ABSTRACT: ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzymes are molecular machines that act to reconfigure the structure of nucleosomes. Until recently, little was known about the structure of these enzymes. Recent progress has revealed that their interaction with chromatin is dominated by ATPase domains that contact DNA at favoured locations on the nucleosome surface. Contacts with histones are limited but play important roles in modulating activity. The ATPase domains do not act in isolation but are flanked by diverse accessory domains and subunits. New structures indicate how these subunits are arranged in multi-subunit complexes providing a framework from which to understand how a common motor is applied to distinct functions.
Project description:ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition and reconfigure nucleosomes. Despite their diverse functions, all remodellers share highly conserved ATPase domains, many shown to translocate DNA. Understanding remodelling requires biophysical knowledge of the DNA translocation process: how the ATPase moves DNA and generates force, and how translocation and force generation are coupled on nucleosomes. Here, we characterize the real-time activity of a minimal RSC translocase 'motor' on bare DNA, using high-resolution optical tweezers and a 'tethered' translocase system. We observe on dsDNA a processivity of ?35 bp, a speed of ?25 bp/s, and a step size of 2.0 (±0.4, s.e.m.) bp. Surprisingly, the motor is capable of moving against high force, up to 30 pN, making it one of the most force-resistant motors known. We also provide evidence for DNA 'buckling' at initiation. These observations reveal the ATPase as a powerful DNA translocating motor capable of disrupting DNA-histone interactions by mechanical force.
Project description:The ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling enzyme Chd1 is a 168-kDa protein consisting of a double chromodomain, Snf2-related ATPase domain, and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain. Here, we show the DNA-binding domain is required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chd1 to bind and remodel nucleosomes. The crystal structure of this domain reveals the presence of structural homology to SANT and SLIDE domains previously identified in ISWI remodelling enzymes. The presence of these domains in ISWI and Chd1 chromatin-remodelling enzymes may provide a means of efficiently harnessing the action of the Snf2-related ATPase domain for the purpose of nucleosome spacing and provide an explanation for partial redundancy between these proteins. Site directed mutagenesis was used to identify residues important for DNA binding and generate a model describing the interaction of this domain with DNA. Through inclusion of Chd1 sequences in homology searches SLIDE domains were identified in CHD6-9 proteins. Point mutations to conserved amino acids within the human CHD7 SLIDE domain have been identified in patients with CHARGE syndrome.
Project description:CHD4, the core subunit of the Nucleosome Remodelling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, is a chromatin remodelling ATPase that, in addition to a helicase domain, harbors tandem plant homeo finger and chromo domains. By using a panel of domain constructs we dissect their roles and demonstrate that DNA binding, histone binding and ATPase activities are allosterically regulated. Molecular shape reconstruction from small-angle X-ray scattering reveals extensive domain-domain interactions, which provide a structural explanation for the regulation of CHD4 activities by intramolecular domain communication. Our results demonstrate functional interdependency between domains within a chromatin remodeller.
Project description:Chromatin-remodelling factors change nucleosome positioning and facilitate DNA transcription, replication, and repair. The conserved remodelling factor chromodomain-helicase-DNA binding protein 1(Chd1) can shift nucleosomes and induce regular nucleosome spacing. Chd1 is required for the passage of RNA polymerase IIthrough nucleosomes and for cellular pluripotency. Chd1 contains the DNA-binding domains SANT and SLIDE, a bilobal motor domain that hydrolyses ATP, and a regulatory double chromodomain. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of Chd1 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae bound to a nucleosome at a resolution of 4.8?Å. Chd1 detaches two turns of DNA from the histone octamer and binds between the two DNA gyres in a state poised for catalysis. The SANT and SLIDE domains contact detached DNA around superhelical location (SHL) -7 of the first DNA gyre. The ATPase motor binds the second DNA gyre at SHL +2 and is anchored to the N-terminal tail of histone H4, as seen in a recent nucleosome-Snf2 ATPase structure. Comparisons with published results reveal that the double chromodomain swings towards nucleosomal DNA at SHL +1, resulting in ATPase closure. The ATPase can then promote translocation of DNA towards the nucleosome dyad, thereby loosening the first DNA gyre and remodelling the nucleosome. Translocation may involve ratcheting of the two lobes of the ATPase, which is trapped in a pre- or post-translocation state in the absence or presence, respectively, of transition state-mimicking compounds.
Project description:Multifunctional adapter and chaperone protein Daxx participates in the regulation of a number of mainly transcription-related processes. Most notably in a complex with chromatin-remodelling ATPase ATRX, Daxx serves as a histone H3.3 chaperone at telomeric regions and certain genes. In this report we document that Daxx interacts with another chromatin-remodelling, ATPase Brg1. We confirm the Daxx-Brg1 association both in vitro and in cells and show that Daxx interacts with Brg1 in high-molecular-weight complexes. Ectopic co-expression of Daxx with Brg1 and PML could shift disperse nuclear localisation of Brg1 into PML bodies. Mapping the Daxx-Brg1 interaction revealed that Daxx preferentially binds the region between Brg1 N-terminal QLQ and HSA domains, but also weakly interacts with its C-terminal part. Brg1 interacted with both the central and N-terminal parts of Daxx. SiRNA-mediated down-regulation of Daxx in SW13 adrenal carcinoma cells markedly enhanced expression of Brg1-activated genes CD44 or SCEL, suggesting that Daxx either directly through Brg1 and/or indirectly via other factors is a negative regulator of their transcription. Our findings point to Brg1 as another chromatin-remodelling protein that might similarly, as ATRX, target Daxx to specific chromatin regions where it can carry out its chromatin- and transcription-regulating functions.
Project description:Dynamic changes of histone epigenetic modifications and chromatin structure represent an universal mechanism by which cells adapt their transcriptional response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. During neuronal development, extensive chromatin remodeling takes place allowing the transition of pluripotent cells into differentiated neurons. Here we report that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex NuRD, which couples ATP-dependent nucleosome sliding with histone deacetylase activity, is a major remodeling complex in embryonic brain and plays an instructive role during mouse neuronal development. Importantly, the ATPase subunits of NuRD complex CHD3, CHD4 and CHD5 undergo a functional switch, thereby regulating distinct aspects of neuronal differentiation and migration in a sequential and mostly non-overlapping manner. We conclude that the recruitment of NuRD complexes containing specific CHDs to gene promoters and enhancers plays an instructive role in brain development. Gene expression analysis was performed in the mouse embryonic cortex at three developmental stages: E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5 using total RNA obtained from four embryos for each time point.
Project description:ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling proteins represent a diverse family of proteins that share ATPase domains that are adapted to regulate protein-DNA interactions. Here, we present structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chd1 protein engaged with nucleosomes in the presence of the transition state mimic ADP-beryllium fluoride. The path of DNA strands through the ATPase domains indicates the presence of contacts conserved with single strand translocases and additional contacts with both strands that are unique to Snf2 related proteins. The structure provides connectivity between rearrangement of ATPase lobes to a closed, nucleotide bound state and the sensing of linker DNA. Two turns of linker DNA are prised off the surface of the histone octamer as a result of Chd1 binding, and both the histone H3 tail and ubiquitin conjugated to lysine 120 are re-orientated towards the unravelled DNA. This indicates how changes to nucleosome structure can alter the way in which histone epitopes are presented.
Project description:Multi-subunit ATPase-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose non-fermentable) are fundamental epigenetic regulators of gene transcription. Functional genomic studies revealed a remarkable mutation prevalence of SWI/SNF-encoding genes in 20-25% of all human cancers, frequently driving oncogenic programmes. Some SWI/SNF-mutant cancers are hypersensitive to perturbations in other SWI/SNF subunits, regulatory proteins and distinct biological pathways, often resulting in sustained anticancer effects and synthetic lethal interactions. Exploiting these vulnerabilities is a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we review the importance of SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers in gene regulation as well as mechanisms leading to assembly defects and their role in cancer development. We will focus in particular on emerging strategies for the targeted therapy of SWI/SNF-deficient cancers using chemical probes, including proteolysis targeting chimeras, to induce synthetic lethality.
Project description:Genome regulation requires control of chromosome organization by SMC-kleisin complexes. The cohesin complex contains the Smc1 and Smc3 subunits that associate with the kleisin Scc1 to form a ring-shaped complex that can topologically engage chromatin to regulate chromatin structure. Release from chromatin involves opening of the ring at the Smc3-Scc1 interface in a reaction that is controlled by acetylation and engagement of the Smc ATPase head domains. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we have determined the 3.2-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ATP?S-bound, heterotrimeric cohesin ATPase head module and the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of a nucleotide-free Smc1-Scc1 subcomplex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium thermophilium. We found that ATP-binding and Smc1-Smc3 heterodimerization promote conformational changes within the ATPase that are transmitted to the Smc coiled-coil domains. Remodeling of the coiled-coil domain of Smc3 abrogates the binding surface for Scc1, thus leading to ring opening at the Smc3-Scc1 interface.
Project description:ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers regulate access to genetic information by controlling nucleosome positions in vivo. However, the mechanism by which remodellers discriminate between different nucleosome substrates is poorly understood. Many chromatin remodelling proteins possess conserved protein domains that interact with nucleosomal features. Here we used a quantitative high-throughput approach, based on the use of a DNA-barcoded mononucleosome library, to profile the biochemical activity of human ISWI family remodellers in response to a diverse set of nucleosome modifications. We show that accessory (non-ATPase) subunits of ISWI remodellers can distinguish between differentially modified nucleosomes, directing remodelling activity towards specific nucleosome substrates according to their modification state. Unexpectedly, we show that the nucleosome acidic patch is necessary for maximum activity of all ISWI remodellers evaluated. This dependence also extends to CHD and SWI/SNF family remodellers, suggesting that the acidic patch may be generally required for chromatin remodelling. Critically, remodelling activity can be regulated by modifications neighbouring the acidic patch, signifying that it may act as a tunable interaction hotspot for ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and, by extension, many other chromatin effectors that engage this region of the nucleosome surface.