Health related quality of life of people receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southwest Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is a standard of HIV management to suppress viral load and delay progression to AIDS. However, questions have been raised about the use of antiretroviral therapy and how it affects quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study hence aimed to assess the QoL of PLWHA who were taking HAART at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital (MTUTH) and identify factors associated with QoL. METHODS:A cross sectional study was conducted among PLWHA receiving HAART at MTUTH from March 04-April 1, 2018. Patients were recruited consecutively and interviewed with structured questionnaire. A data abstraction tool was used to extract data from patient medical records. Quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life HIV- BREF (WHOQOL-HIV-BREF) standard tool. Data was entered to Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 22 for windows. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify factors associated with QoL. A statistical significance was established at a p value <0.05. RESULTS:A total of 240 participants with the mean age of 35.11 (SD = 9.08) years were included in the study. This study found that 57.1% of the patients had high global score of QoL. Patients with normal current health (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.56-7.31)) and having family support (AOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.51-6.46) were positively associated with high global score of QoL, while patients with low HAART adherence (AOR = 0.40, 95%, CI = 0.19-0.86) were negatively associated with high global score of QoL. CONCLUSION:The study revealed that more than half of the participants had high global score of QoL. Normal current health and family support were associated with better global score of QoL, while low HAART adherence was found to be associated with the lower global score of QoL.
Project description:Background:Stigma against HIV profoundly affects the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We aimed to assess the factors associated with QOL in PLWHA in Iran, specifically HIV-related stigma, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods:Two hundred PLWHA participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using sociodemographic, stigma, and WHO-QOL-BREF questionnaires. Correlations, ANOVAs, and Student's t-distribution tests were performed as bivariate analyses. We employed stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to explore the main factors associated with QOL domains. Results:Six domains of QOL were negatively correlated with three domains of stigma (p<0.001 for all). Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that, after adjusting for confounders, lack of healthcare insurance, having no basic knowledge of HIV/AIDs prior to diagnosis, low monthly income of participants and family, and stigma (blaming and distancing, discrimination, and fear) were associated with low mean score of different domains of QOL. Conclusion:Our findings indicated that increasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma decreases QOL in PLWHA in Iran. Attention toward decreasing stigma, improving healthcare plan, and cultivating economic condition should be given high priority to ensure improvement in total QOL and corresponding domains in PLWHA's life.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and infectious disease hospitals in three Chinese provinces. PARTICIPANTS:Sample of 1100 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). INTERVENTIONS:We recruited 1100 PLWHA to evaluate their quality of life (QOL) using the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of these participants, 57 were randomly selected to repeat the QOL evaluation 2 weeks later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The reliability of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF was assessed in terms of its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct, concurrent, convergent, discriminant and known-group validity were also analysed. In addition, the factorial invariance across genders was assessed. RESULTS:Cronbach's ? coefficient for the overall scale was 0.93. Except for the spirituality domain, which had an ? below 0.70 (0.66), the other five domains showed adequate internal consistency. The test-retest reliability revealed a statistically significant intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.72-0.82 (p<0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis found that the six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit to the data. The instrument showed factorial invariance across gender groups. All domains were significantly correlated with the general items and the SF-36 (p<0.01). The correlation coefficients were >0.40 (r=0.40-0.67), except for the association between the spirituality domain and two general items (QOL: r=0.33; health status: r=0.36). Subjects with lower CD4 counts had lower scores for all domains (p<0.05). Symptomatic participants had significantly lower scores than asymptomatic participants on the physical, psychological and independence domains (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The WHOQOL-HIV BREF revealed good psychometric characteristics among Chinese PLWHA. These findings offer promising support for the use of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF as a measure of QOL among Chinese PLWHA and in cross-cultural comparative studies on QOL.
Project description:Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ? 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (? = -0.045), CD4 count (? = 0.002), and ART adherence(? = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (? = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (? = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (? = -0.704) and ART adherence (? = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (? = -0.538), educational status(? = 0.549) and ART adherence(? = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration to improve the QOL of PLWHA. The relatively lower scores the subjects received in social relation and environmental domains also suggest that social relation and environmental interventions need to be strengthened.
Project description:We determined the level, type of stigma, and risk factors associated with stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by conducting a cross-sectional study from April to June 2018 in 3 HIV treatment centers in the Kumba Health District (KHD), Cameroon. We reviewed hospital registers, conducted focus group discussions, and administered structured questionnaires. For data analysis, we used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. We recorded a total stigma index score of 59.1. Internal stigma (odds ratio [OR] 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74-4.98) was common in PLWHA. Also, younger age <30 years (adjusted OR [AOR]: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17-0.94) was linked with stigma reduction while low level of education (AOR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.02-2.97) increased the stigma level. HIV-related stigma is pervasive in the lives of PLWHA, with most of them having internal stigmatization. Appropriate health education on HIV will be crucial in reducing stigmatization in the KHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is associated with improved clinical and laboratory outcomes resulting in prolonged life and well-being of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). However, the needs for life-long therapy, medications' side effects and stigma have raised concerns about their quality of life (QOL). This study assessed the determinants of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among HIV-positive patients at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of 353 HIV-positive adults on HAART attending the HIV clinic of ABUTH, Zaria. The participants were recruited into the study using a systematic sampling technique. Data on socio-demographics, medical parameters, QOL and family functionality were collected using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life HIV short form instrument (WHOQOL-HIV BREF) item and Family APGAR tool were respectively used in assessing the QOL and family functionality of the participants. We performed univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Mean age was 39.1(±10.9) years, 239 (67.7%) were females, 208 (58.9%) were Hausa-Fulani, 240 (68.2%) married and up to 210 (59.4%) had at least a secondary education. The overall mean scores on the scale of 4-20 for HRQOL were similar in three domains: environment domain 14.5(±2.8); social relationship 14.4(±3.1) and level of independence 14.4(±2.5). Lower scores were recorded in spirituality/religion/personal beliefs 12.3(±4.3). Identified determinants of HRQOL were spousal HIV- positive status (AOR?=?3.37; CI; 1.46-7.74) and high family function (AOR?=?2.57; CI: 1.51-4.39). CONCLUSION:Having highly functional family and having HIV-positive partner were the major determinants of HRQOL. Routine family counselling and strengthening the HIV social-support network should be incorporated into the routine patients' care in HIV treatment centers.
Project description:This study examined whether the type of anemia in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) changed from the beginning of highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and had implications for treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL). If present, the anemia-type was defined as microcytic, macrocytic or anemia of chronic disease (ACD) at study months 0, 6, 12, and 18. Multinomial logistic regression quantified sociodemographic and HIV-treatment factors associated with incident microcytic anemia or ACD over 18 months. Repeated measures linear regression models estimated the anemia-type associated change in the CD4 cell-count, QOL, body mass index (BMI) and frailty over 18 months. Cox proportional hazard models estimated associations between anemia-type and time to (a) gain at least 100 CD4 cells/L and (b) hospitalization/death. Analyses were implemented in Statistical Analysis Software (v.9.4) from which odds ratios (ORs) mean differences (?) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. At enrollment, ACD, macrocytic and microcytic anemia was present in 36.8% (n = 147), 11.3% (n = 45) and 9.5% (n = 38), respectively with 42% (n = 170) anemia-free. By the study end, only 23% (n = 115) were without anemia. Among the 251 with anemia at the study end, 53.3% (n = 195) had macrocytic anemia, 12.8% (n = 47) had ACD and 2.5% (n = 9) had microcytic anemia. Incident macrocytic anemia was positively associated with baseline hyperferritinemia (OR = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.03?3.32), inversely associated with wealth (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.67?1.03) and inversely associated with efavirenz-containing HAART (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.21?0.85). ACD incidence decreased by 53% (95%CI: 0.27?0.79) per 100 cells/L increase in baseline CD4-cell count and decreased by 90% (95%CI: 0.01,0.87) among adults treated with nevirapine-containing HAART. ACD was associated with a lower BMI at months 6 (? = -0.33, 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01) and 12 (? = -0.41, 95%CI: -0.73, -0.09), with lower QOL (? = -3.2, 95%CI: -5.94, -0.53) at month 12 and with elevated frailty (? = 1.2; 95%CI: 0.46, 1.86) at month 12. Macrocytic anemia did not predict a post-enrollment change in CD4, BMI or QOL during follow-up. However, the time to gain 100 CD4 cells/L was 43% slower (p < 0.05) and the frailty was higher at month 12 for PLWHA with the baseline or sustained macrocytic vs. no anemia. A substantial decline in ACD and microcytic anemia occurred in tandem with large increase in the macrocytic anemia over 18 months on HAART. Interventions to mitigate all anemia-particularly ACD, is expected to improve the immune recovery rate, lower frailty, and enhanced QOL.
Project description:Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) causes a rapid increase of CD4 + T cells counts during the first 3-6 months of treatment and may enhance the development of opportunistic infections (OIs). However, the short- and long-term effects of HAART exposure on the development of incident OIs has not been extensively studied. This nationwide longitudinal study followed up a total of 26,258 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to ascertain the short- and long-term effects of HAART on incident OIs. During 150,196 person-years of follow-up, 6,413 (24.4%) PLWHA had new onset of OIs. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and AIDS status, PLWHA who received HAART were more likely to develop OIs than those who did not receive HAART. Considering the short- and long-term effects of HAART on the development of OIs, HAART was found to be a risk factor for developing OIs during the first 90 days of treatment, but a protective factor against OIs after 180 days of HAART use. The risk for the development of active OIs significantly decreased as the duration of HAART increased (P < 0.001). Our study suggests that HAART is a risk factor for developing OIs in the short term, but is a protective factor in the long term.
Project description:Impaired hematologic status (IHS) was investigated as a determinant of immune function defined as cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-helper cell count, quality of life (QOL) weight and hospitalization/mortality over 18-months among 398 adult persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) on anti-retroviral therapy. IHS was defined as having anemia at baseline (Hemoglobin: <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men), time-updated anemia or having low (<30 ?g/L) or high (>200 ?g/L for men and >150 ?g/L for women) ferritin levels at baseline. Months-to-hospitalization/death or study-end (if no event) was calculated from enrollment. Multivariable linear-mixed models quantified associations between IHS and changes in CD4 cell-count, weight gain and QOL. Cox proportional hazards models calculated hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for IHS-related differences in time-to-hospitalization/death. The prevalences of anemia and high and low ferritin levels at baseline were 48.7% (<i>n</i> = 194), 40.5% (<i>n</i> = 161) and 17% (<i>n</i> = 68), respectively. Most patients (63.4%, <i>n</i> = 123) remained anemic during follow-up. Weight gained (ferritin-time interaction, <i>p</i> < 0.01) and QOL (anemia-time interaction, <i>p</i> = 0.05; ferritin-time interaction, <i>p</i> = 0.01) were lower for PLWHA with versus without IHS. Relative to anemia-free/normal ferritin, the risk of hospitalization/death was elevated for PLWHA with anemia (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6), low or high ferritin (HR: 1.8-1.9, 95% CI: 0.9-4.1) and those that developed new/persistent/progressive anemia (HR: 2.3-6.7, 95% CI: 1.0-12.7). Among PLWHA, IHS predicted deficits in QOL, low weight gain and a high risk of hospitalization/death. Intervention to mitigate persistent IHS may be warranted among PLWHA on long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to improve health outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both stigma and psychological distress affect quality of life (QOL). This study is an attempt to determine the effects of these two factors on QOL and to explore possible mediation effects between psychological distress and self-stigma in opioid-dependent individuals. METHODS:This cross-sectional study comprised 268 consecutive, treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals who were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), the Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S), the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12 (CHQ-12), and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI). A series of regression models were constructed to determine if the SSS-S and CHQ-12 predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. Moreover, a comparison of the potential mediation effects of psychological distress (as assessed by the CHQ-12) was made between the SSS-S and the WHOQOL-BREF using the Baron and Kenny procedure (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test. RESULTS:The CHQ-12 score was predictive of the scores for the four domains and almost all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF except the item, "Dependence on medical aids." Nonetheless, the SSS-S score predicted three of the four facets of the social QOL after adjustment of the CHQ-12 score. Psychological distress completely mediated the relation between self-stigma and the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, and partially mediated the relationship between self-stigma and social QOL (two-tailed Sobel test: p = 0.02 for each domain). CONCLUSIONS:Psychological distress has a significant impact on the QOL of treated opioid users. It appears to be a core element in reducing the negative effects of self-stigma on aspects of QOL.
Project description:To assess the correlates for bisexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM).A cross-sectional survey among MSM was conducted in 2011 to provide demographics, sexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes, and services in Jinan, Qingdao, and Yantai of Shandong Province of China.Of 1230 participants, 82.8% were single, 85.7% aged <35 years, and 47.2% received college or higher education. There were 28.6% MSM who reported to be married or cohabitating or ever had sex with woman in the past 6 months (P6M). 74.5% had ≥6 HIV-related knowledge score. The average total score of stigmatizing/discriminatory attitude was 37.4±4.4(standard deviation). Bisexual behavior was independently associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.1, 95% CI:1.0-1.1), older age(AOR = 1.2, 95%CI:1.1-1.2), and lower HIV-related knowledge score(AOR = 1.6, 95%CI:1.2-2.2). HIV knowledge score ≥6 was independently associated with lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.3, 95%CI:1.2-1.3), less bisexual behaviors(AOR = 0.6, 95%CI:0.5-0.9), ever received a test for HIV in the past 12 months (P12M)(AOR = 3.2, 95%CI:2.3-4.5), college or higher level education(AOR = 1.9, 95%CI:1.4-2.6), consistent condom use with men in P6M(AOR=6.9, 95%CI:4.6-10.6), recruited from internet or HIV testing sites(AOR = 11.2, 95%CI:8.0-16.1) and bars, night clubs, or tea houses(AOR = 2.5, 95%CI:1.7-4.8). Expressing higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with bisexual behaviors(Aβ = 0.9, 95%CI:0.4-1.4), lower HIV-related knowledge score(Aβ = 3.6, 95%CI:3.0-4.1), the number of male sex partners in the past week ≥2(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.9), unprotected male anal sex in P6M(Aβ = 1.0, 95%CI:0.5-1.6), and inversely associated with ever received HIV test(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:0.8-2.0) and peer education in P12M(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:0.9-1.9).HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes were associated with bisexual behaviors, low HIV testing rate, lower HIV-related knowledge and risk behaviors. This study called for innovative programs that would reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes and bisexual behaviors and improve the uptake of prevention service among MSM.