The impact of properly diagnosed sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes after gastrointestinal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass combined with loss of muscle strength, with or without loss of muscle performance. The use of this parameter as a risk factor for complications after surgery is not currently used. This meta-analysis aims to assess the impact of sarcopenia defined by radiologically and clinically criteria and its relationship with complications after gastrointestinal surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019132221). Articles were selected from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases that adequately assessed sarcopenia and its impact on postoperative complications in gastrointestinal surgery patients. Pooled estimates of pre-operative outcome data were calculated using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis were performed to assess each type of surgery. RESULTS:The search strategy returned 1323, with 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 4265 patients were analysed. The prevalence of sarcopenia between studies ranged from 6.8% to 35.9%. The meta-analysis showed an OR for complications after surgery of 3.01 (95% CI 2.55-3.55) and an OR of 2.2 (95% CI 1.44-3.36) for hospital readmission (30 days). CONCLUSION:Sarcopenia, when properly diagnosed, is associated with an increase in late postoperative complications, as well as an increase in the number of postoperative hospital readmissions for various types of gastrointestinal surgery. We believe that any preoperative evaluation should include, in a patient at risk, tests for the diagnosis of sarcopenia and appropriate procedures to reduce its impact on the patient's health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia might function as an indicator for frailty, and as such as a risk factor for the development of postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to meta-analyse the relation between preoperative sarcopenia and the development of severe postoperative complications in patients undergoing oncological surgery. METHODS:PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched from inception until May 2018. Included were studies reporting on the incidence of severe postoperative complications and radiologically determined preoperative sarcopenia. Studies reporting the skeletal muscle as a continuous variable only were excluded. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effect meta-analyses were applied to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for severe postoperative complications, defined as Clavien-Dindo grade ?3, including 30-day mortality. Heterogeneity was evaluated with I2 testing. Analyses were performed overall and stratified by measurement method, tumour location and publication date. RESULTS:A total of 1924 citations were identified, and 53 studies (14 295 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. When measuring the total skeletal muscle area, 43% of the patients were sarcopenic, versus 33% when measuring the psoas area. Severe postoperative complications were present in 20%, and 30-day mortality was 3%. Preoperative sarcopenia was associated with an increased risk of severe postoperative complications (ORpooled : 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-16.8, P<0.001, I2 =55%) and 30-day mortality (ORpooled : 2.15, 95% CI: 1.46-3.17, P<0.001, I2 =14%). A low psoas mass was a stronger predictor for severe postoperative complications compared with a low total skeletal muscle mass (ORpooled : 2.06, 95% CI: 1.37-3.09, ORpooled : 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14-1.53, respectively) and 30-day mortality [ORpooled : 6.17 (95% CI: 2.71-14.08, ORpooled : 1.80 (95% CI: 1.24-2.62), respectively]. The effect was independent of tumour location and publication date. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of low psoas mass prior to surgery, as an indicator for sarcopenia, is a common phenomenon and is a strong predictor for the development of postoperative complications. The presence of low total skeletal muscle mass, which is even more frequent, is a less informative predictor for postoperative complications and 30-day mortality. The low heterogeneity indicates that the finding is consistent over studies. Nevertheless, the value of sarcopenia relative to other assessments such as frailty screening is not clear. Research is needed in order to determine the place of sarcopenia in future preoperative risk stratification.
Project description:Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk of sarcopenia, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to assess whether sarcopenia predicts the need for surgery and postoperative complications in patients with IBD. We performed a systematic search of four electronic databases, last updated in March, 2019. Data from studies comparing rates of surgery and postoperative complications in sarcopenic IBD patients versus non-sarcopenic IBD patients were pooled with the random-effects models. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten studies with a collective total of 885 IBD patients were included in our meta-analysis. Although the analysis of raw data did not reveal significant differences between the two groups with respect to the rate of surgery and postoperative complications (OR?=?1.826; 95% CI 0.913-3.654; p?=?0.089 and OR?=?3.265; 95% CI 0.575-18.557; p?=?0.182, respectively), the analysis of adjusted data identified sarcopenia as an independent predictor for both of the undesirable outcomes (OR?=?2.655; 95% CI 1.121-6.336; p?=?0.027 and OR?=?6.097; 95% CI 1.756-21.175; p?=?0.004, respectively). Thus, early detection of sarcopenia in patients with IBD is important to prevent undesirable outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Risk assessment is relevant to predict postoperative outcomes in patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer. This cohort study aimed to assess body composition changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and investigate their association with postoperative complications. METHODS:Consecutive patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with curative intent between 2016 and 2019 were identified from a specific database and included in the study. CT images before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were used to assess the skeletal muscle index, sarcopenia, and subcutaneous and visceral fat index. RESULTS:In a cohort of 199 patients, the mean skeletal muscle index decreased during neoadjuvant therapy (from 51·187 to 49·19?cm2 /m2 ; P?<?0·001) and the rate of sarcopenia increased (from 42·2 to 54·3 per cent; P?<?0·001). A skeletal muscle index decrease greater than 5 per cent was not associated with an increased risk of total postoperative complications (odds ratio 0·91, 95 per cent c.i. 0·52 to 1·59; P = 0·736) or severe complications (odds ratio 0·66, 0·29 to 1·53; P = 0·329). CONCLUSION:Skeletal muscle index decreased during neoadjuvant therapy but was not associated with postoperative complications.
Project description:Background: Nutritional risk and sarcopenia are both associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality following elective surgery. This study aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia has additional predictive value for postoperative complications and long-term survival besides nutritional screening tools. Methods: Clinical data of patients underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer was prospectively collected. Sarcopenia was diagnosed by grip strength plus muscle quanlity/quality based on preoperative abdominal CT scans. Nutritional screening was performed using 4 common nutritional screening tools, including Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS)-2002, Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Results: A total of 880 patients were analyzed, in which 167 (18.98%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. The incidence of nutritional risk identified by the 4 tools were 44.66% (MUST ?1), 35.23% (NRS-2002 ?3), 29.89% (MST ?2), and 20.34% (SNAQ ?2). Multivariate analyses showed that nutritional risk identified by the 4 nutritional screening tools were not independently associated with postoperative complications, overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS), except for NRS-2002 ?3 as an independent risk factor of OS. Sarcopenia was always an independent risk factor for postoperative complications, OS, and DFS after adjusting for nutritional risk and the other covariates in the multivariate analyses. Conclusions: MUST, NRS-2002, MST, and SNAQ had low predictive power for postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Sarcopenia had additional predictive value for postoperative complications and long-term survival besides these nutritional screening tools and should be implemented in the preoperative assessments.
Project description:Aim:Sarcopenia has been reported as a prognostic predictor in various conditions; however, it has not been examined in patients with perforation panperitonitis. Methods:A total of 103 consecutive patients with perforation panperitonitis who underwent emergency surgery from 2008 to 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was measured as the cross-sectional area (cm2) of skeletal muscle in the L3 region on computed tomography images normalized for height (cm2/m2). Sarcopenia was defined as an SMI of ?43.75 and ?41.10 cm2/m2 in men and women, respectively. The impact of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes was investigated. Results:Sarcopenia was present in 50 (48.5%) patients. Severe complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ?IIIb) and in-hospital mortality were more frequently observed in patients with than without sarcopenia (28.0% vs 9.4%, P = .015) (20.0% vs 5.7%, P = .029) respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age, sarcopenia, and renal dysfunction were independent risk factors for severe complications and in-hospital mortality. The optimal cut-off levels of age and SMI for predicting these were ?79 years and SMI <38 cm2/m2, respectively. Among the patients aged ?79 years, those with SMI <38 cm2/m2 had a severe complication rate of 71% and an in-hospital mortality rate of 57%, whereas the rate of those with SMI ?38 cm2/m2 was 22% (P = .011) and 11% (P = .008), respectively. Conclusion:Sarcopenia is a predictive factor of severe complications and in-hospital mortality following emergency surgery for perforation panperitonitis, especially in elderly patients. Estimation of sarcopenia may identify patients eligible or not eligible for emergency surgery among elderly patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between sarcopenia and the prognoses of patients with gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) is unclear. This study was designed to explore the effects of sarcopenia on short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with g-NENs after radical gastrectomy. METHODS:This study retrospectively collected data from 138 patients with g-NENs after radical gastrectomy. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) diagnostic threshold for sarcopenia was determined using X-tile software. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent risk factors for 3-year overall survival (OS) and 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS:In this study, 59 patients (42.8%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Among patients in the sarcopenia group and nonsarcopenia group, the incidences of total postoperative complications were 33.9 and 30.4%, incidences of serious postoperative complications were 0 and 3.7%, incidences of postoperative surgical complications were 13.6 and 15.2%, and incidences of postoperative systemic complications were 20.3 and 15.2%, respectively (all p?>?0.05). The 3-year OS and RFS rates were significantly worse in the sarcopenia group than in the nonsarcopenia group (OS: 42.37% vs 65.82%, p?=?0.004; RFS: 52.54% vs 68.35%, p?=?0.036). The multivariate analysis revealed a relation between sarcopenia and the long-term prognoses of patients with g-NENs. A stratified analysis based on the pathological type revealed that the Kaplan-Meier curve was only significantly different in patients with gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (gMANEC) (OS: 40.00% vs 71.79%, p?=?0.007; RFS: 51.43% vs 74.36%, p?=?0.026); furthermore, the multivariate analysis identified sarcopenia as an independent risk factor for patients with gMANEC (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Sarcopenia is not related to the short-term prognoses of patients with g-NENs. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for patients with gMANEC after radical surgery.
Project description:Individualised risk prediction is crucial if targeted pre-operative risk reduction strategies are to be deployed effectively. Radiologically determined sarcopenia has been shown to predict outcomes across a range of intra-abdominal pathologies. Access to pre-operative cross-sectional imaging has resulted in a number of studies investigating the predictive value of radiologically assessed sarcopenia over recent years. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether radiologically determined sarcopenia predicts post-operative morbidity and mortality following abdominal surgery.CENTRAL, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched using terms to capture the concept of radiologically assessed sarcopenia used to predict post-operative complications in abdominal surgery. Outcomes included 30 day post-operative morbidity and mortality, 1-, 3- and 5-year overall and disease-free survival and length of stay. Data were extracted and meta-analysed using either random or fixed effects model (Revman ® 5.3).A total of 24 studies involving 5267 patients were included in the review. The presence of sarcopenia was associated with a significant increase in major post-operative complications (RR 1.61 95% CI 1.24-4.15 p = <0.00001) and 30-day mortality (RR 2.06 95% CI 1.02-4.17 p = 0.04). In addition, sarcopenia predicted 1-, 3- and 5-year survival (RR 1.61 95% CI 1.36-1.91 p = <0.0001, RR 1.45 95% CI 1.33-1.58 p = <0.0001, RR 1.25 95% CI 1.11-1.42 p = 0.0003, respectively) and 1- and 3-year disease-free survival (RR 1.30 95% CI 1.12-1.52 p = 0.0008).Peri-operative cross-sectional imaging may be utilised in order to predict those at risk of complications following abdominal surgery. These findings should be interpreted in the context of retrospectively collected data and no universal sarcopenic threshold. Targeted prehabilitation strategies aiming to reverse sarcopenia may benefit patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum cholinesterase (ChE) in elderly adults is associated with geriatric conditions such as sarcopenia and malnutrition. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of preoperative serum ChE on the development of complications after noncardiac surgery in elderly patients without liver cirrhosis. METHODS:We retrospectively identified all patients aged ??65?years who underwent orthopedic surgery over a 1.5-year period in our hospital. The main outcome was postoperative complications, defined as a deviation from the normal postoperative course within 30?days postoperatively. RESULTS:A total of 313 patients (median age 79?years) were included. The incidence of all-cause postoperative complications was 15.7% (49/313 patients). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that serum ChE was a univariable factor that predicted all-cause complications with moderate accuracy (area under the curve?=?0.694, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.604-0.783), with an optimal serum ChE cutoff level of 200?units/L. After multivariate analyses adjusted by baseline characteristics, low serum ChE remained a significant risk factor for postoperative complications (odds ratio?=?2.99, 95% CI 1.41-6.33, P?=?0.004). CONCLUSIONS:Low serum ChE (<?200?unit/L) is a significant risk factor for postoperative complications after orthopedic surgery in patients aged ??65?years.
Project description:Aim:Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to control postoperative pain; however, their postoperative use has been associated with anastomotic leakage after gastrointestinal surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the correlation between the use of NSAIDs and anastomotic leakage. Methods:We conducted a comprehensive electronic literature search up to August 2018 to identify studies comparing anastomotic leakage in patients with and without postoperative NSAID use following gastrointestinal surgery. We then carried out a meta-analysis using random-effects models to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results:Twenty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, including a total of 31 877 patients. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between NSAID use and anastomotic leakage (OR 1.73; 95% CI = 1.31-2.29, P < .0001). Subgroup analyses showed that non-selective NSAIDs, but not selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, were significantly associated with anastomotic leakage. However there was no significant subgroup difference between selective and non-selective NSAIDs. Conclusion:Results of this meta-analysis indicate that postoperative NSAID use is associated with anastomotic leakage following gastrointestinal surgeries. Caution is warranted when using NSAIDs for postoperative analgesic control in patients with gastrointestinal anastomoses.
Project description:Background:Malnutrition is a common and critical problem that influences outcome in cancer patients. Body composition reflects a patient's metabolic profile and physiologic reserves, which might be the true determinant of prognosis. In the present study, which aimed to identify valuable new prognostic indicators, we investigated the association between computed tomography-quantified body composition and short-term outcomes after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods:Skeletal muscle index, mean muscle attenuation, and ratio of visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue area (vsr) were calculated from preoperative computed tomography images. Low skeletal muscle index, low mean muscle attenuation, and high vsr were respectively termed "sarcopenia," "myosteatosis," and "visceral obesity." The association of body composition with postoperative complications and serum markers of nutrition and inflammation after radical gastrectomy were analyzed. Results:The overall complication rate was significantly higher in the sarcopenia (62.5% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.001) and myosteatosis groups (38.2% vs. 4%, p = 0.002). Patients with visceral obesity had a higher incidence of inflammatory complications (20.3% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia (p = 0.013), myosteatosis (p = 0.017), and low serum retinol-binding protein (p = 0.019) were independent risk factors for overall complications. Compared with control subjects, patients with sarcopenia had lower postoperative levels of serum retinol-binding protein (p = 0.007), and patients with visceral obesity had higher levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.026). Conclusions:Sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and visceral obesity were significantly associated with increased rates of postoperative complications and affected the postoperative nutrition and inflammation status of patients with gastric cancer.