart from the acquired subclass B1 enzymes, which exhibit increasing clinical importance and whose evolutionary origin remains unclear, most MBLs are encoded by resident genes found in the genomes of organisms belonging to at least three distinct phyla. Using genome database mining, we identified an open reading frame (ORF) (ECA2849) encoding an MBL-like protein in the sequenced genome of Erwinia carotovora, an important plant pathogen. Although no detectable beta-lactamase activity could be found in E. carotovora, a recombinant Escherichia coli strain in which the ECA2849 ORF was cloned showed decreased susceptibility to several beta-lactams, while carbapenem MICs were surprisingly poorly affected. The enzyme, named CAR-1, was purified by means of ion-exchange chromatography steps, and its characterization revealed unique structural and functional features. This new MBL was able to efficiently hydrolyze cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime and, to a lesser extent, penicillins and the other cephalosporins but only poorly hydrolyzed meropenem, while imipenem was not recognized. CAR-1 is the first example of a functional naturally occurring MBL in the family Enterobacteriaceae (order Enterobacteriales) and highlights the extraordinary structural and functional diversity exhibited by MBLs.
Project description:A clinical Escherichia coli isolate resistant to all β-lactams, including carbapenems, expressed a novel metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), NDM-4, differing from NDM-1 by a single amino acid substitution (Met154Leu). NDM-4 possessed increased hydrolytic activity toward carbapenems and several cephalosporins compared to that of NDM-1. This amino acid substitution was not located in the known active sites of NDM-1, indicating that remote amino acid substitutions might also play a role in the extended activity of this MBL.
Project description:Production of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), which hydrolyze carbapenems, is a cause of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Development of effective inhibitors for MBLs is one approach to restore carbapenem efficacy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We report here that sulfamoyl heteroarylcarboxylic acids (SHCs) can competitively inhibit the globally spreading and clinically relevant MBLs (i.e., IMP-, NDM-, and VIM-type MBLs) at nanomolar to micromolar orders of magnitude. Addition of SHCs restored meropenem efficacy against 17/19 IMP-type and 7/14 NDM-type MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae to satisfactory clinical levels. SHCs were also effective against IMP-type MBL-producing Acinetobacter spp. and engineered Escherichia coli strains overproducing individual minor MBLs (i.e., TMB-2, SPM-1, DIM-1, SIM-1, and KHM-1). However, SHCs were less effective against MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Combination therapy with meropenem and SHCs successfully cured mice infected with IMP-1-producing E. coli and dually NDM-1/VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed the inhibition mode of SHCs against MBLs; the sulfamoyl group of SHCs coordinated to two zinc ions, and the carboxylate group coordinated to one zinc ion and bound to positively charged amino acids Lys224/Arg228 conserved in MBLs. Preclinical testing revealed that the SHCs showed low toxicity in cell lines and mice and high stability in human liver microsomes. Our results indicate that SHCs are promising lead compounds for inhibitors of MBLs to combat MBL-producing CRE.IMPORTANCE Carbapenem antibiotics are the last resort for control of severe infectious diseases, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains have spread globally and are a critical concern in clinical settings because CRE infections are recognized as a leading cause of increased mortality among hospitalized patients. Most CRE produce certain kinds of serine carbapenemases (e.g., KPC- and GES-type ?-lactamases) or metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), which can hydrolyze carbapenems. Although effective MBL inhibitors are expected to restore carbapenem efficacy against MBL-producing CRE, no MBL inhibitor is currently clinically available. Here, we synthesized 2,5-diethyl-1-methyl-4-sulfamoylpyrrole-3-carboxylic acid (SPC), which is a potent inhibitor of MBLs. SPC is a remarkable lead compound for clinically useful MBL inhibitors and can potentially provide a considerable benefit to patients receiving treatment for lethal infectious diseases caused by MBL-producing CRE.
Project description:Acquired metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are resistance determinants of increasing clinical importance in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, which confer a broad-spectrum ?-lactam resistance, including carbapenems. Several such enzymes have been described since the 1990s. In the present study, a novel acquired MBL, named FIM-1, was identified and characterized. The bla(FIM-1) gene was cloned from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (FI-14/157) cultured from a patient with a vascular graft infection in Florence, Italy. The isolate belonged in the sequence type 235 epidemic clonal lineage. The FIM-1 enzyme is a member of subclass B1 and, among acquired MBLs, exhibited the highest similarity (ca. 40% amino acid identity) with NDM-type enzymes. In P. aeruginosa FI-14/157, the bla(FIM-1) gene was apparently inserted into the chromosome and associated with ISCR19-like elements that were likely involved in the capture and mobilization of this MBL gene. Transfer experiments of the bla(FIM-1) gene to an Escherichia coli strain or another P. aeruginosa strain by conjugation or electrotransformation were not successful. The FIM-1 protein was produced in E. coli and purified by two chromatography steps. Analysis of the kinetic parameters, carried out with the purified enzyme, revealed that FIM-1 has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for penicillins (except the 6?-methoxy derivative temocillin) and carbapenems. Aztreonam was not hydrolyzed. Detection of this novel type of acquired MBL in a P. aeruginosa clinical isolate underscores the increasing diversity of such enzymes that can be encountered in the clinical setting.
Project description:Susceptibility to several β-lactams and β-lactamase production was investigated in a collection of 20 strains of Pseudomonas otitidis, a new Pseudomonas species that has been recently recognized in association with otic infections in humans. All strains appeared to be susceptible to piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam, while resistance or decreased susceptibility to carbapenems was occasionally observed. All strains were found to express metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) activity and to carry a new subclass B3 MBL gene, named bla(POM), that appeared to be highly conserved in this species. P. otitidis, therefore, is the first example of a pathogenic Pseudomonas species endowed with a resident MBL. The POM-1 protein from P. otitidis type strain MCC10330 exhibits the closest similarity (60 to 64%) to the L1 MBL of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Expression in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that, similar to L1 and other subclass B3 MBLs, POM-1 confers decreased susceptibility or resistance to carbapenems, penicillins, and cephalosporins but not to aztreonam. Expression of the POM MBL in P. otitidis is apparently constitutive and, in most strains, does not confer a carbapenem-resistant phenotype. However, a strong inoculum size effect was observed for carbapenem MICs, and carbapenem-resistant mutants could be readily selected upon exposure to imipenem, suggesting that carbapenem-based regimens should be considered with caution for P. otitidis infections.
Project description:Drug-resistant superbugs pose a huge threat to human health. Infections by Enterobacteriaceae producing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), e.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are very difficult to treat. Development of effective MBL inhibitors to revive the efficacy of existing antibiotics is highly desirable. However, such inhibitors are not clinically available till now. Here we show that an anti-Helicobacter pylori drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), and related Bi(III) compounds irreversibly inhibit different types of MBLs via the mechanism, with one Bi(III) displacing two Zn(II) ions as revealed by X-ray crystallography, leading to the release of Zn(II) cofactors. CBS restores meropenem (MER) efficacy against MBL-positive bacteria in vitro, and in mice infection model, importantly, also slows down the development of higher-level resistance in NDM-1-positive bacteria. This study demonstrates a high potential of Bi(III) compounds as the first broad-spectrum B1 MBL inhibitors to treat MBL-positive bacterial infection in conjunction with existing carbapenems.