Exploratory Analysis of Single-Gene Predictive Biomarkers in HERA DASL Cohort Reveals That C8A mRNA Expression Is Prognostic of Outcome and Predictive of Benefit of Trastuzumab.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:The Herceptin Adjuvant study is an international multicenter randomized trial that compared 1 or 2 years of trastuzumab given every 3 weeks with observation in women with human epidermal growth factor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer after chemotherapy. Identification of biomarkers predictive of a benefit from trastuzumab will minimize overtreatment and lower health care costs. Methods:To identify possible single-gene biomarkers, an exploratory analysis of 3,669 gene probes not expected to be expressed in normal breast tissue was conducted. Disease-free survival (DFS) was used as the end point in a Cox regression model, with the interaction term between C8A mRNA and treatment as a categorical variable split on the cohort mean. Results:A significant interaction between C8A mRNA and treatment was detected (P < .001), indicating a predictive response to trastuzumab treatment. For the C8A-low subgroup (mRNA expression lower than the cohort mean), no significant treatment benefit was observed (P = .73). In the C8A-high subgroup, patients receiving trastuzumab experienced a lower hazard of a DFS event by approximately 75% compared with those in the observation arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.25; P < .001). A significant prognostic effect of C8A mRNA also was seen (P < .001) in the observation arm, where the C8A-high group hazard of a DFS event was three times the respective hazard of the C8A-low group (HR, 3.27; P < .001). C8A mRNA is highly prognostic in the Hungarian Academy of Science HER2+ gastric cancer cohort (HR, 1.72; P < .001). Conclusion:C8A as a single-gene biomarker prognostic of DFS and predictive of a benefit from trastuzumab has the potential to improve the standard of care in HER2+ breast cancer if validated by additional studies. Understanding the advantage of overexpression of C8A related to the innate immune response can give insight into the mechanisms that drive cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trastuzumab was introduced a decade ago and has improved outcomes for HER2-positive breast cancer. We investigated the factors predictive of pathological complete response (pCR), prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS), and interactions between pCR and DFS after neoadjuvant treatment. METHODS:We identified 287 patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancers given neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) between 2002 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical and pathological factors associated with pCR and DFS were performed. RESULTS:pCR rates differed between patients receiving neoadjuvant trastuzumab treatment or not (47.7% versus 19.3%, P<0.0001). DFS also differed significantly between patients receiving adjuvant trastuzumab or not (hazard ratio=4.84, 95% CI (2.52; 9.31), P<0.001). We analysed 199 patients given neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab. Multivariate analysis identified older age and hormone receptor-negative tumours as independent predictors of pCR. T stage (hazard ratio=2.55, 95% CI (1.01; 6.48), P=0.05) and strict pCR (hazard ratio=9.15, 95% CI (1.22; 68.83), P=0.03) were independent predictors of DFS. The latter association was significant in the HR-negative subgroup (P=0.02) but not in the HR-positive subgroup (P=0.12). CONCLUSIONS:Major pCR and DFS gains in HER2-positive BC were observed since 'trastuzumab' era. Further improvements rely on the enrollment of accurately selected patients into clinical trials.
Project description:PURPOSE:Positive interim analysis findings from four large adjuvant trials evaluating trastuzumab in patients with early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive breast cancer were first reported in 2005. One of these reports, the joint analysis of North Central Cancer Treatment Group NCCTG N9831 (Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Women With HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer) and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project NSABP B-31 (Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Plus Paclitaxel With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Women With Node-Positive Breast Cancer That Overexpresses HER2), was updated in 2011. We now report the planned definitive overall survival (OS) results from this joint analysis along with updates on the disease-free survival (DFS) end point. METHODS:In all, 4,046 patients with HER2-positive operable breast cancer were enrolled to receive doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with or without trastuzumab in both trials. The required number of events for the definitive statistical analysis for OS (710 events) was reached in September 2012. Updated analyses of overall DFS and related subgroups were also performed. RESULTS:Median time on study was 8.4 years. Adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy led to a 37% relative improvement in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.73; P < .001) and an increase in 10-year OS rate from 75.2% to 84%. These results were accompanied by an improvement in DFS of 40% (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.68; P < .001) and increase in 10-year DFS rate from 62.2% to 73.7%. All patient subgroups benefited from addition of this targeted anti-HER2 agent. CONCLUSION:The addition of trastuzumab to paclitaxel after doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer results in a substantial and durable improvement in survival as a result of a sustained marked reduction in cancer recurrence.
Project description:PURPOSE:We compared efficacy of trastuzumab versus no trastuzumab in patients with small (? 2 cm) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive breast cancer treated in randomized trials. METHODS:A meta-analysis was conducted using data from five of the six adjuvant trastuzumab trials. Efficacy end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Separate analyses were prospectively planned for hormone receptor (HR) -positive and HR-negative cohorts. Random effect models and Yusuf-Peto fixed effects models assessed the impact of heterogeneity on baseline hazards and treatment effects across studies. Peto-Pike cumulative incidence estimates were stratified by study and nodal status. RESULTS:Median follow-up time was 8 years. For 2,263 patients with HR-positive disease, 8-year cumulative incidence rates comparing trastuzumab versus no trastuzumab were 17.3% versus 24.3% (P < .001) for DFS and 7.8% versus 11.6% (P = .005) for OS, respectively; for 1,092 HR-positive patients with zero or one positive lymph nodes, results were 12.7% versus 19.4% (P = .005) for DFS and 5.3% versus 7.4% (P = .12) for OS, respectively. For 1,957 patients with HR-negative disease, 8-year cumulative incidence rates were 24.0% versus 33.4% (P < .001) for DFS and 12.4% versus 21.2% (P < .001) for OS, respectively; for 1,040 HR-negative patients with zero or one positive lymph nodes, results were 20.4% versus 26.3% (P = .05) for DFS and 8.2% versus 12.2% (P = .084) for OS, respectively. CONCLUSION:Women with HER2-positive tumors ? 2 cm in the randomized trastuzumab trials derived substantial DFS and OS benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. Trastuzumab-treated patients with HR-positive disease and ? one positive lymph node may be candidates for trials assessing less aggressive treatment approaches.
Project description:Background:One year of adjuvant trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy is the standard of care in early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Existing data on shortening trastuzumab treatment show conflicting results. Methods:A search of PubMed and abstracts from key conferences identified randomized trials that compared abbreviated trastuzumab therapy to 1 year of treatment in early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Subgroup analyses evaluated the effect of nodal involvement, estrogen receptor expression, and the duration of abbreviated trastuzumab (9-12 weeks vs 6 months). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were computed for prespecified cardiotoxicity events including cardiac dysfunction and congestive heart failure. P values were two-sided. Results:Analysis included six trials comprising 11 603 patients. Shorter trastuzumab treatment was associated with worse DFS (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.25, P = .002) and OS (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.29. P = .02). The effect on DFS was not influenced by estrogen receptor status (P for the subgroup difference = .23), nodal involvement (P = .44), or the different duration of trastuzumab in the experimental arm (P = .09). Shorter trastuzumab treatment was associated with lower odds of cardiac dysfunction (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.81, P < .001) and congestive heart failure (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.86, P = .003). Conclusions:Compared with 1 year, shorter duration of adjuvant trastuzumab is associated with statistically significantly worse DFS and OS despite favorable cardiotoxicity profile. One year of targeted HER2 treatment should remain the standard adjuvant treatment in early-stage HER2-positive disease with appropriate cardiac monitoring.
Project description:Studies have shown that antibodies targeting the intracellular (ICD) or extracellular domains (ECD) of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are equivalent when traditional methods are used. We describe a new method to quantify ICD and ECD expression separately and assess the prognostic value of domain-specific HER2 results in patients who received adjuvant trastuzumab therapy.We measured HER2 protein expression with quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in tissue microarrays (TMA) using two different antibodies targeting the ICD (CB11 and A0485) and ECD (SP3 and D8F12). We assessed the prognostic value of ICD and ECD expression in 180 patients from a clinical trial of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by trastuzumab (HeCOG 10/05). We performed an exploratory univariate domain-specific, disease-free survival (DFS) analysis and compared DFS functions with Kaplan-Meier estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided.HER2 ICD expression by QIF showed slightly higher sensitivity to predict ERBB2 (HER2) gene amplification than ECD expression, which was more specific and had higher positive predictive value. In the HeCOG 10/05 trial specimens, 15% of cases showed discordant results for ICD and ECD expression. High ECD was statistically associated with longer DFS (log-rank P = .049, HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.144 to 0.997), while ICD status was not. Among patients with low ECD, there was no difference in DFS by ICD status. However, when ICD was high, high ECD was statistically associated with longer DFS (log-rank P = .027, HR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.037 to 0.82) compared with low ECD.Quantitative measurements of HER2 ICD and ECD expression in breast cancer suggest a subclassification of HER2-positive tumors. Trastuzumab-treated patients with high ECD showed better DFS than patients with low ECD. This suggests differential benefit from trastuzumab therapy based on HER2 ECD expression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to be of prognostic value in several cancer types. In early breast cancer, TILs have a prognostic utility, as well, especially in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer. TILs presence is broadly associated with improved survival; however, there is controversy regarding TILs subpopulations.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Early-stage breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy within two randomized trials were included in the study. We evaluated, by qRT-PCR, 826 tumor tissue samples for mRNA expression of CD3, CD8, and FOXP3 for potential prognostic significance in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).<h4>Results</h4>After a median follow-up of 133.0 months, 255 patients (30.9%) had died and 314 (38.0%) had disease progression. In the univariate analysis, high CD3 and CD8 mRNA expression was found to be of favorable prognostic value for DFS (P = 0.007 and P = 0.016, respectively). In multivariate analyses, the association of high CD8 mRNA expression with increased DFS was retained (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.998, Wald's P = 0.048), whereas that of high CD3 mRNA expression was of marginal statistical significance (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-1.01, P = 0.059). Moreover, a significant interaction was observed between HER2 status and CD3 mRNA expression with respect to DFS (interaction P = 0.032). In the HER2-positive subgroup, the hazard ratio associated with high CD3 mRNA expression was of greater magnitude (HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.76, P = 0.002) compared with the hazard ratio presented above, for the entire cohort. No significant findings were observed for FOXP3 in terms of DFS, while none of the studied markers were of prognostic value for OS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>High CD3 and CD8 mRNA expression in early-stage breast cancer patients is of prognostic value for decreased risk of relapse and, in the future, could potentially be of importance in deciding the most appropriate therapeutic strategy in light of the recent immune-related treatment developments.
Project description:Purpose: Both 12 and 6 months of trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy are effective for HER2+ early-stage breast cancer. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness and the toxicity of the two durations. Methods and Materials: We acquired relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Our endpoints included disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), number of recurrences, mortality and early stopping of trastuzumab, and adverse events (AEs). Results: We included five good-quality studies. Both durations of trastuzumab were effective among women with HER2+ early-stage breast cancer, but 12 months of trastuzumab appeared to have better DFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.23, P = 0.09] and better OS than 6 months of trastuzumab (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.99-1.32, P = 0.07). However, the 12 month group had more AEs, especially cardiac events [risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.77, P < 0.00001]. In our sub-analyses, the 12 months duration had better DFS among patients using trastuzumab concurrently than the 6 months duration (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44, P = 0.006). Additionally, the 12 months duration had superior OS in women with ER-negative breast cancer (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.10-2.08, P = 0.01) and patients treated with trastuzumab concurrently than the 6 months duration (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13-2.29, P = 0.008). Conclusions: Twelve months was the standard duration of adjuvant trastuzumab among patients with HER2+ early-stage breast cancer, with a tendency toward superior survival. However, patients in the 12 month group had more significant cardiac toxicity than those in the 6 month group.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, the correlation of immunological checkpoint marker programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and the prognosis of various cancers has been a research hotspot. The aim of this study is to examine the prognostic effect of PD-L1 in breast cancer. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library database were searched for eligible studies and additional hand-searching were reviewed as an augmentation. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS)/recurrence-free survival (RFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) were estimated using fixed- or random-effect models. RESULTS:Data from 19 studies involving 12,505 patients were collected. Study quality was assessed according to guidelines for assessing quality in prognostic studies. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P?<?.001), high tumor grade (P?<?.001), negative hormone receptor (P?<?.001), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity (P?<?.001), high Ki67 (P?<?.001), and high tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (P?<?.001). PD-L1 expression had no significant impact on CSS (pooled HR 0.83, 95% CI?=?0.64-1.09, P?=?.19) or MFS (pooled HR 1.11, 95% CI?=?0.62-1.97, P?=?.72), but significantly correlated with shortened OS (pooled HR 1.52, 95% CI?=?1.14-2.03, P?=?.004) and DFS (pooled HR 1.31, 95% CI?=?1.14-1.51, P?<?.000). Subgroup analysis showed that not PD-L1 RNA expression, but protein expression was associated with shorter survival, in addition, the adverse prognostic effect of PD-L1 expression remained in luminal A, luminal B, and HER2 subtype, not in basal-like or triple-negative subtype. CONCLUSIONS:An elevated PD-L1 expression significantly correlates with high-risk prognostic indicators and decreased survival in patients with breast cancer.
Project description:We sought to determine the predictive value of in situ mRNA measurement compared to traditional methods on a cohort of trastuzumab-treated metastatic breast cancer patients.A tissue microarray composed of 149, classified as HER2-positive, metastatic breast cancers treated with various trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy regimens was constructed. HER2 intracellular domain(ICD), HER2 extracellular domain(ECD) and HER2 mRNA were assessed using AQUA. For HER2 protein evaluation, CB11 was used to measure ICD and SP3 to measure ECD of the HER2 receptor. In addition, HER2 mRNA status was assessed using RNAscope assay ERRB2 probe. Kaplan - Meier estimates were used for depicting time-to-event endpoints. Multivariate Cox regression models with backward elimination were used to assess the performance of markers as predictors of TTP and OS, after adjusting for important covariates.HER2 mRNA was correlated with ICD HER2, as measured by CB11 HER2, with ECD HER2 as measured by SP3 (Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, r?=?0.66 and 0.51 respectively) and with FISH HER2 (Spearman's Correlation Coefficient, r?=?0.75). All markers, HER2 mRNA, ICD HER2 and ECD HER2, along with FISH HER2, were found prognostic for OS (Log-rank p?=?0.007, 0.005, 0.009 and 0.043 respectively), and except for FISH HER2, they were also prognostic for TTP Log-rank p?=?0.036, 0.068 and 0.066 respectively) in this trastuzumab- treated cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that in the presence of pre-specified set of prognostic factors, among all biomarkers only ECD HER2, as measured by SP3, is strong prognostic factor for both TTP (HR?=?0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.93, p?=?0.027) and OS (HR?=?0.39, 95%CI: 0.22-0.70, p?=?0.002).The expression of HER2 ICD and ECD as well as HER2 mRNA levels was significantly associated with TTP and OS in this trastuzumab-treated metastatic cohort. In situ assessment of HER2 mRNA has the potential to identify breast cancer patients who derive benefit from Trastuzumab treatment.
Project description:Worldwide, many patients with HER2+ (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive) early breast cancer (BC) do not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. Hazards of recurrence of these patients with respect to hormone receptor status of the primary tumor have not been described.Using data from 1,260 patients randomized to placebo in the adjuvant TEACH trial, we report 10-year annual hazards of recurrence in HER2+ patients not treated with anti-HER2 therapy.Disease-free survival (DFS) was 75% after 5 and 61% after 10 years, respectively. Patients with HER2+?hormone receptor-positive (HR+ (hormone receptor-positive); ER+ (estrogen receptor-positive) or PR+ (progesterone receptor-positive)) disease had a significantly better DFS than patients with HER2+?HR- (ER-/PR-) disease (hazard ratio 0.72, P=0.02). This difference was explainable by a significantly higher hazard of recurrence in years 1 to 5 in HER2+?HR- compared to HER2+?HR+ patients, with a mean risk of recurrence of 9%/year for HR- versus 5%/year in HR+ patients (hazard ratio 0.59, P=0.002 for years 1 to 5). The high early risk of recurrence of HER2+?HR- patients declined sharply over time, so that it was similar to that seen in HER2+?HR+ patients in years 6 to 10 (hazard ratio 0.97, P=0.92 for years 6 to 10).Our results show that outcomes in HER2+ patients with early BC not receiving anti-HER2 therapy strongly depend on HR expression. The very high early risk of relapse seen in HER2+?HR- patients is particularly relevant in health care settings with limited access to adjuvant anti-HER2 treatment. The event rates shown for subpopulations of HER2+ BC patients suggest that in resource-constrained environments patients with HER2+?HR- early BC should be prioritized for consideration of adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy.